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ItemNew insights into molecular and cellular pathways of neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis modelsPerera, Pannilage Nirma Dimuthumalee ( 2016)Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive and paralysing neurological disorder usually fatal within 2-5 years from diagnosis. First described by Jean-Martin Charcot in the late 1860s, ALS still remains a terminal disease with no effective treatments or cure. Riluzole is the only clinically-approved drug for ALS that may extend survival by 2-3 months. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand the underlying pathogenesis of ALS to better guide development of disease-modifying treatment strategies. This thesis investigates the molecular basis of three inter-related pathogenic mechanisms implicated in motor neuron vulnerability and loss in ALS: defective energy homeostasis; disruption of protein homeostasis and abnormal RNA homeostasis. Two leading mouse models of ALS were implemented in these studies; transgenic SOD1G93A and TDP-43A315T mice in which novel pharmacological and genetic interventions were evaluated for efficacy. To examine whether defective energy metabolism is causal or consequential in the pathological cascade of ALS, the role of the key metabolic and stress sensor; AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was investigated for the first time in two ALS mouse models. AMPK activation in the spinal cord associated with symptom progression, but not onset, in SOD1G93A mice, implicating AMPK activity in mediating disease course. Conversely, AMPK inactivation occurred in spinal cord and brain of pre-symptomatic TDP-43A315T mice by a protein phosphatase 2A-dependent mechanism, identifying a novel regulation of AMPK activity by pathogenic TDP-43. AMPK inactivity may therefore drive disease initiation in this mouse model. Hence, mutant SOD1 and TDP-43 exert contrasting effects on regulation of AMPK activation which may reflect intrinsic differences in energy metabolism and neurodegeneration in these two ALS mouse models. Next, a novel pharmacological strategy to improve protein homeostasis and motor neuron health was developed and evaluated for ALS. The intracellular catabolic pathway, autophagy, particularly macroautophagy, was robustly induced in mutant SOD1 and TDP-43 models of ALS. To potentiate autophagy in ALS, a novel autophagy enhancer rilmenidine was used to stimulate mTOR-independent macroautophagy in mutant SOD1 cell and mouse models. Rilmenidine treatment achieved efficient macroautophagy induction in vitro and in vivo. However, the treatment worsened motor neuron degeneration and survival of male SOD1G93A mice by exacerbating accumulation of insoluble and misfolded SOD1 species and aggregates in spinal cords. Thus, macroautophagy stimulation using rilmenidine may mediate disease progression in this specific mouse model of ALS. Lastly, a new gene therapy strategy to alleviate defects in the RNA binding protein TDP-43 was investigated. Survival motor neuron (SMN) protein deficiency causes progressive motor neuron degeneration in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and may be linked to pathology in ALS. SMN overexpression was previously determined to be beneficial in mutant SOD1 models of ALS. To extend these studies to TDP-43 proteinopathy, upregulation and accumulation of endogenous SMN protein into stress granules within motor neurons was demonstrated for the first time in TDP-43A315T mice. The impact of forced SMN overexpression in TDP-43A315T mice was examined, revealing improved SMN nuclear targeting, motor neuron survival, neuroinflammation and metabolic deficits as shown by AMPK activation, in female mice. Furthermore, levels of androgen receptor (AR), mutations of which cause spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), were significantly impaired in spinal cords of male TDP-43A315T mice. This provides evidence for shared biochemical pathways in ALS, SMA and SBMA, mediated by deficiency of factors such as SMN and AR which confer motor neuron vulnerability. In summary, in mutant SOD1-linked disease, persistent AMPK signalling and autophagy activation in motor neurons may be key determinants of disease progression. In mutant TDP-43-mediated ALS, AMPK inactivation and cytoplasmic accumulation of SMN in motor neurons may be early events triggering disease onset. In conclusion, this thesis provides novel insights into pathogenic mechanisms underlying disruption of energy, protein and RNA homeostasis within motor neurons and significant clues to therapeutic alleviation of these defective pathways in ALS. In addition, this thesis identifies new links between three main neurological disorders affecting the motor system of humans; ALS, SMA and SBMA, mediated by dysregulation of SMN and AR, suggesting shared pathogenic pathways. Finally, this work importantly extends the spectrum of motor neuron diseases that may benefit from SMN restoration, excitingly paving the way for future therapeutic development and testing of SMN enhancing agents for ALS.