Melbourne School of Government - Research Publications

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    Compreendendo a decadência democrática multidimensional: lições decorrentes da ascensão de Jair Bolsonaro no Brasil
    Daly, TG ; Cabral, RLG ; Reis, ULSD (Editora da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido - EdUFERSA, 2022-02-23)
    Em 28 de outubro de 2018, o candidato de extrema-direita Jair Bolsonaro venceu as eleições presidenciais no Brasil com 55% dos votos. Esse resultado tem sido visto por muitos analistas como mais um exemplo da ascensão global de líderes populistas autoritários, colocando Bolsonaro ao lado de Viktor Orbán, da Hungria, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, da Turquia, Narendra Modi, da Índia, ou Donald Trump, dos EUA – de fato, Bolsonaro foi apelidado de “Trump dos Trópicos”. O foco em Bolsonaro reflete a forte ênfase no Poder Executivo dada por uma literatura em rápida expansão, que sugere o surgimento de uma nova forma de pretenso líder autocrata oriundo de eleições democráticas, mas que, ao longo do tempo, esvazia os governos democráticos. No entanto, este artigo argumenta que, muito além de Bolsonaro, a experiência brasileira é um importante estudo de caso, pois induz à reflexão sobre três proposições fundamentais. Primeiro, qualquer análise da democracia liberal como objeto de ataque deve ser altamente consciente do “ponto de partida” democrático e da história do próprio Estado. Em segundo lugar, o foco excessivo em ataques liderados pelo Executivo ao regime democrático pode impedir uma análise mais completa de um amplo conjunto de atores e fatores relevantes para a saúde (declinante) do sistema democrático. Terceiro, o autoritarismo é uma lente analítica mais apropriada que o populismo para identificar potenciais ameaças democráticas, especialmente no contexto brasileiro.
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    The future of public administration research: An editor's perspective
    McDonald, BD ; Hall, JL ; O'Flynn, J ; Thiel, S (WILEY, 2022-01-31)
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    The African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights: mapping resistance against a young court
    Daly, TG ; Wiebusch, M (Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG, 2022)
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    Transnational education provision in a time of disruption: Perspectives from Australia
    Yencken, E ; Croucher, G ; Elliott, K ; Locke, W (SAGE Publications, 2021-12-16)
    As the scale and scope of transnational education (TNE) has broadened, and the range of delivery models and partnerships has continued to expand, so too have the challenges. Universities offering courses outside their own country face a growing range of legal, practical and political challenges. The significant disruption during 2020–2021 coming from the global coronavirus pandemic, and it’s effect on the provision of higher education in most countries, has further amplified many of these challenges, raising questions about what the future might hold for TNE, including in China. This article aims to establish the major enablers and challenges for TNE provision. It utilises an investigation into Australian TNE providers immediately prior to the COVID-19 pandemic as a means to analyse these factors. As a major provider of TNE, including in China and other Asian countries, Australia provides a useful example of how TNE partnerships are being facilitated, for better and worse. In particular, the article establishes that tailored and often market-specific collaborations offer the best chance of a successful partnership. The study also provides an important basis for considering how TNE will function as a key component of the ongoing response of the higher education sector to the pandemic.
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    Impact of Electronic Health Records on Information Practices in Mental Health Contexts: Scoping Review
    Kariotis, TC ; Prictor, M ; Chang, S ; Gray, K (JMIR PUBLICATIONS, INC, 2022-05-09)
    BACKGROUND: The adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) and electronic medical records (EMRs) has been slow in the mental health context, partly because of concerns regarding the collection of sensitive information, the standardization of mental health data, and the risk of negatively affecting therapeutic relationships. However, EHRs and EMRs are increasingly viewed as critical to improving information practices such as the documentation, use, and sharing of information and, more broadly, the quality of care provided. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to undertake a scoping review to explore the impact of EHRs on information practices in mental health contexts and also explore how sensitive information, data standardization, and therapeutic relationships are managed when using EHRs in mental health contexts. METHODS: We considered a scoping review to be the most appropriate method for this review because of the relatively recent uptake of EHRs in mental health contexts. A comprehensive search of electronic databases was conducted with no date restrictions for articles that described the use of EHRs, EMRs, or associated systems in the mental health context. One of the authors reviewed all full texts, with 2 other authors each screening half of the full-text articles. The fourth author mediated the disagreements. Data regarding study characteristics were charted. A narrative and thematic synthesis approach was taken to analyze the included studies' results and address the research questions. RESULTS: The final review included 40 articles. The included studies were highly heterogeneous with a variety of study designs, objectives, and settings. Several themes and subthemes were identified that explored the impact of EHRs on information practices in the mental health context. EHRs improved the amount of information documented compared with paper. However, mental health-related information was regularly missing from EHRs, especially sensitive information. EHRs introduced more standardized and formalized documentation practices that raised issues because of the focus on narrative information in the mental health context. EHRs were found to disrupt information workflows in the mental health context, especially when they did not include appropriate templates or care plans. Usability issues also contributed to workflow concerns. Managing the documentation of sensitive information in EHRs was problematic; clinicians sometimes watered down sensitive information or chose to keep it in separate records. Concerningly, the included studies rarely involved service user perspectives. Furthermore, many studies provided limited information on the functionality or technical specifications of the EHR being used. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several areas in which work is needed to ensure that EHRs benefit clinicians and service users in the mental health context. As EHRs are increasingly considered critical for modern health systems, health care decision-makers should consider how EHRs can better reflect the complexity and sensitivity of information practices and workflows in the mental health context.
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    How Do Distanced and Online Election Campaigning Affect Political Freedoms?
    Daly, TG (International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2021)
    The need for physical distancing during this Covid-19 pandemic has raised the need for innovative campaign methods to be developed by election contestants because conventional campaign methods such as rallies, public meetings, etc. are prohibited in some jurisdictions. Distant and online election campaigning may be seen as restrictive to both contestants and voters alike due to physical and technological barriers that appear. To what degree is this true?
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    Rising to Ostrom's challenge: an invitation to walk on the bright side of public governance and public service
    Douglas, S ; Schillemans, T ; 't Hart, P ; Ansell, C ; Bogh Andersen, L ; Flinders, M ; Head, B ; Moynihan, D ; Nabatchi, T ; O'Flynn, J ; Peters, BG ; Raadschelders, J ; Sancino, A ; Sorensen, E ; Torfing, J (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2021-09-02)
    In this programmatic essay, we argue that public governance scholarship would benefit from developing a self-conscious and cohesive strand of "positive" scholarship, akin to social science subfields like positive psychology, positive organizational studies, and positive evaluation. We call for a program of research devoted to uncovering the factors and mechanisms that enable high performing public policies and public service delivery mechanisms; procedurally and distributively fair processes of tackling societal conflicts; and robust and resilient ways of coping with threats and risks. The core question driving positive public administration scholarship should be: Why is it that particular public policies, programs, organizations, networks, or partnerships manage do much better than others to produce widely valued societal outcomes, and how might knowledge of this be used to advance institutional learning from positives?
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    Clinical Practice in Education: Towards a Conceptual Framework
    Kriewaldt, J ; McLean Davies, L ; Rice, S ; Rickards, F ; Acquaro, D ; Peters, MA ; Cowie, B ; Menter, I (Springer, 2017)
    Clinical practice has recently emerged as a promising approach that is being applied to teaching and teacher education. Despite this growing interest, however, conceptual and practical ambiguities continue to surround the term. This chapter provides a critical and comprehensive review of how clinical practice is being conceptualised in education by: (a) identifying the core components that characterise clinical practice in education; and (b) discussing the complexities and possibilities of clinical practice in theory and practice. The chapter begins by forging a conceptual framework for understanding clinical practice by identifying three core components that are central to characterising teaching as a clinical practice profession: (1) a focus on student learning and development; (2) evidence-informed practice; and (3) processes of reasoning that lead to decision-making. In summary, we argue that clinical practice offers important possibilities for deepening the theoretical and practical aspects of teaching and teacher education, but that several cautions need to be born in mind in order for it to continue to develop into a meaningful and sustainable concept. While adapting a medical model to teaching should be done with caution and a number of caveats, on balance it offers an approach that has the capacity to strengthen teaching and teacher education.
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    Back to the future: Reflections and predictions
    Althaus, C ; Dickinson, H ; Katsonis, M ; O'Flynn, J (WILEY, 2021-11-24)