Centre for Eye Research Australia (CERA) - Research Publications

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    Large scale international replication and meta-analysis study confirms association of the 15q14 locus with myopia. The CREAM consortium
    Verhoeven, VJM ; Hysi, PG ; Saw, S-M ; Vitart, V ; Mirshahi, A ; Guggenheim, JA ; Cotch, MF ; Yamashiro, K ; Baird, PN ; Mackey, DA ; Wojciechowski, R ; Ikram, MK ; Hewitt, AW ; Duggal, P ; Janmahasatian, S ; Khor, C-C ; Fan, Q ; Zhou, X ; Young, TL ; Tai, E-S ; Goh, L-K ; Li, Y-J ; Aung, T ; Vithana, E ; Teo, Y-Y ; Tay, W ; Sim, X ; Rudan, I ; Hayward, C ; Wright, AF ; Polasek, O ; Campbell, H ; Wilson, JF ; Fleck, BW ; Nakata, I ; Yoshimura, N ; Yamada, R ; Matsuda, F ; Ohno-Matsui, K ; Nag, A ; McMahon, G ; St Pourcain, B ; Lu, Y ; Rahi, JS ; Cumberland, PM ; Bhattacharya, S ; Simpson, CL ; Atwood, LD ; Li, X ; Raffel, LJ ; Murgia, F ; Portas, L ; Despriet, DDG ; van Koolwijk, LME ; Wolfram, C ; Lackner, KJ ; Toenjes, A ; Maegi, R ; Lehtimaki, T ; Kahonen, M ; Esko, T ; Metspalu, A ; Rantanen, T ; Parssinen, O ; Klein, BE ; Meitinger, T ; Spector, TD ; Oostra, BA ; Smith, AV ; de Jong, PTVM ; Hofman, A ; Amin, N ; Karssen, LC ; Rivadeneira, F ; Vingerling, JR ; Eiriksdottir, G ; Gudnason, V ; Doering, A ; Bettecken, T ; Uitterlinden, AG ; Williams, C ; Zeller, T ; Castagne, R ; Oexle, K ; van Duijn, CM ; Iyengar, SK ; Mitchell, P ; Wang, JJ ; Hoehn, R ; Pfeiffer, N ; Bailey-Wilson, JE ; Stambolian, D ; Wong, T-Y ; Hammond, CJ ; Klaver, CCW (SPRINGER, 2012-09-01)
    Myopia is a complex genetic disorder and a common cause of visual impairment among working age adults. Genome-wide association studies have identified susceptibility loci on chromosomes 15q14 and 15q25 in Caucasian populations of European ancestry. Here, we present a confirmation and meta-analysis study in which we assessed whether these two loci are also associated with myopia in other populations. The study population comprised 31 cohorts from the Consortium of Refractive Error and Myopia (CREAM) representing 4 different continents with 55,177 individuals; 42,845 Caucasians and 12,332 Asians. We performed a meta-analysis of 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on 15q14 and 5 SNPs on 15q25 using linear regression analysis with spherical equivalent as a quantitative outcome, adjusted for age and sex. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) of myopia versus hyperopia for carriers of the top-SNP alleles using a fixed effects meta-analysis. At locus 15q14, all SNPs were significantly replicated, with the lowest P value 3.87 × 10(-12) for SNP rs634990 in Caucasians, and 9.65 × 10(-4) for rs8032019 in Asians. The overall meta-analysis provided P value 9.20 × 10(-23) for the top SNP rs634990. The risk of myopia versus hyperopia was OR 1.88 (95 % CI 1.64, 2.16, P < 0.001) for homozygous carriers of the risk allele at the top SNP rs634990, and OR 1.33 (95 % CI 1.19, 1.49, P < 0.001) for heterozygous carriers. SNPs at locus 15q25 did not replicate significantly (P value 5.81 × 10(-2) for top SNP rs939661). We conclude that common variants at chromosome 15q14 influence susceptibility for myopia in Caucasian and Asian populations world-wide.
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    A large genome-wide association study of age-related macular degeneration highlights contributions of rare and common variants
    Fritsche, LG ; Igl, W ; Bailey, JNC ; Grassmann, F ; Sengupta, S ; Bragg-Gresham, JL ; Burdon, KP ; Hebbring, SJ ; Wen, C ; Gorski, M ; Kim, IK ; Cho, D ; Zack, D ; Souied, E ; Scholl, HPN ; Bala, E ; Lee, KE ; Hunter, DJ ; Sardell, RJ ; Mitchell, P ; Merriam, JE ; Cipriani, V ; Hoffman, JD ; Schick, T ; Lechanteur, YTE ; Guymer, RH ; Johnson, MP ; Jiang, Y ; Stanton, CM ; Buitendijk, GHS ; Zhan, X ; Kwong, AM ; Boleda, A ; Brooks, M ; Gieser, L ; Ratnapriya, R ; Branham, KE ; Foerster, JR ; Heckenlively, JR ; Othman, MI ; Vote, BJ ; Liang, HH ; Souzeau, E ; McAllister, IL ; Isaacs, T ; Hall, J ; Lake, S ; Mackey, DA ; Constable, IJ ; Craig, JE ; Kitchner, TE ; Yang, Z ; Su, Z ; Luo, H ; Chen, D ; Hong, O ; Flagg, K ; Lin, D ; Mao, G ; Ferreyra, H ; Starke, K ; von Strachwitz, CN ; Wolf, A ; Brandl, C ; Rudolph, G ; Olden, M ; Morrison, MA ; Morgan, DJ ; Schu, M ; Ahn, J ; Silvestri, G ; Tsironi, EE ; Park, KH ; Farrer, LA ; Orlin, A ; Brucker, A ; Li, M ; Curcio, CA ; Mohand-Said, S ; Sahel, J-M ; Audo, I ; Benchaboune, M ; Cree, AJ ; Rennie, CA ; Goverdhan, SV ; Grunin, M ; Hagbi-Levi, S ; Campochiaro, P ; Katsanis, N ; Holz, FG ; Blond, F ; Blanche, H ; Deleuze, J-F ; Igo, RP ; Truitt, B ; Peachey, NS ; Meuer, SM ; Myers, CE ; Moore, EL ; Klein, R ; Hauser, MA ; Postel, EA ; Courtenay, MD ; Schwartz, SG ; Kovach, JL ; Scott, WK ; Liew, G ; Tan, AG ; Gopinath, B ; Merriam, JC ; Smith, RT ; Khan, JC ; Shahid, H ; Moore, AT ; McGrath, JA ; Laux, R ; Brantley, MA ; Agarwal, A ; Ersoy, L ; Caramoy, A ; Langmann, T ; Saksens, NTM ; de Jong, EK ; Hoyng, CB ; Cain, MS ; Richardson, AJ ; Martin, TM ; Blangero, J ; Weeks, DE ; Dhillon, B ; van Duijn, CM ; Doheny, KF ; Romm, J ; Klaver, CCW ; Hayward, C ; Gorin, MB ; Klein, ML ; Baird, PN ; den Hollander, AI ; Fauser, S ; Yates, JRW ; Allikmets, R ; Wang, JJ ; Schaumberg, DA ; Klein, BEK ; Hagstrom, SA ; Chowers, I ; Lotery, AJ ; Leveillard, T ; Zhang, K ; Brilliant, MH ; Hewitt, AW ; Swaroop, A ; Chew, EY ; Pericak-Vance, MA ; DeAngelis, M ; Stambolian, D ; Haines, JL ; Iyengar, SK ; Weber, BHF ; Abecasis, GR ; Heid, IM (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2016-02-01)
    Advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly, with limited therapeutic options. Here we report on a study of >12 million variants, including 163,714 directly genotyped, mostly rare, protein-altering variants. Analyzing 16,144 patients and 17,832 controls, we identify 52 independently associated common and rare variants (P < 5 × 10(-8)) distributed across 34 loci. Although wet and dry AMD subtypes exhibit predominantly shared genetics, we identify the first genetic association signal specific to wet AMD, near MMP9 (difference P value = 4.1 × 10(-10)). Very rare coding variants (frequency <0.1%) in CFH, CFI and TIMP3 suggest causal roles for these genes, as does a splice variant in SLC16A8. Our results support the hypothesis that rare coding variants can pinpoint causal genes within known genetic loci and illustrate that applying the approach systematically to detect new loci requires extremely large sample sizes.
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    Genome-wide association study for refractive astigmatism reveals genetic co-determination with spherical equivalent refractive error: the CREAM consortium
    Li, Q ; Wojciechowski, R ; Simpson, CL ; Hysi, PG ; Verhoeven, VJM ; Ikram, MK ; Hoehn, R ; Vitart, V ; Hewitt, AW ; Oexle, K ; Makela, K-M ; MacGregor, S ; Pirastu, M ; Fan, Q ; Cheng, C-Y ; St Pourcain, B ; McMahon, G ; Kemp, JP ; Northstone, K ; Rahi, JS ; Cumberland, PM ; Martin, NG ; Sanfilippo, PG ; Lu, Y ; Wang, YX ; Hayward, C ; Polasek, O ; Campbell, H ; Bencic, G ; Wright, AF ; Wedenoja, J ; Zeller, T ; Schillert, A ; Mirshahi, A ; Lackner, K ; Yip, SP ; Yap, MKH ; Ried, JS ; Gieger, C ; Murgia, F ; Wilson, JF ; Fleck, B ; Yazar, S ; Vingerling, JR ; Hofman, A ; Uitterlinden, A ; Rivadeneira, F ; Amin, N ; Karssen, L ; Oostra, BA ; Zhou, X ; Teo, Y-Y ; Tai, ES ; Vithana, E ; Barathi, V ; Zheng, Y ; Siantar, RG ; Neelam, K ; Shin, Y ; Lam, J ; Yonova-Doing, E ; Venturini, C ; Hosseini, SM ; Wong, H-S ; Lehtimaki, T ; Kahonen, M ; Raitakari, O ; Timpson, NJ ; Evans, DM ; Khor, C-C ; Aung, T ; Young, TL ; Mitchell, P ; Klein, B ; van Duijn, CM ; Meitinger, T ; Jonas, JB ; Baird, PN ; Mackey, DA ; Wong, TY ; Saw, S-M ; Parssinen, O ; Stambolian, D ; Hammond, CJ ; Klaver, CCW ; Williams, C ; Paterson, AD ; Bailey-Wilson, JE ; Guggenheim, JA (SPRINGER, 2015-02-01)
    To identify genetic variants associated with refractive astigmatism in the general population, meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies were performed for: White Europeans aged at least 25 years (20 cohorts, N = 31,968); Asian subjects aged at least 25 years (7 cohorts, N = 9,295); White Europeans aged <25 years (4 cohorts, N = 5,640); and all independent individuals from the above three samples combined with a sample of Chinese subjects aged <25 years (N = 45,931). Participants were classified as cases with refractive astigmatism if the average cylinder power in their two eyes was at least 1.00 diopter and as controls otherwise. Genome-wide association analysis was carried out for each cohort separately using logistic regression. Meta-analysis was conducted using a fixed effects model. In the older European group the most strongly associated marker was downstream of the neurexin-1 (NRXN1) gene (rs1401327, P = 3.92E-8). No other region reached genome-wide significance, and association signals were lower for the younger European group and Asian group. In the meta-analysis of all cohorts, no marker reached genome-wide significance: The most strongly associated regions were, NRXN1 (rs1401327, P = 2.93E-07), TOX (rs7823467, P = 3.47E-07) and LINC00340 (rs12212674, P = 1.49E-06). For 34 markers identified in prior GWAS for spherical equivalent refractive error, the beta coefficients for genotype versus spherical equivalent, and genotype versus refractive astigmatism, were highly correlated (r = -0.59, P = 2.10E-04). This work revealed no consistent or strong genetic signals for refractive astigmatism; however, the TOX gene region previously identified in GWAS for spherical equivalent refractive error was the second most strongly associated region. Analysis of additional markers provided evidence supporting widespread genetic co-susceptibility for spherical and astigmatic refractive errors.
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    Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis of Myopia and Hyperopia Provides Evidence for Replication of 11 Loci
    Simpson, CL ; Wojciechowski, R ; Oexle, K ; Murgia, F ; Portas, L ; Li, X ; Verhoeven, VJM ; Vitart, V ; Schache, M ; Hosseini, SM ; Hysi, PG ; Raffel, LJ ; Cotch, MF ; Chew, E ; Klein, BEK ; Klein, R ; Wong, TY ; Van Duijn, CM ; Mitchell, P ; Saw, SM ; Fossarello, M ; Wang, JJ ; Polasek, O ; Campbell, H ; Rudan, I ; Oostra, BA ; Uitterlinden, AG ; Hofman, A ; Rivadeneira, F ; Amin, N ; Karssen, LC ; Vingerling, JR ; Doering, A ; Bettecken, T ; Bencic, G ; Gieger, C ; Wichmann, H-E ; Wilson, JF ; Venturini, C ; Fleck, B ; Cumberland, PM ; Rahi, JS ; Hammond, CJ ; Hayward, C ; Wright, AF ; Paterson, AD ; Baird, PN ; Klaver, CCW ; Rotter, JI ; Pirastu, M ; Meitinger, T ; Bailey-Wilson, JE ; Stambolian, D ; Miao, X (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2014-09-18)
    Refractive error (RE) is a complex, multifactorial disorder characterized by a mismatch between the optical power of the eye and its axial length that causes object images to be focused off the retina. The two major subtypes of RE are myopia (nearsightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness), which represent opposite ends of the distribution of the quantitative measure of spherical refraction. We performed a fixed effects meta-analysis of genome-wide association results of myopia and hyperopia from 9 studies of European-derived populations: AREDS, KORA, FES, OGP-Talana, MESA, RSI, RSII, RSIII and ERF. One genome-wide significant region was observed for myopia, corresponding to a previously identified myopia locus on 8q12 (p = 1.25×10(-8)), which has been reported by Kiefer et al. as significantly associated with myopia age at onset and Verhoeven et al. as significantly associated to mean spherical-equivalent (MSE) refractive error. We observed two genome-wide significant associations with hyperopia. These regions overlapped with loci on 15q14 (minimum p value = 9.11×10(-11)) and 8q12 (minimum p value 1.82×10(-11)) previously reported for MSE and myopia age at onset. We also used an intermarker linkage- disequilibrium-based method for calculating the effective number of tests in targeted regional replication analyses. We analyzed myopia (which represents the closest phenotype in our data to the one used by Kiefer et al.) and showed replication of 10 additional loci associated with myopia previously reported by Kiefer et al. This is the first replication of these loci using myopia as the trait under analysis. "Replication-level" association was also seen between hyperopia and 12 of Kiefer et al.'s published loci. For the loci that show evidence of association to both myopia and hyperopia, the estimated effect of the risk alleles were in opposite directions for the two traits. This suggests that these loci are important contributors to variation of refractive error across the distribution.
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    Genome-wide analysis of multi-ancestry cohorts identifies new loci influencing intraocular pressure and susceptibility to glaucoma
    Hysi, PG ; Cheng, C-Y ; Springelkamp, H ; Macgregor, S ; Bailey, JNC ; Wojciechowski, R ; Vitart, V ; Nag, A ; Hewitt, AW ; Hohn, R ; Venturini, C ; Mirshahi, A ; Ramdas, WD ; Thorleifsson, G ; Vithana, E ; Khor, C-C ; Stefansson, AB ; Liao, J ; Haines, JL ; Amin, N ; Wang, YX ; Wild, PS ; Ozel, AB ; Li, JZ ; Fleck, BW ; Zeller, T ; Staffieri, SE ; Teo, Y-Y ; Cuellar-Partida, G ; Luo, X ; Allingham, RR ; Richards, JE ; Senft, A ; Karssen, LC ; Zheng, Y ; Bellenguez, C ; Xu, L ; Iglesias, AI ; Wilson, JF ; Kang, JH ; van Leeuwen, EM ; Jonsson, V ; Thorsteinsdottir, U ; Despriet, DDG ; Ennis, S ; Moroi, SE ; Martin, NG ; Jansonius, NM ; Yazar, S ; Tai, E-S ; Amouyel, P ; Kirwan, J ; van Koolwijk, LME ; Hauser, MA ; Jonasson, F ; Leo, P ; Loomis, SJ ; Fogarty, R ; Rivadeneira, F ; Kearns, L ; Lackner, KJ ; de Jong, PTVM ; Simpson, CL ; Pennell, CE ; Oostra, BA ; Uitterlinden, AG ; Saw, S-M ; Lotery, AJ ; Bailey-Wilson, JE ; Hofman, A ; Vingerling, JR ; Maubaret, C ; Pfeiffer, N ; Wolfs, RCW ; Lemij, HG ; Young, TL ; Pasquale, LR ; Delcourt, C ; Spector, TD ; Klaver, CCW ; Small, KS ; Burdon, KP ; Stefansson, K ; Wong, T-Y ; Viswanathan, A ; Mackey, DA ; Craig, JE ; Wiggs, JL ; van Duijn, CM ; Hammond, CJ ; Aung, T (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2014-10-01)
    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is an important risk factor in developing glaucoma, and variability in IOP might herald glaucomatous development or progression. We report the results of a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 18 population cohorts from the International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium (IGGC), comprising 35,296 multi-ancestry participants for IOP. We confirm genetic association of known loci for IOP and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and identify four new IOP-associated loci located on chromosome 3q25.31 within the FNDC3B gene (P = 4.19 × 10(-8) for rs6445055), two on chromosome 9 (P = 2.80 × 10(-11) for rs2472493 near ABCA1 and P = 6.39 × 10(-11) for rs8176693 within ABO) and one on chromosome 11p11.2 (best P = 1.04 × 10(-11) for rs747782). Separate meta-analyses of 4 independent POAG cohorts, totaling 4,284 cases and 95,560 controls, showed that 3 of these loci for IOP were also associated with POAG.
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    Genetic Loci for Retinal Arteriolar Microcirculation
    Sim, X ; Jensen, RA ; Ikram, MK ; Cotch, MF ; Li, X ; MacGregor, S ; Xie, J ; Smith, AV ; Boerwinkle, E ; Mitchell, P ; Klein, R ; Klein, BEK ; Glazer, NL ; Lumley, T ; McKnight, B ; Psaty, BM ; de Jong, PTVM ; Hofman, A ; Rivadeneira, F ; Uitterlinden, AG ; van Duijn, CM ; Aspelund, T ; Eiriksdottir, G ; Harris, TB ; Jonasson, F ; Launer, LJ ; Attia, J ; Baird, PN ; Harrap, S ; Holliday, EG ; Inouye, M ; Rochtchina, E ; Scott, RJ ; Viswanathan, A ; Li, G ; Smith, NL ; Wiggins, KL ; Kuo, JZ ; Taylor, KD ; Hewitt, AW ; Martin, NG ; Montgomery, GW ; Sun, C ; Young, TL ; Mackey, DA ; van Zuydam, NR ; Doney, ASF ; Palmer, CNA ; Morris, AD ; Rotter, JI ; Tai, ES ; Gudnason, V ; Vingerling, JR ; Siscovick, DS ; Wang, JJ ; Wong, TY ; Wallace, GR (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2013-06-12)
    Narrow arterioles in the retina have been shown to predict hypertension as well as other vascular diseases, likely through an increase in the peripheral resistance of the microcirculatory flow. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study in 18,722 unrelated individuals of European ancestry from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium and the Blue Mountain Eye Study, to identify genetic determinants associated with variations in retinal arteriolar caliber. Retinal vascular calibers were measured on digitized retinal photographs using a standardized protocol. One variant (rs2194025 on chromosome 5q14 near the myocyte enhancer factor 2C MEF2C gene) was associated with retinal arteriolar caliber in the meta-analysis of the discovery cohorts at genome-wide significance of P-value <5×10(-8). This variant was replicated in an additional 3,939 individuals of European ancestry from the Australian Twins Study and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (rs2194025, P-value = 2.11×10(-12) in combined meta-analysis of discovery and replication cohorts). In independent studies of modest sample sizes, no significant association was found between this variant and clinical outcomes including coronary artery disease, stroke, myocardial infarction or hypertension. In conclusion, we found one novel loci which underlie genetic variation in microvasculature which may be relevant to vascular disease. The relevance of these findings to clinical outcomes remains to be determined.
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    Genome-Wide Association Study of Retinopathy in Individuals without Diabetes
    Jensen, RA ; Sim, X ; Li, X ; Cotch, MF ; Ikram, MK ; Holliday, EG ; Eiriksdottir, G ; Harris, TB ; Jonasson, F ; Klein, BEK ; Launer, LJ ; Smith, AV ; Boerwinkle, E ; Cheung, N ; Hewitt, AW ; Liew, G ; Mitchell, P ; Wang, JJ ; Attia, J ; Scott, R ; Glazer, NL ; Lumley, T ; McKnight, B ; Psaty, BM ; Taylor, K ; Hofman, A ; de Jong, PTVM ; Rivadeneira, F ; Uitterlinden, AG ; Tay, W-T ; Teo, YY ; Seielstad, M ; Liu, J ; Cheng, C-Y ; Saw, S-M ; Aung, T ; Ganesh, SK ; O'Donnell, CJ ; Nalls, MA ; Wiggins, KL ; Kuo, JZ ; van Duijn, CM ; Gudnason, V ; Klein, R ; Siscovick, DS ; Rotter, JI ; Tai, ES ; Vingerling, J ; Wong, TY ; Mittal, B (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2013-02-05)
    BACKGROUND: Mild retinopathy (microaneurysms or dot-blot hemorrhages) is observed in persons without diabetes or hypertension and may reflect microvascular disease in other organs. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of mild retinopathy in persons without diabetes. METHODS: A working group agreed on phenotype harmonization, covariate selection and analytic plans for within-cohort GWAS. An inverse-variance weighted fixed effects meta-analysis was performed with GWAS results from six cohorts of 19,411 Caucasians. The primary analysis included individuals without diabetes and secondary analyses were stratified by hypertension status. We also singled out the results from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously shown to be associated with diabetes and hypertension, the two most common causes of retinopathy. RESULTS: No SNPs reached genome-wide significance in the primary analysis or the secondary analysis of participants with hypertension. SNP, rs12155400, in the histone deacetylase 9 gene (HDAC9) on chromosome 7, was associated with retinopathy in analysis of participants without hypertension, -1.3±0.23 (beta ± standard error), p = 6.6×10(-9). Evidence suggests this was a false positive finding. The minor allele frequency was low (∼2%), the quality of the imputation was moderate (r(2) ∼0.7), and no other common variants in the HDAC9 gene were associated with the outcome. SNPs found to be associated with diabetes and hypertension in other GWAS were not associated with retinopathy in persons without diabetes or in subgroups with or without hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: This GWAS of retinopathy in individuals without diabetes showed little evidence of genetic associations. Further studies are needed to identify genes associated with these signs in order to help unravel novel pathways and determinants of microvascular diseases.
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    Seven new loci associated with age-related macular degeneration
    Fritsche, LG ; Chen, W ; Schu, M ; Yaspan, BL ; Yu, Y ; Thorleifsson, G ; Zack, DJ ; Arakawa, S ; Cipriani, V ; Ripke, S ; Igo, RP ; Buitendijk, GHS ; Sim, X ; Weeks, DE ; Guymer, RH ; Merriam, JE ; Francis, PJ ; Hannum, G ; Agarwal, A ; Armbrecht, AM ; Audo, I ; Aung, T ; Barile, GR ; Benchaboune, M ; Bird, AC ; Bishop, PN ; Branham, KE ; Brooks, M ; Brucker, AJ ; Cade, WH ; Cain, MS ; Campochiaroll, PA ; Chan, C-C ; Cheng, C-Y ; Chew, EY ; Chin, KA ; Chowers, I ; Clayton, DG ; Cojocaru, R ; Conley, YP ; Cornes, BK ; Daly, MJ ; Dhillon, B ; Edwards, A ; Evangelou, E ; Fagemess, J ; Ferreyra, HA ; Friedman, JS ; Geirsdottir, A ; George, RJ ; Gieger, C ; Gupta, N ; Hagstrom, SA ; Harding, SP ; Haritoglou, C ; Heckenlively, JR ; Hoz, FG ; Hughes, G ; Ioannidis, JPA ; Ishibashi, T ; Joseph, P ; Jun, G ; Kamatani, Y ; Katsanis, N ; Keilhauer, CN ; Khan, JC ; Kim, IK ; Kiyohara, Y ; Klein, BEK ; Klein, R ; Kovach, JL ; Kozak, I ; Lee, CJ ; Lee, KE ; Lichtner, P ; Lotery, AJ ; Meitinger, T ; Mitchell, P ; Mohand-Saied, S ; Moore, AT ; Morgan, DJ ; Morrison, MA ; Myers, CE ; Naj, AC ; Nakamura, Y ; Okada, Y ; Orlin, A ; Ortube, MC ; Othman, MI ; Pappas, C ; Park, KH ; Pauer, GJT ; Peachey, NS ; Poch, O ; Priya, RR ; Reynolds, R ; Richardson, AJ ; Ripp, R ; Rudolph, G ; Ryu, E ; Sahel, J-A ; Schaumberg, DA ; Scholl, HPN ; Schwartz, SG ; Scott, WK ; Shahid, H ; Sigurdsson, H ; Silvestri, G ; Sivakumaran, TA ; Smith, RT ; Sobrin, L ; Souied, EH ; Stambolian, DE ; Stefansson, H ; Sturgill-Short, GM ; Takahashi, A ; Tosakulwong, N ; Truitt, BJ ; Tsironi, EE ; Uitterlinden, AG ; van Duijn, CM ; Vijaya, L ; Vingerling, JR ; Vithana, EN ; Webster, AR ; Wichmann, H-E ; Winkler, TW ; Wong, TY ; Wright, AF ; Zelenika, D ; Zhang, M ; Zhao, L ; Zhang, K ; Klein, ML ; Hageman, GS ; Lathrop, GM ; Stefansson, K ; Allikmets, R ; Baird, PN ; Gorin, MB ; Wang, JJ ; Klaver, CCW ; Seddon, JM ; Pericak-Vance, MA ; Iyengar, SK ; Yates, JRW ; Swaroop, A ; Weber, BHF ; Kubo, M ; DeAngelis, MM ; Leveillard, T ; Thorsteinsdottir, U ; Haines, JL ; Farrer, LA ; Heid, IM ; Abecasis, GR (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2013-04-01)
    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of blindness in older individuals. To accelerate the understanding of AMD biology and help design new therapies, we executed a collaborative genome-wide association study, including >17,100 advanced AMD cases and >60,000 controls of European and Asian ancestry. We identified 19 loci associated at P < 5 × 10(-8). These loci show enrichment for genes involved in the regulation of complement activity, lipid metabolism, extracellular matrix remodeling and angiogenesis. Our results include seven loci with associations reaching P < 5 × 10(-8) for the first time, near the genes COL8A1-FILIP1L, IER3-DDR1, SLC16A8, TGFBR1, RAD51B, ADAMTS9 and B3GALTL. A genetic risk score combining SNP genotypes from all loci showed similar ability to distinguish cases and controls in all samples examined. Our findings provide new directions for biological, genetic and therapeutic studies of AMD.
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    Short Sleep Duration Is Associated with Risk of Future Diabetes but Not Cardiovascular Disease: a Prospective Study and Meta-Analysis
    Holliday, EG ; Magee, CA ; Kritharides, L ; Banks, E ; Attia, J ; Miao, X-P (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2013-11-25)
    Genetic factors explain a majority of risk variance for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for late AMD implicate genes in complement, inflammatory and lipid pathways, the genetic architecture of early AMD has been relatively under studied. We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of early AMD, including 4,089 individuals with prevalent signs of early AMD (soft drusen and/or retinal pigment epithelial changes) and 20,453 individuals without these signs. For various published late AMD risk loci, we also compared effect sizes between early and late AMD using an additional 484 individuals with prevalent late AMD. GWAS meta-analysis confirmed previously reported association of variants at the complement factor H (CFH) (peak P = 1.5×10(-31)) and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) (P = 4.3×10(-24)) loci, and suggested Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) polymorphisms (rs2075650; P = 1.1×10(-6)) associated with early AMD. Other possible loci that did not reach GWAS significance included variants in the zinc finger protein gene GLI3 (rs2049622; P = 8.9×10(-6)) and upstream of GLI2 (rs6721654; P = 6.5×10(-6)), encoding retinal Sonic hedgehog signalling regulators, and in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene (rs621313; P = 3.5×10(-6)), involved in melanin biosynthesis. For a range of published, late AMD risk loci, estimated effect sizes were significantly lower for early than late AMD. This study confirms the involvement of multiple established AMD risk variants in early AMD, but suggests weaker genetic effects on the risk of early AMD relative to late AMD. Several biological processes were suggested to be potentially specific for early AMD, including pathways regulating RPE cell melanin content and signalling pathways potentially involved in retinal regeneration, generating hypotheses for further investigation.
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    Can HMG Co-A reductase inhibitors ("statins") slow the progression of age-related macular degeneration? The Age-Related Maculopathy Statin Study (ARMSS)
    Guymer, RH ; Dimitrov, PN ; Varsamidis, M ; Lim, LL ; Baird, PN ; Vingrys, AJ ; Robman, L (DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD, 2008-01-01)
    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is responsible for the majority of visual impairment in the Western world. The role of cholesterol-lowering medications, HMG Co-A reductase inhibitors or statins, in reducing the risk of AMD or of delaying its progression has not been fully investigated. A 3-year prospective randomized controlled trial of 40 mg simvastatin per day compared to placebo in subjects at high risk of AMD progression is described. This paper outlines the primary aims of the Age-Related Maculopathy Statin Study (ARMSS), and the methodology involved. Standardized clinical grading of macular photographs and comparison of serial macular digital photographs, using the International grading scheme, form the basis for assessment of primary study outcomes. In addition, macular function is assessed at each visit with detailed psychophysical measurements of rod and cone function. Information collected in this study will assist in the assessment of the potential value of HMG Co-A reductase inhibitors (statins) in reducing the risk of AMD progression.