Centre for Youth Mental Health - Research Publications

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    A randomised controlled trial of dietary improvement for adults with major depression (the "SMILES' trial) (vol 15, 23, 2017)
    Jacka, FN ; O'Neil, A ; Opie, R ; Itsiopoulos, C ; Cotton, S ; Mohebbi, M ; Castle, D ; Dash, S ; Mihalopoulos, C ; Chatterton, ML ; Brazionis, L ; Dean, OM ; Hodge, AM ; Berk, M (BMC, 2018-12-28)
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    The SMILES trial: an important first step
    Jacka, FN ; O'Neil, A ; Itsiopoulos, C ; Opie, R ; Cotton, S ; Mohebbi, M ; Castle, D ; Dash, S ; Mihalopoulos, C ; Chatterton, ML ; Brazionis, L ; Dean, OM ; Hodge, A ; Berk, M (BMC, 2018-12-28)
    The SMILES trial was the first intervention study to test dietary improvement as a treatment strategy for depression. Molendijk et al. propose that expectation bias and difficulties with blinding might account for the large effect size. While we acknowledge the issue of expectation bias in lifestyle intervention trials and indeed discuss this as a key limitation in our paper, we observed a strong correlation between dietary change and change in depression scores, which we argue is consistent with a causal effect and we believe unlikely to be an artefact of inadequate blinding. Since its publication, our results have been largely replicated and our recent economic evaluation of SMILES suggests that the benefits of our approach extend beyond depression. We argue that the SMILES trial should be considered an important, albeit preliminary, first step in the field of nutritional psychiatry research.
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    Integrated (one-stop shop) youth health care: best available evidence and future directions
    Hetrick, SE ; Bailey, AP ; Smith, KE ; Malla, A ; Mathias, S ; Singh, SP ; O'Reilly, A ; Verma, SK ; Benoit, L ; Fleming, TM ; Moro, MR ; Rickwood, DJ ; Duffy, J ; Eriksen, T ; Illback, R ; Fisher, CA ; McGorry, PD (WILEY, 2017-11-20)
    Although mental health problems represent the largest burden of disease in young people, access to mental health care has been poor for this group. Integrated youth health care services have been proposed as an innovative solution. Integrated care joins up physical health, mental health and social care services, ideally in one location, so that a young person receives holistic care in a coordinated way. It can be implemented in a range of ways. A review of the available literature identified a range of studies reporting the results of evaluation research into integrated care services. The best available data indicate that many young people who may not otherwise have sought help are accessing these mental health services, and there are promising outcomes for most in terms of symptomatic and functional recovery. Where evaluated, young people report having benefited from and being highly satisfied with these services. Some young people, such as those with more severe presenting symptoms and those who received fewer treatment sessions, have failed to benefit, indicating a need for further integration with more specialist care. Efforts are underway to articulate the standards and core features to which integrated care services should adhere, as well as to further evaluate outcomes. This will guide the ongoing development of best practice models of service delivery.
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    Prevalence and impact of childhood abuse in people with a psychotic illness. Data from the second Australian national survey of psychosis
    Shah, S ; Mackinnon, A ; Galletly, C ; Carr, V ; McGrath, JJ ; Stain, HJ ; Castle, D ; Harvey, C ; Sweeney, S ; Morgan, VA (ELSEVIER, 2014-10-01)
    Child abuse has been associated with risk of mental illness, including schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders and, among those with mental illness, with a more severe clinical profile. Using an extensively characterised and epidemiologically representative sample of 1825 Australians with a psychotic illness aged 18-64 years and in contact with mental health services, we estimated the proportion of individuals with psychotic disorders who self-reported child abuse and examined its relationship with clinical and other characteristics. The prevalence of child abuse in this nationally representative sample of people with psychotic illness was 30.6%. Women were almost three times more likely to report child abuse compared to males (OR, 2.8, 95% CI 2.3-3.4). When adjusted for age at interview and socio-economic status, there was no significant relationship between self-reported child abuse and type of psychosis or course of illness. Participants with child abuse were significantly more likely to have subjective thought disorder, lifetime suicide attempt and premorbid personality disorder (females only) and anxiety (males only). Our findings demonstrate that child abuse is relatively common across the range of psychotic disorders, with an elevated risk for women in particular, compounding the already high burden associated with psychotic illness. Clinicians need to inquire routinely about child abuse in order to develop appropriate treatment plans tailored to individual needs.
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    Psychosis prevalence and physical, metabolic and cognitive co-morbidity: data from the second Australian national survey of psychosis
    Morgan, VA ; McGrath, JJ ; Jablensky, A ; Badcock, JC ; Waterreus, A ; Bush, R ; Carr, V ; Castle, D ; Cohen, M ; Galletly, C ; Harvey, C ; Hocking, B ; McGorry, P ; Neil, AL ; Saw, S ; Shah, S ; Stain, HJ ; Mackinnon, A (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2014-07-01)
    BACKGROUND: There are insufficient data from nationwide surveys on the prevalence of specific psychotic disorders and associated co-morbidities. METHOD: The 2010 Australian national psychosis survey used a two-phase design to draw a representative sample of adults aged 18-64 years with psychotic disorders in contact with public treatment services from an estimated resident population of 1 464 923 adults. This paper is based on data from 1642 participants with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 psychotic disorder. Its aim is to present estimates of treated prevalence and lifetime morbid risk of psychosis, and to describe the cognitive, physical health and substance use profiles of participants. RESULTS: The 1-month treated prevalence of psychotic disorders was 3.10 cases per 1000 population aged 18-64 years, not accounting for people solely accessing primary care services; lifetime morbid risk was 3.45 per 1000. Mean premorbid intelligence quotient was approximately 0.5 s.d.s below the population mean; current cognitive ability (measured with a digit symbol coding task) was 1.6 s.d.s below the population mean. For both cognitive tests, higher scores were significantly associated with better independent functioning. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was high, affecting 60.8% of participants, and pervasive across diagnostic groups. Of the participants, two-thirds (65.9%) were current smokers, 47.4% were obese and 32.4% were sedentary. Of the participants, half (49.8%) had a lifetime history of alcohol abuse/dependence and 50.8% lifetime cannabis abuse/dependence. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the need for comprehensive, integrative models of recovery to maximize the potential for good health and quality of life for people with psychotic illness.