Centre for Youth Mental Health - Research Publications

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    Characterizing Use of a Multicomponent Digital Intervention to Predict Treatment Outcomes in First-Episode Psychosis: Cluster Analysis.
    O'Sullivan, S ; Schmaal, L ; D'Alfonso, S ; Toenders, YJ ; Valentine, L ; McEnery, C ; Bendall, S ; Nelson, B ; Gleeson, JF ; Alvarez-Jimenez, M (JMIR Publications Inc., 2022-04-07)
    BACKGROUND: Multicomponent digital interventions offer the potential for tailored and flexible interventions that aim to address high attrition rates and increase engagement, an area of concern in digital mental health. However, increased flexibility in use makes it difficult to determine which components lead to improved treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify user profiles on Horyzons, an 18-month digital relapse prevention intervention for first-episode psychosis that incorporates therapeutic content and social networking, along with clinical, vocational, and peer support, and to examine the predictive value of these user profiles for treatment outcomes. A secondary objective is to compare each user profile with young people receiving treatment as usual (TAU). METHODS: Participants comprised 82 young people (aged 16-27 years) with access to Horyzons and 84 receiving TAU, recovering from first-episode psychosis. In addition, 6-month use data from the therapy and social networking components of Horyzons were used as features for K-means clustering for joint trajectories to identify user profiles. Social functioning, psychotic symptoms, depression, and anxiety were assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up. General linear mixed models were used to examine the predictive value of user profiles for treatment outcomes and between each user profile with TAU. RESULTS: A total of 3 user profiles were identified based on the following system use metrics: low use, maintained use of social components, and maintained use of both therapy and social components. The maintained therapy and social group showed improvements in social functioning (F2,51=3.58; P=.04), negative symptoms (F2,51=4.45; P=.02), and overall psychiatric symptom severity (F2,50=3.23; P=.048) compared with the other user profiles. This group also showed improvements in social functioning (F1,62=4.68; P=.03), negative symptoms (F1,62=14.61; P<.001), and overall psychiatric symptom severity (F1,63=5.66; P=.02) compared with the TAU group. Conversely, the maintained social group showed increases in anxiety compared with the TAU group (F1,57=7.65; P=.008). No differences were found between the low use group and the TAU group on treatment outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Continued engagement with both therapy and social components might be key in achieving long-term recovery. Maintained social use and low use outcomes were broadly comparable with TAU, emphasizing the importance of maintaining engagement for improved treatment outcomes. Although the social network may be a key ingredient to increase sustained engagement, as users engaged with this more consistently, it should be leveraged as a tool to engage young people with therapeutic content to bring about social and clinical benefits.
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    The association of plasma inflammatory markers with omega-3 fatty acids and their mediating role in psychotic symptoms and functioning: An analysis of the NEURAPRO clinical trial
    Susai, SR ; Mongan, D ; Healy, C ; Cannon, M ; Nelson, B ; Markulev, C ; Schafer, MR ; Berger, M ; Mossaheb, N ; Schloegelhofer, M ; Smesny, S ; Hickie, IB ; Berger, GE ; Chen, EYH ; de Haan, L ; Nieman, DH ; Nordentoft, M ; Riecher-Roessler, A ; Verma, S ; Thompson, A ; Yung, AR ; McGorry, PD ; Focking, M ; Cotter, D ; Amminger, GP (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2021-10-08)
    BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that dysregulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) mediated membrane function plays a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Even though preclinical findings have supported the anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 FAs on brain health, their biological roles as anti-inflammatory agents and their therapeutic role on clinical symptoms of psychosis risk are not well understood. In the current study, we investigated the relationship of erythrocyte omega-3 FAs with plasma immune markers in a clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) sample. In addition, a mediation analysis was performed to examine whether previously reported associations between omega-3 FAs and clinical outcomes were mediated via plasma immune markers. Clinical outcomes for CHR participants in the NEURAPRO clinical trial were measured using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Schedule for the Scale of Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) scales. The erythrocyte omega-3 index [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers were quantified at baseline (n = 268) and 6 month follow-up (n = 146) by gas chromatography and multiplex immunoassay, respectively. In linear regression models, the baseline plasma concentrations of Interleukin (IL)-15, Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and Vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 were negatively associated with baseline omega-3 index. In addition, 6-month change in IL-12p40 and TNF-α showed a negative association with change in omega-3 index. In longitudinal analyses, the baseline and 6 month change in omega-3 index was negatively associated with VCAM-1 and TNF-α respectively at follow-up. Mediation analyses provided little evidence for mediating effects of plasma immune markers on the relationship between omega-3 FAs and clinical outcomes (psychotic symptoms and functioning) in CHR participants. Our results indicate a predominantly anti-inflammatory relationship of omega-3 FAs on plasma inflammatory status in CHR individuals, but this did not appear to convey clinical benefits at 6 month and 12 month follow-up. Both immune and non-immune biological effects of omega-3 FAs would be resourceful in understanding the clinical benefits of omega-3 FAs in CHR papulation.
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    Association of Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measures With Psychosis Onset in Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Developing Psychosis An ENIGMA Working Group Mega-analysis
    Jalbrzikowski, M ; Hayes, RA ; Wood, SJ ; Nordholm, D ; Zhou, JH ; Fusar-Poli, P ; Uhlhaas, PJ ; Takahashi, T ; Sugranyes, G ; Kwak, YB ; Mathalon, DH ; Katagiri, N ; Hooker, CI ; Smigielski, L ; Colibazzi, T ; Via, E ; Tang, J ; Koike, S ; Rasser, PE ; Michel, C ; Lebedeva, I ; Hegelstad, WTV ; de la Fuente-Sandoval, C ; Waltz, JA ; Mizrahi, R ; Corcoran, CM ; Resch, F ; Tamnes, CK ; Haas, SS ; Lemmers-Jansen, ILJ ; Agartz, I ; Allen, P ; Amminger, GP ; Andreassen, OA ; Atkinson, K ; Bachman, P ; Baeza, I ; Baldwin, H ; Bartholomeusz, CF ; Borgwardt, S ; Catalano, S ; Chee, MWL ; Chen, X ; Cho, KIK ; Cooper, RE ; Cropley, VL ; Dolz, M ; Ebdrup, BH ; Fortea, A ; Glenthoj, LB ; Glenthoj, BY ; de Haan, L ; Hamilton, HK ; Harris, MA ; Haut, KM ; He, Y ; Heekeren, K ; Heinz, A ; Hubl, D ; Hwang, WJ ; Kaess, M ; Kasai, K ; Kim, M ; Kindler, J ; Klaunig, MJ ; Koppel, A ; Kristensen, TD ; Kwon, JS ; Lawrie, SM ; Lee, J ; Leon-Ortiz, P ; Lin, A ; Loewy, RL ; Ma, X ; McGorry, P ; McGuire, P ; Mizuno, M ; Moller, P ; Moncada-Habib, T ; Munoz-Samons, D ; Nelson, B ; Nemoto, T ; Nordentoft, M ; Omelchenko, MA ; Oppedal, K ; Ouyang, L ; Pantelis, C ; Pariente, JC ; Raghava, JM ; Reyes-Madrigal, F ; Roach, BJ ; Rossberg, JI ; Rossler, W ; Salisbury, DF ; Sasabayashi, D ; Schall, U ; Schiffman, J ; Schlagenhauf, F ; Schmidt, A ; Sorensen, ME ; Suzuki, M ; Theodoridou, A ; Tomyshev, AS ; Tor, J ; Vaernes, TG ; Velakoulis, D ; Venegoni, GD ; Vinogradov, S ; Wenneberg, C ; Westlye, LT ; Yamasue, H ; Yuan, L ; Yung, AR ; van Amelsvoort, TAMJ ; Turner, JA ; van Erp, TGM ; Thompson, PM ; Hernaus, D (AMER MEDICAL ASSOC, 2021-05-05)
    Importance: The ENIGMA clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis initiative, the largest pooled neuroimaging sample of individuals at CHR to date, aims to discover robust neurobiological markers of psychosis risk. Objective: To investigate baseline structural neuroimaging differences between individuals at CHR and healthy controls as well as between participants at CHR who later developed a psychotic disorder (CHR-PS+) and those who did not (CHR-PS-). Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case-control study, baseline T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were pooled from 31 international sites participating in the ENIGMA Clinical High Risk for Psychosis Working Group. CHR status was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States or Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. MRI scans were processed using harmonized protocols and analyzed within a mega-analysis and meta-analysis framework from January to October 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Measures of regional cortical thickness (CT), surface area, and subcortical volumes were extracted from T1-weighted MRI scans. Independent variables were group (CHR group vs control group) and conversion status (CHR-PS+ group vs CHR-PS- group vs control group). Results: Of the 3169 included participants, 1428 (45.1%) were female, and the mean (SD; range) age was 21.1 (4.9; 9.5-39.9) years. This study included 1792 individuals at CHR and 1377 healthy controls. Using longitudinal clinical information, 253 in the CHR-PS+ group, 1234 in the CHR-PS- group, and 305 at CHR without follow-up data were identified. Compared with healthy controls, individuals at CHR exhibited widespread lower CT measures (mean [range] Cohen d = -0.13 [-0.17 to -0.09]), but not surface area or subcortical volume. Lower CT measures in the fusiform, superior temporal, and paracentral regions were associated with psychosis conversion (mean Cohen d = -0.22; 95% CI, -0.35 to 0.10). Among healthy controls, compared with those in the CHR-PS+ group, age showed a stronger negative association with left fusiform CT measures (F = 9.8; P < .001; q < .001) and left paracentral CT measures (F = 5.9; P = .005; q = .02). Effect sizes representing lower CT associated with psychosis conversion resembled patterns of CT differences observed in ENIGMA studies of schizophrenia (ρ = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.55; P = .004) and individuals with 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome and a psychotic disorder diagnosis (ρ = 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.61; P = .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This study provides evidence for widespread subtle, lower CT measures in individuals at CHR. The pattern of CT measure differences in those in the CHR-PS+ group was similar to those reported in other large-scale investigations of psychosis. Additionally, a subset of these regions displayed abnormal age associations. Widespread disruptions in CT coupled with abnormal age associations in those at CHR may point to disruptions in postnatal brain developmental processes.
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    Preventive interventions for individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis: An updated and extended meta-analysis
    Mei, C ; van der Gaag, M ; Nelson, B ; Smit, F ; Yuen, HP ; Berger, M ; Krcmar, M ; French, P ; Amminger, GP ; Bechdolf, A ; Cuijpers, P ; Yung, AR ; McGorry, PD (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2021-05-24)
    Intervention at the earliest illness stage, in ultra or clinical high-risk individuals, or indicated prevention, currently represents the most promising strategy to ameliorate, delay or prevent psychosis. We review the current state of evidence and conduct a broad-spectrum meta-analysis of various outcomes: transition to psychosis, attenuated positive and negative psychotic symptoms, mania, depression, anxiety, general psychopathology, symptom-related distress, functioning, quality of life, and treatment acceptability. 26 randomized controlled trials were included. Meta-analytically pooled interventions reduced transition rate (risk ratio [RR] = 0.57, 95%CI 0.41-0.81) and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms at 12-months (standardized mean difference = -0.15, 95%CI = -0.28--0.01). When stratified by intervention type (pharmacological, psychological), only the pooled effect of psychological interventions on transition rate was significant. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was associated with a reduction in incidence at 12-months (RR = 0.52, 95%CI = 0.33-0.82) and 18-48-months (RR = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.42-0.84), but not 6-months. Findings at 12-months and 18-48-months were robust in sensitivity and subgroup analyses. All other outcomes were non-significant. To date, effects of trialed treatments are specific to transition and, a lesser extent, attenuated positive symptoms, highlighting the future need to target other symptom domains and functional outcomes. Sound evidence supports CBT in reducing transition and the value of intervening at this illness stage. STUDY REGISTRATION: Research Registry ID: reviewregistry907.
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    The associations between migrant status and ethnicity and the identification of individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis and transition to psychosis: a systematic review
    Moore, D ; Castagnini, E ; Mifsud, N ; Geros, H ; Sizer, H ; Addington, J ; van der Gaag, M ; Nelson, B ; McGorry, P ; O'Donoghue, B (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2021-02-28)
    PURPOSE: Migrant and ethnic minority populations exhibit a higher incidence of psychotic disorders. The Ultra-High Risk for psychosis (UHR) paradigm provides an opportunity to explore the stage at which such factors influence the development of psychosis. In this systematic review, we collate and appraise the literature on the association between ethnicity and migrant status and the rate of identification of individuals at UHR, as well as their rate of transition to psychosis. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review in the Ovid Medline, PsychINFO, Pubmed, CINAHL and EMBASE databases according to PRISMA guidelines. We included studies written in English that included an UHR cohort, provided a measure of ethnicity or migrant status, and examined the incidence, rate, or risk of UHR identification or transition to psychosis. RESULTS: Of 2182 unique articles identified, seven fulfilled the criteria. One study found overrepresentation of UHR individuals from black ethnic groups, while another found underrepresentation. Two studies found increased rates of transition among certain ethnic groups and a further two found no association. Regarding migrant status, one study found that first-generation migrants were underrepresented in an UHR sample. Lastly, a lower transition rate in migrant populations was identified in one study, while two found no association. CONCLUSION: Rates of UHR identification and transition according to ethnic and migrant status were inconsistent and insufficient to conclusively explain higher incidences of psychotic disorders among these groups. We discuss the clinical implications and avenues for future research, which is required to clarify the nature of the associations.
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    Cognitive functioning throughout adulthood and illness stages in individuals with psychotic disorders and their unaffected siblings
    Velthorst, E ; Mollon, J ; Murray, RM ; de Haan, L ; Germeys, IM ; Glahn, DC ; Arango, C ; van der Ven, E ; Di Forti, M ; Bernardo, M ; Guloksuz, S ; Delespaul, P ; Mezquida, G ; Amoretti, S ; Bobes, J ; Saiz, PA ; Garcia-Portilla, MP ; Santos, JL ; Jimenez-Lopez, E ; Sanjuan, J ; Aguilar, EJ ; Arrojo, M ; Carracedo, A ; Lopez, G ; Gonzalez-Penas, J ; Parellada, M ; Atbasoglu, C ; Saka, MC ; Ucok, A ; Alptekin, K ; Akdede, B ; Binbay, T ; Altinyazar, V ; Ulas, H ; Yalincetin, B ; Gumus-Akay, G ; Beyaz, BC ; Soygur, H ; Cankurtaran, ES ; Kaymak, SU ; Maric, NP ; Mihaljevic, MM ; Petrovic, SA ; Mirjanic, T ; Del-Ben, CM ; Ferraro, L ; Gayer-Anderson, C ; Jones, PB ; Jongsma, HE ; Kirkbride, JB ; La Cascia, C ; Lasalvia, A ; Tosato, S ; Llorca, P-M ; Menezes, PR ; Morgan, C ; Quattrone, D ; Menchetti, M ; Selten, J-P ; Szoke, A ; Tarricone, I ; Tortelli, A ; McGuire, P ; Valmaggia, L ; Kempton, MJ ; van der Gaag, M ; Riecher-Rossler, A ; Bressan, RA ; Barrantes-Vidal, N ; Nelson, B ; McGorry, P ; Pantelis, C ; Krebs, M-O ; Ruhrmann, S ; Sachs, G ; Rutten, BPF ; van Os, J ; Alizadeh, BZ ; van Amelsvoort, T ; Bartels-Velthuis, AA ; Bruggeman, R ; van Beveren, NJ ; Luykx, JJ ; Cahn, W ; Simons, CJP ; Kahn, RS ; Schirmbeck, F ; van Winkel, R ; Reichenberg, A (SPRINGERNATURE, 2021-01-07)
    Important questions remain about the profile of cognitive impairment in psychotic disorders across adulthood and illness stages. The age-associated profile of familial impairments also remains unclear, as well as the effect of factors, such as symptoms, functioning, and medication. Using cross-sectional data from the EU-GEI and GROUP studies, comprising 8455 participants aged 18 to 65, we examined cognitive functioning across adulthood in patients with psychotic disorders (n = 2883), and their unaffected siblings (n = 2271), compared to controls (n = 3301). An abbreviated WAIS-III measured verbal knowledge, working memory, visuospatial processing, processing speed, and IQ. Patients showed medium to large deficits across all functions (ES range = -0.45 to -0.73, p < 0.001), while siblings showed small deficits on IQ, verbal knowledge, and working memory (ES = -0.14 to -0.33, p < 0.001). Magnitude of impairment was not associated with participant age, such that the size of impairment in older and younger patients did not significantly differ. However, first-episode patients performed worse than prodromal patients (ES range = -0.88 to -0.60, p < 0.001). Adjusting for cannabis use, symptom severity, and global functioning attenuated impairments in siblings, while deficits in patients remained statistically significant, albeit reduced by half (ES range = -0.13 to -0.38, p < 0.01). Antipsychotic medication also accounted for around half of the impairment in patients (ES range = -0.21 to -0.43, p < 0.01). Deficits in verbal knowledge, and working memory may specifically index familial, i.e., shared genetic and/or shared environmental, liability for psychotic disorders. Nevertheless, potentially modifiable illness-related factors account for a significant portion of the cognitive impairment in psychotic disorders.
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    The association between migrant status and transition in an ultra-high risk for psychosis population
    O'Donoghue, B ; Geros, H ; Sizer, H ; Addington, J ; Amminger, GP ; Beaden, CE ; Cadenhead, KS ; Cannon, TD ; Cornblatt, BA ; Berger, GE ; Chen, EYH ; de Haan, L ; Hartmann, JA ; Hickie, IB ; Ising, HK ; Lavoie, S ; Lin, A ; Markulev, C ; Mathalon, DH ; McGlashan, TH ; Mifsud, NG ; Mossaheb, N ; Nieman, DH ; Nordentoft, M ; Perkins, DO ; Riecher-Roessler, A ; Schaefer, MR ; Schloegelhofer, M ; Seidman, LJ ; Smesny, S ; Thompson, A ; Tsuang, MT ; van der Gaag, M ; Verma, S ; Walker, EF ; Wood, SJ ; Woods, SW ; Yuen, HP ; Yung, AR ; McGorry, PD ; Nelson, B (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2021-01-05)
    PURPOSE: Migrant status is one of the most replicated and robust risk factors for developing a psychotic disorder. This study aimed to determine whether migrant status in people identified as Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis (UHR) was associated with risk of transitioning to a full-threshold psychotic disorder. METHODS: Hazard ratios for the risk of transition were calculated from five large UHR cohorts (n = 2166) and were used to conduct a meta-analysis using the generic inverse-variance method using a random-effects model. RESULTS: 2166 UHR young people, with a mean age of 19.1 years (SD ± 4.5) were included, of whom 221 (10.7%) were first-generation migrants. A total of 357 young people transitioned to psychosis over a median follow-up time of 417 days (I.Q.R.147-756 days), representing 17.0% of the cohort. The risk of transition to a full-threshold disorder was not increased for first-generation migrants, (HR = 1.08, 95% CI 0.62-1.89); however, there was a high level of heterogeneity between studies The hazard ratio for second-generation migrants to transition to a full-threshold psychotic disorder compared to the remainder of the native-born population was 1.03 (95% CI 0.70-1.51). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis did not find a statistically significant association between migrant status and an increased risk for transition to a full-threshold psychotic disorder; however, several methodological issues could explain this finding. Further research should focus on examining the risk of specific migrant groups and also ensuring that migrant populations are adequately represented within UHR clinics.
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    Pre-training inter-rater reliability of clinical instruments in an international psychosis research project
    Berendsen, S ; Kapitein, P ; Schirmbeck, F ; van Tricht, MJ ; McGuire, P ; Morgan, C ; Gayer-Anderson, C ; Kempton, MJ ; Valmaggia, L ; Quattrone, D ; di Forti, M ; van der Gaag, M ; Kirkbride, JB ; Jongsma, HE ; Jones, PB ; Parellada, M ; Arango, C ; Arrojo, M ; Bernardo, M ; Sanjuan, J ; Santos, JL ; Szoke, A ; Tortelli, A ; Llorca, P-M ; Tarricone, I ; Tripoli, G ; Ferraro, L ; La Cascia, C ; Lasalvia, A ; Tosato, S ; Menezes, PR ; Del-Ben, CM ; Nelson, B ; Riecher-Rossler, A ; Bressan, R ; Barrantes-Vidal, N ; Krebs, M-O ; Nordentoft, M ; Ruhrmann, S ; Sachs, G ; Rutten, BPF ; van Os, J ; Velthorst, E ; de Haan, L (ELSEVIER, 2021-06-18)
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    Subjective experience and meaning of delusions in psychosis: a systematic review and qualitative evidence synthesis.
    Ritunnano, R ; Kleinman, J ; Whyte Oshodi, D ; Michail, M ; Nelson, B ; Humpston, CS ; Broome, MR (Elsevier BV, 2022-06)
    BACKGROUND: Delusions are a common transdiagnostic feature of psychotic disorders, and their treatment remains suboptimal. Despite the pressing need to better understand the nature, meaning, and course of these symptoms, research into the lived experience of delusional phenomena in psychosis is scarce. Thus, we aimed to explore the lived experience and subjective apprehension of delusions in help-seeking individuals with psychosis, regardless of diagnosis and thematic content of the delusion. METHODS: In our systematic review and qualitative evidence synthesis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Web of Science for qualitative studies published in English from database inception, with the last search on Sept 9, 2021. Grey literature search and hand-searching of relevant journals were also done. Studies were eligible if they provided an analysis of lived experience of delusions or predelusional phenomena presented from the perspective of individuals (age 14-65 years) who had developed a clinical high-risk stage of psychosis, or a diagnosable affective or non-affective psychotic disorder (as clinically defined, self-reported, or assessed within the primary study). Studies with only a subset of relevant participants were eligible only if data for the population of interest were reported separately. Studies that did not discriminate between the experience of delusion and other positive symptoms (eg, hallucinations) were included only if data for delusions were reported separately or could be extracted. First-person accounts (and author interpretations) discussing changes in the sense of self, lived world, and meaning in relation to delusions were extracted and synthesised using a novel thematic synthesis approach informed by a critical realist stance and a phenomenological theoretical framework. Analytic themes were developed into a new overarching framework for understanding the emergence of delusional phenomena. The study was registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020222104. FINDINGS: Of the 3265 records screened, 2115 were identified after duplicate removal. Of these, 1982 were excluded after title and abstract screening and 106 after full-text eligibility assessment. Of the 27 studies entering quality assessment, 24 eligible studies were included in the qualitative evidence synthesis, representing the perspectives of 373 help-seeking individuals with lived experience of delusions in the context of psychosis. Gender was reported as male (n=210), female (n=110), transgender (n=1), or not reported (n=52). Only 13 studies reported ethnicity, with White being predominant. The age of most participants ranged from 15 to 65 years. We found no eligible studies investigating subclinical or predelusional experiences in at-risk mental state populations through qualitative methods. Most studies were undertaken in western, educated, industrialised, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) societies, and most included participants had received or self-reported a diagnosis within the schizophrenia spectrum. Studies differed in relation to whether they focused on one kind or theme of delusion or delusional phenomena more generally as a unified category. Three superordinate themes relating to experiential changes and meanings in delusion were identified: (1) a radical rearrangement of the lived world dominated by intense emotions; (2) doubting, losing, and finding oneself again within delusional realities; and (3) searching for meaning, belonging, and coherence beyond mere dysfunction. Based on the review findings and thematic synthesis, we propose the Emergence Model of Delusion to advance understanding of delusional phenomena in psychosis. INTERPRETATION: Delusions are best understood as strongly individualised and inherently complex phenomena emerging from a dynamic interplay between interdependent subpersonal, personal, interpersonal, and sociocultural processes. Integrative approaches to research on delusion, which consider their potential adaptiveness and favour explanatory pluralism, might be advantageous. Effective clinical care for individuals with psychosis might need adapting to match more closely, and take account of, the subjective experience and meaning of delusions as they are lived through, which might also help redress power imbalances and enduring epistemic injustices in mental health. FUNDING: Priestley Scholars, Wellcome Trust.
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    Digital technology for addressing cognitive impairment in recent-onset psychosis: A perspective
    Bell, I ; Pot-Kolder, RMCA ; Wood, SJ ; Nelson, B ; Acevedo, N ; Stainton, A ; Nicol, K ; Kean, J ; Bryce, S ; Bartholomeusz, CF ; Watson, A ; Schwartz, O ; Daglas-Georgiou, R ; Walton, CC ; Martin, D ; Simmons, M ; Zbukvic, I ; Thompson, A ; Nicholasa, J ; Alvarez-Jimenez, M ; Allott, K (ELSEVIER, 2022-06-01)
    Cognitive impairments in psychosis negatively impact functional recovery and quality of life. Existing interventions for improving cognitive impairment in recent-onset psychosis show inconsistent treatment efficacy, small effects, suboptimal engagement and limited generalizability to daily life functioning. In this perspective we explore how digital technology has the potential to address these limitations in order to improve cognitive and functional outcomes in recent-onset psychosis. Computer programs can be used for standardized, automated delivery of cognitive remediation training. Virtual reality provides the opportunity for learning and practicing cognitive skills in real-world scenarios within a virtual environment. Smartphone apps could be used for notification reminders for everyday tasks to compensate for cognitive difficulties. Internet-based technologies can offer psychoeducation and training materials for enhancing cognitive skills. Early findings indicate some forms of digital interventions for cognitive enhancement can be effective, with well-established evidence for human-supported computer-based cognitive remediation in recent-onset psychosis. Emerging evidence regarding virtual reality is favorable for improving social cognition. Overall, blending digital interventions with human support improves engagement and effectiveness. Despite the potential of digital interventions for enhancing cognition in recent-onset psychosis, few studies have been conducted to date. Implementation challenges affecting application of digital technologies for cognitive impairment in recent-onset psychosis are sustained engagement, clinical integration, and lack of quality in the commercial marketplace. Future opportunities lie in including motivational frameworks and behavioral change interventions, increasing service engagement in young people and lived experience involvement in digital intervention development.