Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research - Research Publications

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    Re-engaging with survey non-respondents: Evidence from three household panels
    Watson, N ; Wooden, M (Wiley, 2014)
    Previous research into the correlates and determinants of non‐response in longitudinal surveys has focused exclusively on why it is that respondents at one survey wave choose not to participate at future waves. This is very understandable if non‐response is always an absorbing state, but in many longitudinal surveys, and certainly most household panels, this is not so. Indeed, in these surveys it is normal practice to attempt to make contact with many non‐respondents at the next wave. This study differs from previous research by examining re‐engagement with previous wave non‐respondents. Drawing on data from three national household panels it is found that the re‐engagement decision is indeed distinctly different from the decision about continued participation. Further, these differences have clear implications for the way that panel surveys should be administered given the desire to enhance overall response rates.
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    Should I stay or should I go? Hospital emergency department waiting times and demand
    Sivey, P (Wiley, 2018-03-01)
    In the absence of the price mechanism, hospital emergency departments rely on waiting times, alongside prioritisation mechanisms, to restrain demand and clear the market. This paper estimates by how much the number of treatments demanded is reduced by a higher waiting time. I use variation in waiting times for low-urgency patients caused by rare and resource-intensive high-urgency patients to estimate the relationship. I find that when waiting times are higher, more low-urgency patients are deterred from treatment and leave the hospital during the waiting period without being treated. The waiting time elasticity of demand for low-urgency patients is approximately −0.25 and is highest for the lowest-urgency patients.
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    Contemporary women's secure psychiatric services in the United Kingdom: A qualitative analysis of staff views
    Walker, T ; Edge, D ; Shaw, J ; Wilson, H ; McNair, L ; Mitchell, H ; Gutridge, K ; Senior, J ; Sutton, M ; Meacock, R ; Abel, K (WILEY, 2017-11-01)
    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Three pilot UK-only Women's Enhanced Medium Secure Services (WEMSS) was opened in 2007 to support women's movement from high secure care and provide a bespoke, women-only service. Evidence suggests that women's secure services are particularly challenging environments to work in and staffing issues (e.g., high turnover) can cause difficulties in establishing a therapeutic environment. Research in this area has focused on the experiences of service users. Studies which have examined staff views have focused on their feelings towards women in their care and the emotional burden of working in women's secure services. No papers have made a direct comparison between staff working in different services. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This is the first study to explore the views and experiences of staff in the three UK WEMSS pilot services and contrast them with staff from women's medium secure services. Drawing upon data from eighteen semi-structured interviews (nine WEMSS, nine non-WEMSS), key themes cover staff perceptions of factors important for women's recovery and their views on operational aspects of services. This study extends our understanding of the experiences of staff working with women in secure care and bears relevance for staff working internationally, as well as in UK services. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The study reveals the importance of induction and training for bank and agency staff working in women's secure services. Further, regular clinical supervision should be mandatory for all staff so they are adequately supported. ABSTRACT: Introduction Women's Enhanced Medium Secure Services (WEMSS) is bespoke, gender-sensitive services which opened in the UK in 2007 at three pilot sites. This study is the first of its kind to explore the experiences of WEMSS staff, directly comparing them to staff in a standard medium secure service for women. The literature to date has focused on the experiences of service users or staff views on working with women in secure care. Aim This qualitative study, embedded in a multimethod evaluation of WEMSS, aimed to explore the views and experiences of staff in WEMSS and comparator medium secure services. Methods Qualitative interviews took place with nine WEMSS staff and nine comparator medium secure staff. Interviews focused on factors important for recovery, barriers to facilitating recovery and operational aspects of the service. Discussion This study provides a rare insight into the perspectives of staff working in UK women's secure services, an under-researched area in the UK and internationally. Findings suggest that the success of services, including WEMSS, is compromised by operational factors such as the use of bank staff. Implications for practice Comprehensive training and supervision should be mandatory for all staff, so best practice is met and staff adequately supported.
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    Social Disadvantage and Education
    Ryan, C (WILEY, 2017-09-01)
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    Welfare and Children's Well-Being
    Ribar, DC (WILEY, 2017-09-01)
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    Editors' introduction
    Jones, AM ; Norton, EC ; O'Donnell, O ; Scott, A (WILEY, 2017-09-01)
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    Does paying service providers by results improve recovery outcomes for drug misusers in treatment in England?
    Jones, A ; Pierce, M ; Sutton, M ; Mason, T ; Millar, T (WILEY, 2018-02-01)
    AIM: To compare drug recovery outcomes in commissioning areas included in a 'payment by results' scheme with all other areas. DESIGN: Observational and data linkage study of the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System, Office for National Statistics mortality database and Police National Computer criminal records, for 2 years before and after introduction of the scheme. Pre-post controlled comparison compared outcomes in participating versus non-participating areas following adjustment for drug use, functioning and drug treatment status. SETTING: Drug services in England providing publicly funded, structured treatment. PARTICIPANTS: Adults in treatment (between 2010 and 2014): 154 175 (10 716 in participating areas, 143 459 non-participating) treatment journeys in the 2 years before and 148 941 (10 012 participating, 138 929 non-participating) after the introduction of the scheme. INTERVENTION: Scheme participation, with payment to treatment providers based on patient outcomes versus all other areas. MEASUREMENTS: Rate of treatment initiation; waiting time (> or < 3 weeks); treatment completion; and re-presentation; substance use; injecting; housing status; fatal overdose; and acquisitive crime. FINDINGS: In participating areas, there were relative decreases in rates of: treatment initiation [difference-in-differences odds ratio (DID OR) = 0.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.14, 0.21]; treatment completion (DID OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.53, 0.67); and treatment completion without re-presentation (DID OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.52, 0.77) compared with non-participating areas. Within treatment, relative abstinence (DID OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.30, 1.72) and non-injecting (DID OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.59) rates were improved in participating areas. No significant changes in mortality, recorded crime or housing status were associated with the scheme. CONCLUSION: Drug addiction recovery services in England that are commissioned on a payment-by-results basis tend to have lower rates of treatment initiation and completion but higher rates of in-treatment abstinence and non-injecting than other services.
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    Measuring the Adequacy of Retirement Savings
    MURAWSKI, C ; Burnett, J ; Davis, KEVIN ; Wilkins, ROGER ; Wilkinson, N (Wiley, 2018-12-01)
    This paper introduces four metrics for quantifying the adequacy of retirement savings, taking into account all major sources of retirement income. We then apply them to projections of expected future retirement income streams of a representative sample of the Australian population aged 40 and above. We find that omitting one or more pillars of savings significantly biases estimates of retirement savings adequacy. We also find that the four metrics are only weakly correlated with key commonly used indicators of financial well‐being, in particular current income and net worth. Our analysis also points to several shortcomings of the widely used income replacement ratio as an indicator of savings adequacy.
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    Rural specialists: The nature of their work and professional satisfaction by geographical location of work
    O'Sullivan, B ; McGrail, M ; Russell, D (WILEY, 2017-12-01)
    OBJECTIVE: Systematically describe the characteristics of rural specialists, their work and job satisfaction by geographical location of work. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Three thousand, four hundred and seventy-nine medical specialists participating in the 2014 Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) survey of doctors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Location of practice, whether metropolitan, large (>50 000 population) or small regional centres (<50 000 population). RESULT: Specialists working in large regional centres had similar characteristics to metropolitan specialists, however, those in small regional centres were more likely men, later career, overseas-trained and less likely to work privately. Rural specialists had more on-call requirements and poorer professional development opportunities. However, satisfaction with work hours, remuneration, variety of work, level of responsibility, opportunities to use abilities and overall satisfaction did not differ. Specialists in general medicine and general surgery were significantly more likely to work rurally compared with anaesthetists, particularly in small regional centres, whereas a range of other relevant specialists had lower than the average rural distribution and paediatricians and endocrinologists were significantly less likely to work in large regional centres. CONCLUSION: Rural specialists are just as satisfied as metropolitan counterparts reporting equivalent variety and responsibility at work. Better support for on-call demands and access to professional development could attract more specialists to rural practice. Increased rural training opportunities and regional workforce planning is needed to develop and recruit relevant specialties. Specifically, targeted support is warranted for training and development of specialists in general medicine and general surgery and overseas-trained specialists, who provide essential services in smaller regional centres.
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    Livelihoods andChild Welfare among Poor Rural Farmers in East Africa
    Inder, B ; Kabore, C ; Nolan, S ; Cornwell, K ; Suarez, DC ; Crawford, A ; Kamara, JK (WILEY, 2017-06-01)