Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research - Research Publications
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ItemPHYSICIAN LABOUR SUPPLY IN CANADA: A COHORT ANALYSISCrossley, TF ; Hurley, J ; Jeon, S-H (WILEY, 2009-04-01)This paper employs a cohort analysis to examine the relative importance of different factors in explaining changes in the number of hours spent in direct patient care by Canadian general/family practitioners (GPs) over the period 1982-2003. Cohorts are defined by year of graduation from medical school. The results for male GPs indicate that there is little age effect on hours of direct patient care, especially among physicians aged 35-55, there is no strong cohort effect on hours of direct patient care, but there is a secular decline in hours of direct patient care over the period. The results for female GPs indicate that female physicians on average work fewer hours than male physicians, there is a clear age effect on hours of direct patient care, there is no strong cohort effect, and there has been little secular change in average hours of direct patient care. The changing behaviour of male GPs accounted for a greater proportion of the overall decline in hours of direct patient care from the 1980s through the mid-1990 s than did the growing proportion of female GPs in the physician stock.
ItemJoint Taxation and the Labour Supply of Married Women: Evidence from the Canadian Tax Reform of 1988CROSSLEY, F ; JEON, S ( 2007)
ItemEstimating the price elasticity of expenditure for prescription drugs in the presence of non-linear price schedules: an illustration from Quebec, CanadaContoyannis, P ; Hurley, J ; Grootendorst, P ; Jeon, SH ; Tamblyn, R (WILEY, 2005-09-01)The price elasticity of demand for prescription drugs is a crucial parameter of interest in designing pharmaceutical benefit plans. Estimating the elasticity using micro-data, however, is challenging because insurance coverage that includes deductibles, co-insurance provisions and maximum expenditure limits create a non-linear price schedule, making price endogenous (a function of drug consumption). In this paper we exploit an exogenous change in cost-sharing within the Quebec (Canada) public Pharmacare program to estimate the price elasticity of expenditure for drugs using IV methods. This approach corrects for the endogeneity of price and incorporates the concept of a 'rational' consumer who factors into consumption decisions the price they expect to face at the margin given their expected needs. The IV method is adapted from an approach developed in the public finance literature used to estimate income responses to changes in tax schedules. The instrument is based on the price an individual would face under the new cost-sharing policy if their consumption remained at the pre-policy level. Our preferred specification leads to expenditure elasticities that are in the low range of previous estimates (between -0.12 and -0.16). Naïve OLS estimates are between 1 and 4 times these magnitudes.