Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    An RCT protocol of varying financial incentive amounts for smoking cessation among pregnant women
    Lynagh, M ; Bonevski, B ; Sanson-Fisher, R ; Symonds, I ; Scott, A ; Hall, A ; Oldmeadow, C (BMC, 2012-11-27)
    BACKGROUND: Smoking during pregnancy is harmful to the unborn child. Few smoking cessation interventions have been successfully incorporated into standard antenatal care. The main aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of a personal financial incentive scheme for encouraging smoking cessation among pregnant women. DESIGN: A pilot randomised control trial will be conducted to assess the feasibility and potential effectiveness of two varying financial incentives that increase incrementally in magnitude ($20 vs. $40AUD), compared to no incentive in reducing smoking in pregnant women attending an Australian public hospital antenatal clinic. METHOD: Ninety (90) pregnant women who self-report smoking in the last 7 days and whose smoking status is biochemically verified, will be block randomised into one of three groups: a. No incentive control group (n=30), b. $20 incremental incentive group (n=30), and c. $40 incremental incentive group (n=30). Smoking status will be assessed via a self-report computer based survey in nine study sessions with saliva cotinine analysis used as biochemical validation. Women in the two incentive groups will be eligible to receive a cash reward at each of eight measurement points during pregnancy if 7-day smoking cessation is achieved. Cash rewards will increase incrementally for each period of smoking abstinence. DISCUSSION: Identifying strategies that are effective in reducing the number of women smoking during pregnancy and are easily adopted into standard antenatal practice is of utmost importance. A personal financial incentive scheme is a potential antenatal smoking cessation strategy that warrants further investigation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) number: ACTRN12612000399897.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Determinants of successful clinical networks: the conceptual framework and study protocol
    Haines, M ; Brown, B ; Craig, J ; D'Este, C ; Elliott, E ; Klineberg, E ; McInnes, E ; Middleton, S ; Paul, C ; Redman, S ; Yano, EM (BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2012-03-13)
    BACKGROUND: Clinical networks are increasingly being viewed as an important strategy for increasing evidence-based practice and improving models of care, but success is variable and characteristics of networks with high impact are uncertain. This study takes advantage of the variability in the functioning and outcomes of networks supported by the Australian New South Wales (NSW) Agency for Clinical Innovation's non-mandatory model of clinical networks to investigate the factors that contribute to the success of clinical networks. METHODS/DESIGN: The objective of this retrospective study is to examine the association between external support, organisational and program factors, and indicators of success among 19 clinical networks over a three-year period (2006-2008). The outcomes (health impact, system impact, programs implemented, engagement, user perception, and financial leverage) and explanatory factors will be collected using a web-based survey, interviews, and record review. An independent expert panel will provide judgements about the impact or extent of each network's initiatives on health and system impacts. The ratings of the expert panel will be the outcome used in multivariable analyses. Following the rating of network success, a qualitative study will be conducted to provide a more in-depth examination of the most successful networks. DISCUSSION: This is the first study to combine quantitative and qualitative methods to examine the factors that contribute to the success of clinical networks and, more generally, is the largest study of clinical networks undertaken. The adaptation of expert panel methods to rate the impacts of networks is the methodological innovation of this study. The proposed project will identify the conditions that should be established or encouraged by agencies developing clinical networks and will be of immediate use in forming strategies and programs to maximise the effectiveness of such networks.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Designing payments for GPs to improve the quality of diabetes care
    Scott, A ; Harris, MF (WILEY, 2012-01-16)
    Three features are essential in designing the flexible funding payments and pay-for-performance elements.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    How do rural GPs' workloads and work activities differ with community size compared with metropolitan practice?
    McGrail, MR ; Humphreys, JS ; Joyce, CM ; Scott, A ; Kalb, G (CSIRO PUBLISHING, 2012-01-01)
    Rural communities continue to experience shortages of doctors, placing increased work demands on the existing rural medical workforce. This paper investigates patterns of geographical variation in the workload and work activities of GPs by community size. Our data comes from wave 1 of the Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life longitudinal study, a national study of Australian doctors. Self-reported hours worked per usual week across eight workplace settings and on-call/ after-hours workload per usual week were analysed against seven community size categories. Our results showed that a GP's total hours worked per week consistently increases as community size decreases, ranging from 38.6 up to 45.6h in small communities, with most differences attributable to work activities of rural GPs in public hospitals. Higher on-call workload is also significantly associated with smaller rural communities, with the likelihood of GPs attending more than one callout per week ranging from 9% for metropolitan GPs up to 48-58% in small rural communities. Our study is the first to separate hours worked into different work activities whilst adjusting for community size and demographics, providing significantly greater insight to the increased hours worked, more diverse activities and significant after-hours demands experienced by current rural GPs.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    International medical graduates mandated to practise in rural Australia are highly unsatisfied: Results from a national survey of doctors
    McGrail, MR ; Humphreys, JS ; Joyce, CM ; Scott, A (ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2012-12-01)
    OBJECTIVES: Rural communities worldwide are increasingly reliant on international medical graduates (IMGs) to provide health care access, with many countries utilising health policies which mandate IMGs to practise only in rural designated areas of (medical) workforce shortage for many years. The objective of this study is to analyse the satisfaction of IMGs in their current work location, particularly in relation to the effect of mandating IMGs to small rural communities. METHODS: We used data of 3502 general practitioners (GPs) from Wave 2 of the Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) longitudinal study of Australian doctors. The main outcome measures were the level of professional and non-professional satisfaction expressed by GPs with respect to various job and social aspects. RESULTS: We found that non-professional satisfaction of mandated IMGs was significantly lower across all social aspects, whilst professional satisfaction was also significantly lower for most job aspects relating to their professional autonomy. In contrast, non-mandated IMGs were similarly satisfied compared to Australian trained GPs. CONCLUSIONS: Mandated IMGs are currently filling a critical shortage in rural areas of Australia. However, long-term success of this policy is problematic unless outstanding issues affecting their significantly reduced professional and non-professional satisfaction can be addressed.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Junior doctors' preferences for specialty choice
    Sivey, P ; Scott, A ; Witt, J ; Joyce, C ; Humphreys, J (ELSEVIER, 2012-12-01)
    A number of studies suggest that there is an over-supply of specialists and an under-supply of general practitioners in many developed countries. Previous econometric studies of specialty choice from the US suggest that although income plays a role, other non-pecuniary factors may be important. This paper presents a novel application of a choice experiment to identify the effects of expected future earnings and other attributes on specialty choice. We find the implied marginal wage estimated from our discrete choice model is close to the actual wages of senior specialists, but much higher than those of senior GPs. In a policy simulation we find that increasing GPs' earnings by $50,000, or increasing opportunities for procedural or academic work can increase the number of junior doctors choosing general practice by between 8 and 13 percentage points. The simulation implies an earnings elasticity of specialty choice of 0.95.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Who should receive recruitment and retention incentives? Improved targeting of rural doctors using medical workforce data
    Humphreys, JS ; McGrail, MR ; Joyce, CM ; Scott, A ; Kalb, G (WILEY, 2012-02-01)
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to define an improved classification for allocating incentives to support the recruitment and retention of doctors in rural Australia. DESIGN AND SETTING: Geo-coded data (n = 3636 general practitioners (GPs)) from the national Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life study were used to examine statistical variation in four professional indicators (total hours worked, public hospital work, on call after-hours and difficulty taking time off) and two non-professional indicators (partner employment and schooling opportunities) which are all known to be related to difficulties with recruitment and retention. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measure used for the study was an association of six sentinel indicators for GPs with practice location and population size of community. RESULTS: Four distinct homogeneous population size groups were identified (0-5000, 5001-15,000, 15,001-50,000 and >50,000). Although geographical remoteness (measured using the Australian Standard Geographical Classification-Remoteness Areas (ASGC-RA)) was statistically associated with all six indicators (P < 0.001), population size provided a more sensitive measure in directing where recruitment and retention incentives should be provided. A new six-level rurality classification is proposed, based on a combination of four population size groups and the five ASGC-RA levels. A significant increase in statistical association is measured in four of six indicators (and a slight increase in one indicator) using the new six-level classification versus the existing ASGC-RA classification. CONCLUSIONS: This new six-level geographical classification provides a better basis for equitable resource allocation of recruitment and retention incentives to doctors based on the attractiveness of non-metropolitan communities, both professionally and non-professionally, as places to work and live.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Getting Doctors into the Bush: General Practitioners' Preferences for Rural Location
    Scott, A ; Witt, J ; Humphreys, J ; Joyce, C ; Kalb, GR ; Jeon, S ; McGrail, M (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, 2012)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    WHAT FACTORS INFLUENCE THE EARNINGS OF GENERAL PRACTITIONERS AND MEDICAL SPECIALISTS? EVIDENCE FROM THE MEDICINE IN AUSTRALIA: BALANCING EMPLOYMENT AND LIFE SURVEY
    Cheng, TC ; Scott, A ; Jeon, S-H ; Kalb, G ; Humphreys, J ; Joyce, C (WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2012-11-01)
    To date, there has been little data or empirical research on the determinants of doctors' earnings despite earnings having an important role in influencing the cost of health care, decisions on workforce participation and labour supply. This paper examines the determinants of annual earnings of general practitioners (GPs) and specialists using the first wave of the Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life, a new longitudinal survey of doctors. For both GPs and specialists, earnings are higher for men, for those who are self-employed and for those who do after-hours or on-call work. GPs have higher earnings if they work in larger practices, in outer regional or rural areas, and in areas with lower GP density, whereas specialists earn more if they have more working experience, spend more time in clinical work and have less complex patients. Decomposition analysis shows that the mean earnings of GPs are lower than that of specialists because GPs work fewer hours, are more likely to be female, are less likely to undertake after-hours or on-call work, and have lower returns to experience. Roughly 50% of the income gap between GPs and specialists is explained by differences in unobserved characteristics and returns to those characteristics.