Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research - Research Publications

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    Moves to a basic income-flat tax system in Australia: implications for the distribution of income and supply of labour
    SCUTELLA, R (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, 2004)
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    Understanding and Improving Data Quality Relating to Low-Income Households
    JOHNSON, DT ; SCUTELLA, R (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, 2003)
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    Effects of the Australian new tax system on government expenditure with and without behavioural changes
    Kalb, G. R. ; Kew, H. ; Scutella, R. ( 2003-04)
    This paper uses the Melbourne Institute Tax and Transfer Simulator to examine the effects of the New Tax System introduced in Australia in July 2000. First the whole set of changes is studied and then some of its components are discussed separately. From the results it is clear that the change in income tax rates and thresholds had the largest effect, because it affected a large proportion of the population whereas the changes to the benefit system are only relevant to smaller groups. Families with children benefited on average most from the changes, firstly through the changes in income taxes and secondly through the changes in Family Payments. However, families with children were also more likely to experience a loss indicating a wider range of positive and negative outcomes for this group.
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    Wage and employment rates in New Zealand from 1991 to 2001
    Kalb, G ; Scutella, R (Taylor & Francis, 2004-01-01)
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    Work and family directions in the USA and australia: A policy research agenda
    Drago, R ; Pirretti, A ; Scutella, R (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2007-02-01)
    This article provides a comparative glimpse of work/family issues in Australia and the USA. It begins with a summary of an emerging vision of ideal policies and practices for work and family. The article then provides historical background for the recent emergence of a ‘care gap’ in both countries, focusing on key commonalities and differences. The current status of the gap and the related ‘default solution’ to the gap are then outlined. Key commonalities here include an increasing diversity of family forms, a rise in delayed and denied childbearing, and substantial gender inequality. Significant current divergence across the societies includes relatively more family-responsive governmental policies in Australia, more attractive part-time opportunities for mothers in Australia, a relatively more equal division of labor in the home in the USA, a greater prevalence of corporate-sponsored work/family policies in the USA, and greater coverage of Australian employees by work/family policies negotiated through enterprise agreements. A tentative research agenda is provided in conclusion, focusing on part-time employment options, work incentives and childcare for single parents, the causes of delayed and denied childbearing, and enterprise bargaining and corporate policies.
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    Consumer Sentiment and Australian Consumer Spending
    Loundes, J. ; Scutella, R. ( 2000-11)
    There is a growing literature that seeks to analyse the relationship between consumer sentiment and economic variables, primarily because of the pervasive belief that consumers' opinions and expectations can influence the direction of-or signal changes in the direction of-the economy. There has been little previous empirical work on Australian consumer sentiment, either in determining its explanatory power, or examining the factors that influence consumer sentiment. This research aims to fill part of this gap by providing a clearer understanding of the relationship between consumer attitudes and 'real' economic variables. Specifically, the predictive power of the consumer sentiment index for consumption will be examined using the methods proposed in Carroll, Fuhrer and Wilcox (1994). Private consumption expenditure accounts for a large proportion of GDP; hence, early detection of possible shifts in consumer spending could assist policy makers in smoothing out the business cycle. Our results suggest that the causal relationship between consumption and sentiment in Australia is more complicated than what Carroll et al suggest, and that the behaviour of consumption in Australia looks more like the permanent income hypothesis than it does in the US.
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    Estimation of wage equations in Australia: allowing for censored observations of labour supply
    Kalb, G. R. ; Scutella, R. ( 2002-05)
    This paper presents results for five separately estimated sets of participation and wage equations. The Australian working-age population is divided into sole parents, single men, single women, married men and married women. The approach in this paper takes the censoring of labour supply observations at 50 hours per week into account. The results for the wage equations are as anticipated with education, work experience and age increasing the expected wage. As expected, allowing for the censoring of labour supply reduces the predicted wage levels, particularly for married men who are most likely to work 50 hours or more.
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    The effects of household joblessness on mental health
    Scutella, R ; Wooden, M (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2008-07-01)
    It is widely assumed that the economic and social costs that unemployment gives rise to must be exacerbated where joblessness is concentrated within families. This hypothesis is tested in this paper. Specifically, data from the first five waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey (HILDA), a nationally representative household panel survey administered in Australia, are used to test whether jobless individuals score worse on a measure of mental health when they live in households with other jobless people. Consistent with previous research, unemployment is found to be associated with lower levels of mental health. No evidence, however, can be found for any additional disadvantage to the unemployed stemming from living in a jobless household.
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    Measuring Poverty and Social Exclusion in Australia: A Proposed Multidimensional Framework for Identifying Socio-Economic Disadvantage
    SCUTELLA, R ; WILKINS, R ; Michael, (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, 2009)