Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research - Research Publications
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ItemThe "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL)" longitudinal survey - Protocol and baseline data for a prospective cohort study of Australian doctors' workforce participationJoyce, CM ; Scott, A ; Jeon, S-H ; Humphreys, J ; Kalb, G ; Witt, J ; Leahy, A (BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2010-02-25)BACKGROUND: While there is considerable research on medical workforce supply trends, there is little research examining the determinants of labour supply decisions for the medical workforce. The "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL)" study investigates workforce participation patterns and their determinants using a longitudinal survey of Australian doctors. It aims to generate evidence to support developing effective policy responses to workforce issues such as shortages and maldistribution. This paper describes the study protocol and baseline cohort, including an analysis of response rates and response bias. METHODS/DESIGN: MABEL is a prospective cohort study. All Australian doctors undertaking clinical work in 2008 (n = 54,750) were invited to participate, and annual waves of data collections will be undertaken until at least 2011. Data are collected by paper or optional online version of a questionnaire, with content tailored to four sub-groups of clinicians: general practitioners, specialists, specialists in training, and hospital non-specialists. In the baseline wave, data were collected on: job satisfaction, attitudes to work and intentions to quit or change hours worked; a discrete choice experiment examining preferences and trade-offs for different types of jobs; work setting; workload; finances; geographic location; demographics; and family circumstances. DISCUSSION: The baseline cohort includes 10,498 Australian doctors, representing an overall response rate of 19.36%. This includes 3,906 general practitioners, 4,596 specialists, 1,072 specialists in training, and 924 hospital non-specialists. Respondents were more likely to be younger, female, and to come from non-metropolitan areas, the latter partly reflecting the effect of a financial incentive on response for doctors in remote and rural areas. Specialists and specialists in training were more likely to respond, whilst hospital non-specialists were less likely to respond. The distribution of hours worked was similar between respondents and data from national medical labour force statistics. The MABEL survey provides a large, representative cohort of Australian doctors. It enables investigation of the determinants of doctors' decisions about how much, where and in what circumstances they practice, and of changes in these over time. MABEL is intended to provide an important resource for policy makers and other stakeholders in the Australian medical workforce.
ItemPHYSICIAN LABOUR SUPPLY IN CANADA: A COHORT ANALYSISCrossley, TF ; Hurley, J ; Jeon, S-H (WILEY, 2009-04-01)This paper employs a cohort analysis to examine the relative importance of different factors in explaining changes in the number of hours spent in direct patient care by Canadian general/family practitioners (GPs) over the period 1982-2003. Cohorts are defined by year of graduation from medical school. The results for male GPs indicate that there is little age effect on hours of direct patient care, especially among physicians aged 35-55, there is no strong cohort effect on hours of direct patient care, but there is a secular decline in hours of direct patient care over the period. The results for female GPs indicate that female physicians on average work fewer hours than male physicians, there is a clear age effect on hours of direct patient care, there is no strong cohort effect, and there has been little secular change in average hours of direct patient care. The changing behaviour of male GPs accounted for a greater proportion of the overall decline in hours of direct patient care from the 1980s through the mid-1990 s than did the growing proportion of female GPs in the physician stock.
ItemJoint Taxation and the Labour Supply of Married Women: Evidence from the Canadian Tax Reform of 1988CROSSLEY, F ; JEON, S ( 2007)
ItemEstimating the price elasticity of expenditure for prescription drugs in the presence of non-linear price schedules: an illustration from Quebec, CanadaContoyannis, P ; Hurley, J ; Grootendorst, P ; Jeon, SH ; Tamblyn, R (WILEY, 2005-09-01)The price elasticity of demand for prescription drugs is a crucial parameter of interest in designing pharmaceutical benefit plans. Estimating the elasticity using micro-data, however, is challenging because insurance coverage that includes deductibles, co-insurance provisions and maximum expenditure limits create a non-linear price schedule, making price endogenous (a function of drug consumption). In this paper we exploit an exogenous change in cost-sharing within the Quebec (Canada) public Pharmacare program to estimate the price elasticity of expenditure for drugs using IV methods. This approach corrects for the endogeneity of price and incorporates the concept of a 'rational' consumer who factors into consumption decisions the price they expect to face at the margin given their expected needs. The IV method is adapted from an approach developed in the public finance literature used to estimate income responses to changes in tax schedules. The instrument is based on the price an individual would face under the new cost-sharing policy if their consumption remained at the pre-policy level. Our preferred specification leads to expenditure elasticities that are in the low range of previous estimates (between -0.12 and -0.16). Naïve OLS estimates are between 1 and 4 times these magnitudes.