Medical Bionics - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 10
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Association between hemorrhagic transformation after endovascular therapy and poststroke seizures
    Thevathasan, A ; Naylor, J ; Churilov, L ; Mitchell, PJ ; Dowling, RJ ; Yan, B ; Kwan, P (WILEY, 2018-02-01)
    OBJECTIVE: Endovascular therapy has recently become standard therapy for select patients with acute ischemic stroke. Infarcted brain tissue may undergo hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after endovascular therapy. We investigated the association between HT and occurrence of poststroke seizures in patients treated with endovascular therapy. METHODS: Consecutive patients treated with endovascular therapy for acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke were included. HT was assessed with computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) at 24 h after stroke onset. Patients were followed for up to 2 years for seizure occurrence. RESULTS: A total of 205 (57.1% male) patients were analyzed. Median age was 69 years (interquartile range [IQR] 57-78). Among patients with HT, 17.9% (10/56) developed poststroke seizures compared with 4.0% (6/149) among those without HT (hazard ratio [HR] 5.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.00-15.22; P = .001). The association remained significant after adjustment for cortical involvement, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, age and use of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and clot retrieval (HR 4.85; 95% CI 1.60-14.76; P = .005). In patients who developed seizures within the follow-up period, median time to first seizure was 111 days (IQR 28-369) in patients with HT and 36 days (IQR 0.5-183) in patients without HT. SIGNIFICANCE: A patient who develops HT following endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke had a nearly 5 times higher rate of developing poststroke seizures within 2 years. HT may be used as an imaging biomarker for poststroke seizures.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Pedunculopontine Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease: A Clinical Review
    Thevathasan, W ; Debu, B ; Aziz, T ; Bloem, BR ; Blahak, C ; Butson, C ; Czernecki, V ; Foltynie, T ; Fraix, V ; Grabli, D ; Joint, C ; Lozano, AM ; Okun, MS ; Ostrem, J ; Pavese, N ; Schrader, C ; Tai, C-H ; Krauss, JK ; Moro, E (WILEY, 2018-01-01)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Balance control systems in Parkinson's disease and the impact of pedunculopontine area stimulation
    Perera, T ; Tan, JL ; Cole, MH ; Yohanandan, SAC ; Silberstein, P ; Cook, R ; Peppard, R ; Aziz, T ; Coyne, T ; Brown, P ; Silburn, PA ; Thevathasan, W (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018-10-01)
    Impaired balance is a major contributor to falls and diminished quality of life in Parkinson's disease, yet the pathophysiology is poorly understood. Here, we assessed if patients with Parkinson's disease and severe clinical balance impairment have deficits in the intermittent and continuous control systems proposed to maintain upright stance, and furthermore, whether such deficits are potentially reversible, with the experimental therapy of pedunculopontine nucleus deep brain stimulation. Two subject groups were assessed: (i) 13 patients with Parkinson's disease and severe clinical balance impairment, implanted with pedunculopontine nucleus deep brain stimulators; and (ii) 13 healthy control subjects. Patients were assessed in the OFF medication state and blinded to two conditions; off and on pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation. Postural sway data (deviations in centre of pressure) were collected during quiet stance using posturography. Intermittent control of sway was assessed by calculating the frequency of intermittent switching behaviour (discontinuities), derived using a wavelet-based transformation of the sway time series. Continuous control of sway was assessed with a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller model using ballistic reaction time as a measure of feedback delay. Clinical balance impairment was assessed using the 'pull test' to rate postural reflexes and by rating attempts to arise from sitting to standing. Patients with Parkinson's disease demonstrated reduced intermittent switching of postural sway compared with healthy controls. Patients also had abnormal feedback gains in postural sway according to the PID model. Pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation improved intermittent switching of postural sway, feedback gains in the PID model and clinical balance impairment. Clinical balance impairment correlated with intermittent switching of postural sway (rho = - 0.705, P < 0.001) and feedback gains in the PID model (rho = 0.619, P = 0.011). These results suggest that dysfunctional intermittent and continuous control systems may contribute to the pathophysiology of clinical balance impairment in Parkinson's disease. Clinical balance impairment and their related control system deficits are potentially reversible, as demonstrated by their improvement with pedunculopontine nucleus deep brain stimulation.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    A block to pre-prepared movement in gait freezing, relieved by pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation
    Thevathasan, W ; Pogosyan, A ; Hyam, JA ; Jenkinson, N ; Bogdanovic, M ; Coyne, TJ ; Silburn, PA ; Aziz, TZ ; Brown, P (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2011-07-01)
    Gait freezing and postural instability are disabling features of Parkinsonian disorders, treatable with pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation. Both features are considered deficits of proximal and axial musculature, innervated predominantly by reticulospinal pathways and tend to manifest when gait and posture require adjustment. Adjustments to gait and posture are amenable to pre-preparation and rapid triggered release. Experimentally, such accelerated release can be elicited by loud auditory stimuli--a phenomenon known as 'StartReact'. We observed StartReact in healthy and Parkinsonian controls. However, StartReact was absent in Parkinsonian patients with severe gait freezing and postural instability. Pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation restored StartReact proximally and proximal reaction times to loud stimuli correlated with gait and postural disturbance. These findings suggest a relative block to triggered, pre-prepared movement in gait freezing and postural instability, relieved by pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    A spatiotemporal analysis of gait freezing and the impact of pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation
    Thevathasan, W ; Cole, MH ; Graepel, CL ; Hyam, JA ; Jenkinson, N ; Brittain, J-S ; Coyne, TJ ; Silburn, PA ; Aziz, TZ ; Kerr, G ; Brown, P (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2012-05-01)
    Gait freezing is an episodic arrest of locomotion due to an inability to take normal steps. Pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation is an emerging therapy proposed to improve gait freezing, even where refractory to medication. However, the efficacy and precise effects of pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation on Parkinsonian gait disturbance are not established. The clinical application of this new therapy is controversial and it is unknown if bilateral stimulation is more effective than unilateral. Here, in a double-blinded study using objective spatiotemporal gait analysis, we assessed the impact of unilateral and bilateral pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation on triggered episodes of gait freezing and on background deficits of unconstrained gait in Parkinson's disease. Under experimental conditions, while OFF medication, Parkinsonian patients with severe gait freezing implanted with pedunculopontine nucleus stimulators below the pontomesencephalic junction were assessed during three conditions; off stimulation, unilateral stimulation and bilateral stimulation. Results were compared to Parkinsonian patients without gait freezing matched for disease severity and healthy controls. Pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation improved objective measures of gait freezing, with bilateral stimulation more effective than unilateral. During unconstrained walking, Parkinsonian patients who experience gait freezing had reduced step length and increased step length variability compared to patients without gait freezing; however, these deficits were unchanged by pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation. Chronic pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation improved Freezing of Gait Questionnaire scores, reflecting a reduction of the freezing encountered in patients' usual environments and medication states. This study provides objective, double-blinded evidence that in a specific subgroup of Parkinsonian patients, stimulation of a caudal pedunculopontine nucleus region selectively improves gait freezing but not background deficits in step length. Bilateral stimulation was more effective than unilateral.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Deep brain stimulation can suppress pathological synchronisation in parkinsonian patients
    Eusebio, A ; Thevathasan, W ; Gaynor, LD ; Pogosyan, A ; Bye, E ; Foltynie, T ; Zrinzo, L ; Ashkan, K ; Aziz, T ; Brown, P (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2011-05-01)
    BACKGROUND: Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a highly effective therapeutic intervention in severe Parkinson's disease, its mechanism of action remains unclear. One possibility is that DBS suppresses local pathologically synchronised oscillatory activity. METHODS: To explore this, the authors recorded from DBS electrodes implanted in the STN of 16 patients with Parkinson's disease during simultaneous stimulation (pulse width 60 μs; frequency 130 Hz) of the same target using a specially designed amplifier. The authors analysed data from 25 sides. RESULTS: The authors found that DBS progressively suppressed peaks in local field potential activity at frequencies between 11 and 30 Hz as voltage was increased beyond a stimulation threshold of 1.5 V. Median peak power had fallen to 54% of baseline values by a stimulation intensity of 3.0 V. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that DBS can suppress pathological 11-30 Hz activity in the vicinity of stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease. This suppression occurs at stimulation voltages that are clinically effective.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Alpha oscillations in the pedunculopontine nucleus correlate with gait performance in parkinsonism
    Thevathasan, W ; Pogosyan, A ; Hyam, JA ; Jenkinson, N ; Foltynie, T ; Limousin, P ; Bogdanovic, M ; Zrinzo, L ; Green, AL ; Aziz, TZ ; Brown, P (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2012-01-01)
    The pedunculopontine nucleus, a component of the reticular formation, is topographically organized in animal models and implicated in locomotor control. In Parkinson's disease, pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation is an emerging treatment for gait freezing. Local field potentials recorded from pedunculopontine nucleus electrodes in such patients have demonstrated oscillations in the alpha and beta frequency bands, reactive to self-paced movement. Whether these oscillations are topographically organized or relevant to locomotion is unknown. Here, we recorded local field potentials from the pedunculopontine nucleus in parkinsonian patients during rest and unconstrained walking. Relative gait speed was assessed with trunk accelerometry. Peaks of alpha power were present at rest and during gait, when they correlated with gait speed. Gait freezing was associated with attenuation of alpha activity. Beta peaks were less consistently observed across rest and gait, and did not correlate with gait speed. Alpha power was maximal in the caudal pedunculopontine nucleus region and beta power was maximal rostrally. These results indicate a topographic distribution of neuronal activity in the pedunculopontine nucleus region and concur with animal data suggesting that the caudal subregion has particular relevance to gait. Alpha synchronization, proposed to suppress 'task irrelevant' distraction, has previously been demonstrated to correlate with performance of cognitive tasks. Here, we demonstrate a correlation between alpha oscillations and improved gait performance. The results raise the possibility that stimulation of caudal and rostral pedunculopontine nucleus regions may differ in their clinical effects.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Tremor Reduction by Deep Brain Stimulation Is Associated With Gamma Power Suppression in Parkinson's Disease
    Beudel, M ; Little, S ; Pogosyan, A ; Ashkan, K ; Foltynie, T ; Limousin, P ; Zrinzo, L ; Hariz, M ; Bogdanovic, M ; Cheeran, B ; Green, AL ; Aziz, T ; Thevathasan, W ; Brown, P (WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2015-07-01)
    OBJECTIVES: Rest tremor is a cardinal symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD), and is readily suppressed by deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). The therapeutic effect of the latter on bradykinesia and rigidity has been associated with the suppression of exaggerated beta (13-30 Hz) band synchronization in the vicinity of the stimulating electrode, but there is no correlation between beta suppression and tremor amplitude. In the present study, we investigate whether tremor suppression is related to suppression of activities at other frequencies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recorded hand tremor and contralateral local field potential (LFP) activity from DBS electrodes during stimulation of the STN in 15 hemispheres in 11 patients with PD. DBS was applied with increasing voltages starting at 0.5 V until tremor suppression was achieved or until 4.5 V was reached. RESULTS: Tremor was reduced to 48.9% ± 10.9% of that without DBS once stimulation reached 2.5-3 V (t14 = -4.667, p < 0.001). There was a parallel suppression of low gamma (31-45 Hz) power to 92.5% ± 3% (t14 = -2.348, p = 0.034). This was not seen over a band containing tremor frequencies and their harmonic (4-12 Hz), or over the beta band. Moreover, low gamma power correlated with tremor severity (mean r = 0.43 ± 0.14, p = 0.008) within subjects. This was not the case for LFP power in the other two bands. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support a relationship between low gamma oscillations and PD tremor, and reinforce the principle that the subthalamic LFP is a rich signal that may contain information about the severity of multiple different Parkinsonian features.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Functional Connectivity of the Pedunculopontine Nucleus and Surrounding Region in Parkinson's Disease
    Jha, A ; Litvak, V ; Taulu, S ; Thevathasan, W ; Hyam, JA ; Foltynie, T ; Limousin, P ; Bogdanovic, M ; Zrinzo, L ; Green, AL ; Aziz, TZ ; Friston, K ; Brown, P (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2017-01-01)
    Deep brain stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus and surrounding region (PPNR) is a novel treatment strategy for gait freezing in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, clinical results have been variable, in part because of the paucity of functional information that might help guide selection of the optimal surgical target. In this study, we use simultaneous magnetoencephalography and local field recordings from the PPNR in seven PD patients, to characterize functional connectivity with distant brain areas at rest. The PPNR was preferentially coupled to brainstem and cingulate regions in the alpha frequency (8-12 Hz) band and to the medial motor strip and neighboring areas in the beta (18-33 Hz) band. The distribution of coupling also depended on the vertical distance of the electrode from the pontomesencephalic line: most effects being greatest in the middle PPNR, which may correspond to the caudal pars dissipata of the pedunculopontine nucleus. These observations confirm the crucial position of the PPNR as a functional node between cortical areas such as the cingulate/ medial motor strip and other brainstem nuclei, particularly in the dorsal pons. In particular they suggest a special role for the middle PPNR as this has the greatest functional connectivity with other brain regions.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation evokes resonant neural activity
    Sinclair, NC ; McDermott, HJ ; Bulluss, KJ ; Fallon, JB ; Perera, T ; Xu, SS ; Brown, P ; Thevathasan, W (WILEY, 2018-05-01)
    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a rapidly expanding treatment for neurological and psychiatric conditions; however, a target-specific biomarker is required to optimize therapy. Here, we show that DBS evokes a large-amplitude resonant neural response focally in the subthalamic nucleus. This response is greatest in the dorsal region (the clinically optimal stimulation target for Parkinson disease), coincides with improved clinical performance, is chronically recordable, and is present under general anesthesia. These features make it a readily utilizable electrophysiological signal that could potentially be used for guiding electrode implantation surgery and tailoring DBS therapy to improve patient outcomes. Ann Neurol 2018;83:1027-1031.