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ItemNo Preview AvailableThe Antarctic ozone hole during 2013Klekociuk, AR ; Krummel, PB ; Tully, MB ; Gies, HP ; Alexander, SP ; Fraser, PJ ; Henderson, SI ; Javorniczky, J ; Shanklin, JD ; Schofield, R ; Stone, KA (Australian Bureau of Meteorology, 2015-01-01)We review the 2013 Antarctic ozone hole, making use of various ground-based, in-situ and remotely-sensed ozone measurements, ground-based measurements of ultraviolet radiation and meteorological reanalyses. Based on analysis of 34 years of satellite records spanning 1979-2013 (which excludes 1995), we find that in terms of maximum area, minimum ozone level and total ozone deficit, the ozone hole in 2013 was typical of other years of moderate ozone loss. The estimated integrated ozone mass effectively depleted within the ozone hole of 2013 was approximately 1037 Mt, which was the 17th largest deficit on record and 41% of the peak deficit observed in 2006. Anomalously cold winter temper-atures in the lower stratosphere over Antarctica and concurrent strong and stable vortex conditions favoured the potential for strong ozone depletion in 2013. However, anomalous warming of the polar vortex that occurred from late Au-gust limited the overall severity of ozone depletion during spring, and resulted in the relatively early breakup of the ozone hole in mid-November.
ItemNo Preview AvailableA new Dobson Umkehr ozone profile retrieval method optimising information content and resolutionStone, K ; Tully, MB ; Rhodes, SK ; Schofield, R (European Geosciences Union, 2015-03-04)The standard Dobson Umkehr methodology to retrieve coarse-resolution ozone profiles used by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration uses designated solar zenith angles (SZAs). However, some information may be lost if measurements lie outside the designated SZA range (between 60° and 90°), or do not conform to the fitting technique. Also, while Umkehr measurements can be taken using multiple wavelength pairs (A, C and D), past retrieval methods have focused on a single pair (C). Here we present an Umkehr inversion method that uses measurements at all SZAs (termed operational) and all wavelength pairs. (Although, we caution direct comparison to other algorithms.) Information content for a Melbourne, Australia (38° S, 145° E) Umkehr measurement case study from 28 January 1994, with SZA range similar to that designated in previous algorithms is shown. When comparing the typical single wavelength pair with designated SZAs to the operational measurements, the total degrees of freedom (independent pieces of information) increases from 3.1 to 3.4, with the majority of the information gain originating from Umkehr layers 2 + 3 and 4 (10-20 km and 25-30 km respectively). In addition to this, using all available wavelength pairs increases the total degrees of freedom to 5.2, with the most significant increases in Umkehr layers 2 + 3 to 7 and 9+ (10-40 and 45-80 km). Investigating a case from 13 April 1970 where the measurements extend beyond the 90° SZA range gives further information gain, with total degrees of freedom extending to 6.5. Similar increases are seen in the information content. Comparing the retrieved Melbourne Umkehr time series with ozonesondes shows excellent agreement in layers 2 + 3 and 4 (10-20 and 25-30 km) for both C and A + C + D-pairs. Retrievals in layers 5 and 6 (25-30 and 30-35 km) consistently show lower ozone partial column compared to ozonesondes. This is likely due to stray light effects that are not accounted for in the forward model, and under represented stratospheric aerosol.
ItemNo Preview AvailableThe Antarctic ozone hole during 2012Klekociuk, AR ; Tully, MB ; Krummel, PB ; Gies, HP ; Alexander, SP ; Fraser, PJ ; Henderson, SI ; Javorniczky, J ; Petelina, SV ; Shanklin, JD ; Schofield, R ; Stone, KA (AUSTRALIAN BUREAU METEOROLOGY, 2014)