School of Mathematics and Statistics - Research Publications

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    Peri-operative lidocaine infusion for open radical prostatectomy - a reply
    Weinberg, L ; Story, D ; Gordon, I ; Christophi, C (WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2016-10-01)
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    Taking the aRghhhh out of teaching statistics with R: Using R Markdown
    Finch, S ; Gordon, I ; Patrick, C (WILEY, 2021-07-01)
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    Meta -analysis of average change in laboratory-measured HbA1c among people with type 1 diabetes mellitus using the 14 day Flash Glucose Monitoring System
    Gordon, I ; Rutherford, C ; Makarounas-Kirchmann, K ; Kirchmann, M (ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2020-06-01)
    AIM: FreeStyle Libre™ Flash Glucose Monitoring System (Flash GM), a novel, sensor-based, factory-calibrated system has been compared with self-monitoring of blood glucose in a well-controlled adult type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) population (HbA1c ≤ 7.5%, 58 mmol/mol), in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). The need for RCTs to recruit homogenous patients and for a well-controlled environment may not necessarily reflect use of a new technology in real clinical practice. METHODS: A random effects meta-analysis of all identified studies in T1D was performed to investigate changes in laboratory-measured HbA1c following introduction of Flash GM. RESULTS: Flash GM introduction showed a mean change from baseline to longest follow-up timepoint of -0.41% ([95% CI -0.51%, -0.31%]; P < 0.001; -4.5 [95% CI -5.6, -3.3] mmol/mol) in HbA1c in the random effects meta-analysis (34 studies comprising 5,466 participants). When the Flash GM arms of the two RCTs were excluded, there was a similar change in HbA1c of -0.41% ([95% CI -0.50%, -0.32%], P < 0.001; -4.5 [95% CI -5.4, -3.5] mmol/mol) in the 32 uncontrolled studies. Considerable heterogeneity was shown in all meta-analyses (I2 values > 85%), likely due to the inclusion of diverse populations and variations in study protocols, meaning random effects meta-analyses should be strongly preferred. CONCLUSIONS: In people with T1D, use of Flash GM for 2 to 24 months was associated with an estimated HbA1c reduction from baseline of 0.4%. A similar reduction occurred in uncontrolled studies where baseline HbA1c was generally higher compared with Flash GM arms of well-controlled studies.
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    CERVICAL CYTOLOGY REPORTED AS NEGATIVE AND RISK OF ADENOCARCINOMA OF THE CERVIX - NO STRONG EVIDENCE OF BENEFIT
    MITCHELL, H ; MEDLEY, G ; GORDON, I ; GILES, G (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 1995-04-01)
    The relationship between negative cervical cytology reports and risk of adenocarcinoma of the cervix was evaluated in a case-control study of 113 cases and 452 controls. All cases and controls had received at least two negative cytology reports. There was no significant difference between the cases and controls in the number of negative cytology reports or in history of cervical abnormality; while a test for trend in the time since last negative cytology report was significant (P < 0.001), the estimated benefit was very modest. Although the estimates of relative protection were higher in women aged less than 35 years than in women aged 35-69 years, this difference was not statistically significant. These results suggest that cervical screening as practised in the 1970s and 1980s was much less effective in preventing adenocarcinoma than squamous carcinoma of the cervix.
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    Positive airway pressure for sleep-disordered breathing in acute quadriplegia: a randomised controlled trial
    Berlowitz, DJ ; Schembri, R ; Graco, M ; Ross, JM ; Ayas, N ; Gordon, I ; Lee, B ; Graham, A ; Cross, SV ; McClelland, M ; Kennedy, P ; Thumbikat, P ; Bennett, C ; Townson, A ; Geraghty, TJ ; Pieri-Davies, S ; Singhal, R ; Marshall, K ; Short, D ; Nunn, A ; Mortimer, D ; Brown, D ; Pierce, RJ ; Cistulli, PA ; Acland, R ; Alexander, JL ; Backwell, AE ; Booker, L ; Chowdhury, JR ; Davies, A ; Duce, B ; Dytor, R ; Fox, N ; Allen, AJH ; Hislop, DM ; Jones, R ; Jones, T ; Li, C ; Leigh, M ; Leighton, S ; MacLellan, L ; Middleton, V ; Millard, MS ; Nier, L ; O'Keeffe, L ; Osman, A ; Patti, J ; Pick, V ; Ruehland, WR ; Spong, J ; Sutherland, K ; Van Lit, AM ; Whittall, C (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-03-01)
    RATIONALE: Highly prevalent and severe sleep-disordered breathing caused by acute cervical spinal cord injury (quadriplegia) is associated with neurocognitive dysfunction and sleepiness and is likely to impair rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether 3 months of autotitrating CPAP would improve neurocognitive function, sleepiness, quality of life, anxiety and depression more than usual care in acute quadriplegia. METHODS AND MEASUREMENTS: Multinational, randomised controlled trial (11 centres) from July 2009 to October 2015. The primary outcome was neurocognitive (attention and information processing as measure with the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task). Daytime sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) was a priori identified as the most important secondary outcome. MAIN RESULTS: 1810 incident cases were screened. 332 underwent full, portable polysomnography, 273 of whom had an apnoea hypopnoea index greater than 10. 160 tolerated at least 4 hours of CPAP during a 3-day run-in and were randomised. 149 participants (134 men, age 46±34 years, 81±57 days postinjury) completed the trial. CPAP use averaged 2.9±2.3 hours per night with 21% fully 'adherent' (at least 4 hours use on 5 days per week). Intention-to-treat analyses revealed no significant differences between groups in the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (mean improvement of 2.28, 95% CI -7.09 to 11.6; p=0.63). Controlling for premorbid intelligence, age and obstructive sleep apnoea severity (group effect -1.15, 95% CI -10 to 7.7) did not alter this finding. Sleepiness was significantly improved by CPAP on intention-to-treat analysis (mean difference -1.26, 95% CI -2.2 to -0.32; p=0.01). CONCLUSION: CPAP did not improve Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task scores but significantly reduced sleepiness after acute quadriplegia. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12605000799651.
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    Response to physical rehabilitation and recovery trajectories following critical illness: individual participant data meta-analysis protocol
    Jones, JRA ; Berney, S ; Berry, MJ ; Files, DC ; Griffith, DM ; McDonald, LA ; Morris, PE ; Moss, M ; Nordon-Craft, A ; Walsh, T ; Gordon, I ; Karahalios, A ; Puthucheary, Z ; Denehy, L (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2020-05-01)
    INTRODUCTION: The number of inconclusive physical rehabilitation randomised controlled trials for patients with critical illness is increasing. Evidence suggests critical illness patient subgroups may exist that benefit from targeted physical rehabilitation interventions that could improve their recovery trajectory. We aim to identify critical illness patient subgroups that respond to physical rehabilitation and map recovery trajectories according to physical function and quality of life outcomes. Additionally, the utilisation of healthcare resources will be examined for subgroups identified. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is an individual participant data meta-analysis protocol. A systematic literature review was conducted for randomised controlled trials that delivered additional physical rehabilitation for patients with critical illness during their acute hospital stay, assessed chronic disease burden, with a minimum follow-up period of 3 months measuring performance-based physical function and health-related quality of life outcomes. From 2178 records retrieved in the systematic literature review, four eligible trials were identified by two independent reviewers. Principal investigators of eligible trials were invited to contribute their data to this individual participant data meta-analysis. Risk of bias will be assessed (Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomised trials). Participant and trial characteristics, interventions and outcomes data of included studies will be summarised. Meta-analyses will entail a one-stage model, which will account for the heterogeneity across and the clustering between studies. Multiple imputation using chained equations will be used to account for the missing data. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This individual participant data meta-analysis does not require ethical review as anonymised participant data will be used and no new data collected. Additionally, eligible trials were granted approval by institutional review boards or research ethics committees and informed consent was provided for participants. Data sharing agreements are in place permitting contribution of data. The study findings will be disseminated at conferences and through peer-reviewed publications. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019152526.
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    High-dimensional analyses reveal a distinct role of T-cell subsets in the immune microenvironment of gastric cancer
    Wang, M ; Huang, Y-K ; Kong, JCH ; Sun, Y ; Tantalo, DG ; Yeang, HXA ; Ying, L ; Yan, F ; Xu, D ; Halse, H ; Di Costanzo, N ; Gordon, IR ; Mitchell, C ; Mackay, LK ; Busuttil, RA ; Neeson, PJ ; Boussioutas, A (WILEY, 2020-05-01)
    OBJECTIVES: To facilitate disease prognosis and improve precise immunotherapy of gastric cancer (GC) patients, a comprehensive study integrating immune cellular and molecular analyses on tumor tissues and peripheral blood was performed. METHODS: The association of GC patients' outcomes and the immune context of their tumors was explored using multiplex immunohistochemistry (mIHC) and transcriptome profiling. Potential immune dysfunction mechanism/s in the tumors on the systemic level was further examined using mass cytometry (CyTOF) in complementary peripheral blood from selected patients. GC cohorts with mIHC and gene expression profiling data were also used as validation cohorts. RESULTS: Increased CD4+FOXP3+ T-cell density in the GC tumor correlated with prolonged survival. Interestingly, CD4+FOXP3+ T cells had a close interaction with CD8+ T cells rather than tumor cells. High densities of CD4+FOXP3+ T cells and CD8+ T cells (High-High) independently predicted prolonged patient survival. Furthermore, the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) gene signature and PDL1 expression were up-regulated in this group. Importantly, a subgroup of genomically stable (GS) tumors and tumors with chromosomal instability (CIN) within this High-High group also had excellent survival. The High-High GS/CIN tumors were coupled with increased frequencies of Tbet+CD4+ T cells and central memory CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood. CONCLUSION: These novel findings identify the combination of CD8+ T cells and FOXP3+CD4+ T cells as a significant prognostic marker for GC patients, which also could potentially be targeted and applied in the combination therapy with immune checkpoint blockades in precision medicine.
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    Multidisciplinary home-based rehabilitation in inoperable lung cancer: a randomised controlled trial
    Edbrooke, L ; Aranda, S ; Granger, CL ; McDonald, CF ; Krishnasamy, M ; Mileshkin, L ; Clark, RA ; Gordon, I ; Irving, L ; Denehy, L (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-08-01)
    BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and high symptom burden. This trial aimed to assess the efficacy of home-based rehabilitation versus usual care in inoperable lung cancer. METHODS: A parallel-group, assessor-blinded, allocation-concealed, randomised controlled trial. Eligible participants were allocated (1:1) to usual care (UC) plus 8 weeks of aerobic and resistance exercise with behaviour change strategies and symptom support (intervention group (IG)) or UC alone. Assessments occurred at baseline, 9 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcome, change in between-group 6 min walk distance (6MWD), was analysed using intention-to-treat (ITT). Subsequent analyses involved modified ITT (mITT) and included participants with at least one follow-up outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included HRQoL and symptoms. RESULTS: Ninety-two participants were recruited. Characteristics of participants (UC=47, IG=45): mean (SD) age 64 (12) years; men 55%; disease stage n (%) III=35 (38) and IV=48 (52); radical treatment 46%. There were no significant between-group differences for the 6MWD (n=92) at 9 weeks (p=0.308) or 6 months (p=0.979). The mITT analyses of 6MWD between-group differences were again non-significant (mean difference (95% CI): 9 weeks: -25.4 m (-64.0 to 13.3), p=0.198 and 6 months: 41.3 m (-26.7 to 109.4), p=0.232). Significant 6-month differences, favouring the IG, were found for HRQoL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung: 13.0 (3.9 to 22.1), p=0.005) and symptom severity (MD Anderson Symptom Inventory-Lung Cancer: -2.2 (-3.6 to -0.9), p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Home-based rehabilitation did not improve functional exercise capacity but there were improvements in patient-reported exploratory secondary outcomes measures observed at 6 months. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12614001268639).
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    Benefits of home-based multidisciplinary exercise and supportive care in inoperable non-small cell lung cancer - protocol for a phase II randomised controlled trial
    Edbrooke, L ; Aranda, S ; Granger, CL ; McDonald, CF ; Krishnasamy, M ; Mileshkin, L ; Irving, L ; Braat, S ; Clark, RA ; Gordon, I ; Denehy, L (BMC, 2017-09-29)
    BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers, and is a leading cause of cancer mortality world-wide. Due to lack of early specific symptoms, the majority of patients present with advanced, inoperable disease and five-year relative survival across all stages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is 14%. People with lung cancer also report higher levels of symptom distress than those with other forms of cancer. Several benefits for survival and patient reported outcomes are reported from physical activity and exercise in other tumour groups. We report the protocol for a study investigating the benefits of exercise, behaviour change and symptom self-management for patients with recently diagnosed, inoperable, NSCLC. METHODS: This multi-site, parallel-group, assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial, powered for superiority, aims to assess functional and patient-reported outcomes of a multi-disciplinary, home-based exercise and supportive care program for people commencing treatment. Ninety-two participants are being recruited from three tertiary-care hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Following baseline testing, participants are randomised using concealed allocation, to receive either: a) 8 weeks of home-based exercise (comprising an individualised endurance and resistance exercise program and behaviour change coaching) and nurse-delivered symptom self-management intervention or b) usual care. The primary outcome is the between-group difference in the change in functional exercise capacity (six-minute walk distance) from baseline to post-program assessment. Secondary outcomes include: objective and self-reported physical activity levels, physical activity self-efficacy, behavioural regulation of motivation to exercise and resilience, muscle strength (quadriceps and grip), health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression and symptom interference. DISCUSSION: There is a lack of evidence regarding the benefit of exercise intervention for people with NSCLC, particularly in those with inoperable disease receiving treatment. This trial will contribute to evidence currently being generated in national and international trials by implementing and evaluating a home-based program including three components not yet combined in previous research, for people with inoperable NSCLC receiving active treatment and involving longer-term follow-up of outcomes. This trial is ongoing and currently recruiting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was prospectively registered on the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12614001268639 : (4/12/14).