School of Mathematics and Statistics - Research Publications

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    Teaching Radial Endobronchial Ultrasound with a Three-Dimensional-printed Radial Ultrasound Model
    Ridgers, A ; Li, J ; Coles-Black, J ; Jiang, M ; Chen, G ; Chuen, J ; McDonald, CF ; Hepworth, G ; Steinfort, DP ; Irving, LB ; Wallbridge, P ; Jennings, BR ; Phan, N ; Leong, TL (AMER THORACIC SOC, 2021-12-01)
    BACKGROUND: Peripheral pulmonary lesion (PPL) incidence is rising because of increased chest imaging sensitivity and frequency. For PPLs suspicious for lung cancer, current clinical guidelines recommend tissue diagnosis. Radial endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS) is a bronchoscopic technique used for this purpose. It has been observed that diagnostic yield is impacted by the ability to accurately manipulate the radial probe. However, such skills can be acquired, in part, from simulation training. Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been used to produce training simulators for standard bronchoscopy but has not been specifically used to develop similar tools for R-EBUS. OBJECTIVE: We report the development of a novel ultrasound-compatible, anatomically accurate 3D-printed R-EBUS simulator and evaluation of its utility as a training tool. METHODS: Computed tomography images were used to develop 3D-printed airway models with ultrasound-compatible PPLs of "low" and "high" technical difficulty. Twenty-one participants were allocated to two groups matched for prior R-EBUS experience. The intervention group received 15 minutes to pretrain R-EBUS using a 3D-printed model, whereas the nonintervention group did not. Both groups then performed R-EBUS on 3D-printed models and were evaluated using a specifically developed assessment tool. RESULTS: For the "low-difficulty" model, the intervention group achieved a higher score (21.5 ± 2.02) than the nonintervention group (17.1 ± 5.7), reflecting 26% improvement in performance (P = 0.03). For the "high-difficulty" model, the intervention group scored 20.2 ± 4.21 versus 13.3 ± 7.36, corresponding to 52% improvement in performance (P = 0.02). Participants derived benefit from pretraining with the 3D-printed model, regardless of prior experience level. CONCLUSION: 3D-printing can be used to develop simulators for R-EBUS education. Training using these models significantly improves procedural performance and is effective in both novice and experienced trainees.
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    Home-based pulmonary rehabilitation early after hospitalisation in COPD (early HomeBase): protocol for a randomised controlled trial
    Cox, NS ; Lahham, A ; McDonald, CF ; Mahal, A ; O'Halloran, P ; Hepworth, G ; Spencer, L ; McNamara, RJ ; Bondarenko, J ; Macdonald, H ; Gavin, S ; Burge, AT ; Le Maitre, C ; Ringin, C ; Webb, E ; Nichols, A ; Tsai, L-L ; Luxton, N ; van Hilten, S ; Santos, M ; Crute, H ; Byrne, M ; Boursinos, H ; Broe, J ; Corbett, M ; Marceau, T ; Warrick, B ; Boote, C ; Melinz, J ; Holland, AE (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2021-11-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by exacerbations of respiratory disease, frequently requiring hospital admission. Pulmonary rehabilitation can reduce the likelihood of future hospitalisation, but programme uptake is poor. This study aims to compare hospital readmission rates, clinical outcomes and costs between people with COPD who undertake a home-based programme of pulmonary rehabilitation commenced early (within 2 weeks) of hospital discharge with usual care. METHODS: A multisite randomised controlled trial, powered for superiority, will be conducted in Australia. Eligible patients admitted to one of the participating sites for an exacerbation of COPD will be invited to participate. Participants will be randomised 1:1. Intervention group participants will undertake an 8-week programme of home-based pulmonary rehabilitation commencing within 2 weeks of hospital discharge. Control group participants will receive usual care and a weekly phone call for attention control. Outcomes will be measured by a blinded assessor at baseline, after the intervention (week 9-10 posthospital discharge), and at 12 months follow-up. The primary outcome is hospital readmission at 12 months follow-up. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Human Research Ethics approval for all sites provided by Alfred Health (Project 51216). Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals, conferences and lay publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12619001122145.
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    Ambulatory oxygen for treatment of exertional hypoxaemia in pulmonary fibrosis (PFOX trial): a randomised controlled trial
    Holland, AE ; Corte, T ; Chambers, DC ; Palmer, AJ ; Ekstrom, MP ; Glaspole, I ; Goh, NSL ; Hepworth, G ; Khor, YH ; Hoffman, M ; Vlahos, R ; Skold, M ; Dowman, L ; Troy, LK ; Prasad, JD ; Walsh, J ; McDonald, CF (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2020-01-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Interstitial lung diseases are characterised by scarring of lung tissue that leads to reduced transfer of oxygen into the blood, decreased exercise capacity and premature death. Ambulatory oxygen therapy may be used to treat exertional oxyhaemoglobin desaturation, but there is little evidence to support its efficacy and there is wide variation in clinical practice. This study aims to compare the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of ambulatory oxygen versus ambulatory air in people with fibrotic interstitial lung disease and exertional desaturation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A randomised, controlled trial with blinding of participants, clinicians and researchers will be conducted at trial sites in Australia and Sweden. Eligible participants will be randomised 1:1 into two groups. Intervention participants will receive ambulatory oxygen therapy using a portable oxygen concentrator (POC) during daily activities and control participants will use an identical POC modified to deliver air. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. The primary outcome is change in physical activity measured by number of steps per day using a physical activity monitor (StepWatch). Secondary outcomes are functional capacity (6-minute walk distance), health-related quality of life (St George Respiratory Questionnaire, EQ-5D-5L and King's Brief Interstitial Lung Disease Questionnaire), breathlessness (Dyspnoea-12), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), physical activity level (GENEActive), oxygen saturation in daily life, POC usage, and plasma markers of skeletal muscle metabolism, systematic inflammation and oxidative stress. A cost-effectiveness evaluation will also be undertaken. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been granted in Australia by Alfred Hospital Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC/18/Alfred/42) with governance approval at all Australian sites, and in Sweden (Lund Dnr: 2019-02963). The results will be published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, presented at conferences and disseminated to consumers in publications for lay audiences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT03737409).