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ItemAnalysis of LRRK2 accessory repeat domains: prediction of repeat length, number and sites of Parkinson's disease mutationsMILLS, R ; Mulhern, TD ; Cheng, HC ; Culvenor, JG ( 2012)Various investigators have identified the major domain organization of LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2), which includes a GTPase ROC (Ras of complex proteins) domain followed by a COR (C-terminal of ROC) domain and a protein kinase domain. In addition, there are four domains composed of structural repeat motifs likely to be involved in regulation and localization of this complex protein. In the present paper, we report our bioinformatic analyses of the human LRRK2 amino acid sequence to predict the repeat size, number and likely boundaries for the armadillo repeat, ankyrin repeat, the leucine-rich repeat and WD40 repeat regions of LRRK2. Homology modelling using known protein structures with similar domains was used to predict structures, exposed residues and location of mutations for these repeat regions. We predict that the armadillo repeats, ankyrin repeats and leucine-rich repeats together form an extended N-terminal flexible 'solenoid'-like structure composed of tandem repeat modules likely to be important in anchoring to the membrane and cytoskeletal structures as well as binding to other protein ligands. Near the C-terminus of LRRK2, the WD40 repeat region is predicted to form a closed propeller structure that is important for protein complex formation.
ItemAberrant regulation and function of Src family tyrosine kinases: Their potential contributions to glutamate-induced neurotoxicityHossain, MI ; Kamaruddin, MA ; Cheng, H-C (WILEY, 2012-08-01)Excitotoxicity, a major cause of neuronal death in acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases and conditions such as stroke and Parkinson's disease, is initiated by overstimulation of glutamate receptors, leading to calcium overload in affected neurons. The sustained high concentration of intracellular calcium constitutively activates a host of enzymes, notably the calcium-activated proteases calpains, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and NADPH oxidase (NOX), to antagonise the cell survival signalling pathways and induce cell death. Upon overactivation by calcium, calpains catalyse limited proteolysis of specific cellular proteins to modulate their functions; nNOS produces excessive amounts of nitric oxide (NO), which, in turn, covalently modifies specific enzymes by S-nitrosylation; and NOX produces excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to inflict damage to key metabolic enzymes. Presumably, key regulatory enzymes governing cell survival and cell death are aberrantly modified and regulated by calpains, NO and ROS in affected neurons; these aberrantly modified enzymes then cooperate to induce the death of affected neurons. c-Src, an Src family kinase (SFK) member, is one of the aberrantly regulated enzymes involved in excitotoxic neuronal death. Herein we review how SFKs are functionally linked to the glutamate receptors and the biochemical and structural basis of the aberrant regulation of SFKs. Results in the literature suggest that SFKs are aberrantly activated by calpain-mediated truncation and S-nitrosylation. Thus, the aberrantly activated SFKs are targets for therapeutic intervention to reduce the extent of brain damage caused by stroke.
ItemCSK-Homologous Kinasevan Roy, F ; Nimmrich, V ; Bespalov, A ; Möller, A ; Hara, H ; Turowec, JP ; St. Denis, NA ; Litchfield, DW ; Boucher, D ; Denault, J-B ; Matsuda, K ; Yuzaki, M ; Repeke, C ; Garlet, T ; Trombone, AP ; Garlet, G ; Repeke, C ; Garlet, T ; Silveira, EM ; Garlet, G ; Garlet, T ; Repeke, C ; Vieira, A ; Cunha, F ; Garlet, G ; Kubota, S ; Takigawa, M ; Soares, H ; Nolasco, S ; Gonçalves, J ; Bensussan, A ; Marie-Cardine, A ; Deswal, S ; Schamel, WWA ; Santos-Argumedo, L ; Deswal, S ; Schamel, WWA ; Bishop, GA ; Decker, DA ; Hostager, BS ; Bravo-Adame, ME ; Sandoval-Hernandez, MA ; Migueles-Lozano, OA ; Rosenstein, Y ; Johnson, P ; Samarakoon, A ; Saunders, AE ; Harder, KW ; Roberts, DD ; Soto-Pantoja, DR ; Isenberg, JS ; Lazo, PA ; Barcia, R ; Wu, H-J ; Muthusamy, N ; Bondada, S ; Levy, S ; Pawaria, S ; Binder, RJ ; Masai, H ; Hu, D ; Lahti, JM ; Singer, BB ; Horuk, R ; Miller, LJ ; Morisset, J ; Litchfield, DW ; Mistry, AR ; O’Callaghan, CA ; Fenton-May, AE ; O’Callaghan, CA ; Mistry, AR ; O’Callaghan, CA ; Reschen, M ; O’Callaghan, CA ; Willment, JA ; Brown, GD ; Rabinow, L ; Ness, SA ; Creutz, CE ; Yagishita-Kyo, N ; Inoue, M ; Nonaka, M ; Okuno, H ; Bito, H ; Okada, M ; Cheng, H-C ; Hossain, MI ; Kamaruddin, MA ; Chong, Y-P ; Sen, B ; Johnson, FM ; Pino, PA ; Cardona, AE ; Paroni, F ; Maedler, K ; Poon, RYC (Springer New York, 2012)
ItemAnalysis of the Regulatory and Catalytic Domains of PTEN-Induced Kinase-1 (PINK1)Sim, CH ; Gabriel, K ; Mills, RD ; Culvenor, JG ; Cheng, H-C (WILEY, 2012-10-01)Mutations of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene can cause early-onset familial Parkinson disease (PD). PINK1 encodes a neuroprotective protein kinase localized at the mitochondria, and its involvement in regulating mitochondrial dynamics, trafficking, structure, and function is well documented. Owing to the lack of information on structure and biochemical properties for PINK1, exactly how PINK1 exerts its neuroprotective function and how the PD-causative mutations impact on PINK1 structure and function remain unclear. As an approach to address these questions, we conducted bioinformatic analyses of the mitochondrial targeting, the transmembrane, and kinase domains of PINK1 to predict the motifs governing its regulation and function. Our report sheds light on how PINK1 is targeted to the mitochondria and how PINK1 is cleaved by mitochondrial peptidases. Moreover, it includes a potential optimal phosphorylation sequence preferred by the PINK1 kinase domain. On the basis of the results of our analyses, we predict how the PD-causative mutations affect processing of PINK1 in the mitochondria, PINK1 kinase activity, and substrate specificity. In summary, our results provide a conceptual framework for future investigation of the structural and biochemical basis of regulation and the neuroprotective mechanism of PINK1.