Biochemistry and Pharmacology - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 7 of 7
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    The complex binding mode of the peptide hormone H2 relaxin to its receptor RXFP1
    Sethi, A ; Bruell, S ; Patil, N ; Hossain, MA ; Scott, DJ ; Petrie, EJ ; Bathgate, RAD ; Gooley, PR (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2016-04-01)
    H2 relaxin activates the relaxin family peptide receptor-1 (RXFP1), a class A G-protein coupled receptor, by a poorly understood mechanism. The ectodomain of RXFP1 comprises an N-terminal LDLa module, essential for activation, tethered to a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain by a 32-residue linker. H2 relaxin is hypothesized to bind with high affinity to the LRR domain enabling the LDLa module to bind and activate the transmembrane domain of RXFP1. Here we define a relaxin-binding site on the LDLa-LRR linker, essential for the high affinity of H2 relaxin for the ectodomain of RXFP1, and show that residues within the LDLa-LRR linker are critical for receptor activation. We propose H2 relaxin binds and stabilizes a helical conformation of the LDLa-LRR linker that positions residues of both the linker and the LDLa module to bind the transmembrane domain and activate RXFP1.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Melittin peptides exhibit different activity on different cells and model membranes
    Jamasbi, E ; Batinovic, S ; Sharples, RA ; Sani, M-A ; Robins-Browne, RM ; Wade, JD ; Separovic, F ; Hossain, MA (SPRINGER WIEN, 2014-12-01)
    Melittin (MLT) is a lytic peptide with a broad spectrum of activity against both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. To understand the role of proline and the thiol group of cysteine in the cytolytic activity of MLT, native MLT and cysteine-containing analogs were prepared using solid phase peptide synthesis. The antimicrobial and cytolytic activities of the monomeric and dimeric MLT peptides against different cells and model membranes were investigated. The results indicated that the proline residue was necessary for antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity and its absence significantly reduced lysis of model membranes and hemolysis. Although lytic activity against model membranes decreased for the MLT dimer, hemolytic activity was increased. The native peptide and the MLT-P14C monomer were mainly unstructured in buffer while the dimer adopted a helical conformation. In the presence of neutral and negatively charged vesicles, the helical content of the three peptides was significantly increased. The lytic activity, therefore, is not correlated to the secondary structure of the peptides and, more particularly, on the propensity to adopt helical conformation.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    The Importance of Tryptophan B28 in H2 Relaxin for RXFP2 Binding and Activation
    Chan, LJ ; Wade, JD ; Separovic, F ; Bathgate, RAD ; Hossain, MA (SPRINGER, 2013-03-01)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    The C-terminus of the B-chain of human insulin-like peptide 5 is critical for cognate RXFP4 receptor activity
    Patil, NA ; Bathgate, RAD ; Kocan, M ; Ang, SY ; Tailhades, J ; Separovic, F ; Summers, R ; Grosse, J ; Hughes, RA ; Wade, JD ; Hossain, MA (SPRINGER WIEN, 2016-04-01)
    Insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5) is an orexigenic peptide hormone belonging to the relaxin family of peptides. It is expressed primarily in the L-cells of the colon and has a postulated key role in regulating food intake. Its G protein-coupled receptor, RXFP4, is a potential drug target for treating obesity and anorexia. We studied the effect of modification of the C-terminus of the A and B-chains of human INSL5 on RXFP4 binding and activation. Three variants of human INSL5 were prepared using solid phase peptide synthesis and subsequent sequential regioselective disulfide bond formation. The peptides were synthesized as C-terminal acids (both A- and B-chains with free C-termini, i.e., the native form), amides (both chains as the C-terminal amide) and one analog with the C-terminus of its A-chain as the amide and the C-terminus of the B-chain as the acid. The results showed that C-terminus of the B-chain is more important than that of the A-chain for RXFP4 binding and activity. Amidation of the A-chain C-terminus does not have any effect on the INSL5 activity. The difference in RXFP4 binding and activation between the three peptides is believed to be due to electrostatic interaction of the free carboxylate of INSL5 with a positively charged residue (s), either situated within the INSL5 molecule itself or in the receptor extracellular loops.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Aberrant regulation and function of Src family tyrosine kinases: Their potential contributions to glutamate-induced neurotoxicity
    Hossain, MI ; Kamaruddin, MA ; Cheng, H-C (WILEY, 2012-08-01)
    Excitotoxicity, a major cause of neuronal death in acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases and conditions such as stroke and Parkinson's disease, is initiated by overstimulation of glutamate receptors, leading to calcium overload in affected neurons. The sustained high concentration of intracellular calcium constitutively activates a host of enzymes, notably the calcium-activated proteases calpains, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and NADPH oxidase (NOX), to antagonise the cell survival signalling pathways and induce cell death. Upon overactivation by calcium, calpains catalyse limited proteolysis of specific cellular proteins to modulate their functions; nNOS produces excessive amounts of nitric oxide (NO), which, in turn, covalently modifies specific enzymes by S-nitrosylation; and NOX produces excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to inflict damage to key metabolic enzymes. Presumably, key regulatory enzymes governing cell survival and cell death are aberrantly modified and regulated by calpains, NO and ROS in affected neurons; these aberrantly modified enzymes then cooperate to induce the death of affected neurons. c-Src, an Src family kinase (SFK) member, is one of the aberrantly regulated enzymes involved in excitotoxic neuronal death. Herein we review how SFKs are functionally linked to the glutamate receptors and the biochemical and structural basis of the aberrant regulation of SFKs. Results in the literature suggest that SFKs are aberrantly activated by calpain-mediated truncation and S-nitrosylation. Thus, the aberrantly activated SFKs are targets for therapeutic intervention to reduce the extent of brain damage caused by stroke.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    A Truncated Fragment of Src Protein Kinase Generated by Calpain-mediated Cleavage Is a Mediator of Neuronal Death in Excitotoxicity
    Hossain, MI ; Roulston, CL ; Kamaruddin, MA ; Chu, PWY ; Ng, DCH ; Dusting, GJ ; Bjorge, JD ; Williamson, NA ; Fujita, DJ ; Cheung, SN ; Chan, TO ; Hill, AF ; Cheng, H-C (AMER SOC BIOCHEMISTRY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY INC, 2013-04-05)
    Excitotoxicity resulting from overstimulation of glutamate receptors is a major cause of neuronal death in cerebral ischemic stroke. The overstimulated ionotropic glutamate receptors exert their neurotoxic effects in part by overactivation of calpains, which induce neuronal death by catalyzing limited proteolysis of specific cellular proteins. Here, we report that in cultured cortical neurons and in vivo in a rat model of focal ischemic stroke, the tyrosine kinase Src is cleaved by calpains at a site in the N-terminal unique domain. This generates a truncated Src fragment of ~52 kDa, which we localized predominantly to the cytosol. A cell membrane-permeable fusion peptide derived from the unique domain of Src prevents calpain from cleaving Src in neurons and protects against excitotoxic neuronal death. To explore the role of the truncated Src fragment in neuronal death, we expressed a recombinant truncated Src fragment in cultured neurons and examined how it affects neuronal survival. Expression of this fragment, which lacks the myristoylation motif and unique domain, was sufficient to induce neuronal death. Furthermore, inactivation of the prosurvival kinase Akt is a key step in its neurotoxic signaling pathway. Because Src maintains neuronal survival, our results implicate calpain cleavage as a molecular switch converting Src from a promoter of cell survival to a mediator of neuronal death in excitotoxicity. Besides unveiling a new pathological action of Src, our discovery of the neurotoxic action of the truncated Src fragment suggests new therapeutic strategies with the potential to minimize brain damage in ischemic stroke.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    CSK-Homologous Kinase
    van Roy, F ; Nimmrich, V ; Bespalov, A ; Möller, A ; Hara, H ; Turowec, JP ; St. Denis, NA ; Litchfield, DW ; Boucher, D ; Denault, J-B ; Matsuda, K ; Yuzaki, M ; Repeke, C ; Garlet, T ; Trombone, AP ; Garlet, G ; Repeke, C ; Garlet, T ; Silveira, EM ; Garlet, G ; Garlet, T ; Repeke, C ; Vieira, A ; Cunha, F ; Garlet, G ; Kubota, S ; Takigawa, M ; Soares, H ; Nolasco, S ; Gonçalves, J ; Bensussan, A ; Marie-Cardine, A ; Deswal, S ; Schamel, WWA ; Santos-Argumedo, L ; Deswal, S ; Schamel, WWA ; Bishop, GA ; Decker, DA ; Hostager, BS ; Bravo-Adame, ME ; Sandoval-Hernandez, MA ; Migueles-Lozano, OA ; Rosenstein, Y ; Johnson, P ; Samarakoon, A ; Saunders, AE ; Harder, KW ; Roberts, DD ; Soto-Pantoja, DR ; Isenberg, JS ; Lazo, PA ; Barcia, R ; Wu, H-J ; Muthusamy, N ; Bondada, S ; Levy, S ; Pawaria, S ; Binder, RJ ; Masai, H ; Hu, D ; Lahti, JM ; Singer, BB ; Horuk, R ; Miller, LJ ; Morisset, J ; Litchfield, DW ; Mistry, AR ; O’Callaghan, CA ; Fenton-May, AE ; O’Callaghan, CA ; Mistry, AR ; O’Callaghan, CA ; Reschen, M ; O’Callaghan, CA ; Willment, JA ; Brown, GD ; Rabinow, L ; Ness, SA ; Creutz, CE ; Yagishita-Kyo, N ; Inoue, M ; Nonaka, M ; Okuno, H ; Bito, H ; Okada, M ; Cheng, H-C ; Hossain, MI ; Kamaruddin, MA ; Chong, Y-P ; Sen, B ; Johnson, FM ; Pino, PA ; Cardona, AE ; Paroni, F ; Maedler, K ; Poon, RYC (Springer New York, 2012)