Biochemistry and Pharmacology - Research Publications

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    Presentation of newly synthesized glycoproteins to CD4+ T lymphocytes. An analysis using influenza hemagglutinin transport mutants.
    Kittlesen, DJ ; Brown, LR ; Braciale, VL ; Sambrook, JP ; Gething, MJ ; Braciale, TJ (Rockefeller University Press, 1993-04-01)
    Human lymphoblastoid cells transiently expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein of influenza virus are rapidly and efficiently recognized by CD4+ HA-specific T lymphocytes. This endogenous presentation pathway is sensitive to chloroquine and is therefore likely related to the classical class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exogenous pathway of antigen presentation. In this study we have examined a series of transport-defective HA mutants. We correlate the intracellular fate of the native antigen with its presentation characteristics. We have found that the native antigen must enter the secretory pathway since a cytosolic form is not presented. However, surface expression and normal trafficking through the Golgi apparatus are not required for efficient presentation. Instead, escape of native antigen from the endoplasmic reticulum appears to be both necessary and sufficient for gaining access to a compartment where antigen is processed and binds class II MHC molecules.
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    Studies on the mechanism of membrane fusion: site-specific mutagenesis of the hemagglutinin of influenza virus.
    Gething, MJ ; Doms, RW ; York, D ; White, J (Rockefeller University Press, 1986-01)
    Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis of a cDNA encoding the hemagglutinin of influenza virus has been used to introduce single base changes into the sequence that codes for the conserved apolar "fusion peptide" at the amino-terminus of the HA2 subunit. The mutant sequences replaced the wild-type gene in SV40-HA recombinant virus vectors, and the altered HA proteins were expressed in simian cells. Three mutants have been constructed that introduce single, nonconservative amino acid changes in the fusion peptide, and three fusion phenotypes were observed: substitution of glutamic acid for the glycine residue at the amino-terminus of HA2 abolished all fusion activity; substitution of glutamic acid for the glycine residue at position 4 in HA2 raised the threshold pH and decreased the efficiency of fusion; and, finally, extension of the hydrophobic stretch by replacement of the glutamic acid at position 11 with glycine yielded a mutant protein that induced fusion of erythrocytes with cells with the same efficiency and pH profile as the wild-type protein. However, the ability of this mutant to induce polykaryon formation was greatly impaired. Nevertheless, all the mutant proteins underwent a pH-dependent conformational change and bound to liposomes. These results are discussed in terms of the mechanism of HA-induced membrane fusion.
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    On the role of the transmembrane anchor sequence of influenza hemagglutinin in target cell recognition by class I MHC-restricted, hemagglutinin-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes.
    Braciale, TJ ; Braciale, VL ; Winkler, M ; Stroynowski, I ; Hood, L ; Sambrook, J ; Gething, MJ (Rockefeller University Press, 1987-09-01)
    We have examined the requirement for the transmembrane hydrophobic anchor sequence of the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) in the formation of the antigenic moiety on the surface of target cells recognized by class I MHC-restricted murine CTL. For this analysis we have used a line of CV-1 monkey epithelial cells that express the transfected murine H-2Kd gene product as target cells and have used recombinant SV40-based late replacement vectors to achieve expression of genes encoding wild-type and mutant forms of HA. We have found that the majority of Kd-restricted HA-specific CTL clones recognize target cells that express a secreted HA molecule that lacks the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the parent glycoprotein. Several Kd-restricted CTL clones that recognize subtype-specific and crossreactive epitopes on HA fail to recognize the anchor-negative, secreted HA or chimeric HA molecules containing the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of unrelated glycoproteins. These CTL clones appear to be directed to antigenic epitopes located within the transmembrane domain of HA, as defined by their capacity to recognize target cells sensitized with a synthetic 23-amino-acid peptide corresponding to sequences within this domain. The implications of these results for class I MHC-restricted CTL recognition are discussed.
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    Cytotoxic T lymphocyte recognition of the influenza hemagglutinin gene product expressed by DNA-mediated gene transfer.
    Braciale, TJ ; Braciale, VL ; Henkel, TJ ; Sambrook, J ; Gething, MJ (Rockefeller University Press, 1984-02-01)
    We have used the technique of DNA-mediated gene transfer to examine cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) recognition of the product of the cloned A/JAPAN/305/57 hemagglutinin (HA) gene in murine (L929) cells. Using both heterogeneous and homogeneous (clonal) populations of type A influenza-specific CTL, we have demonstrated that the HA molecule can serve as a target antigen for both the subtype-specific and the cross-reactive subpopulations of influenza-specific CTL. Our results also raise the possibility that other virus-specified polypeptides may serve as target molecules for cross-reactive CTL.
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    Recognition of viral glycoproteins by influenza A-specific cross-reactive cytolytic T lymphocytes.
    Koszinowski, UH ; Allen, H ; Gething, MJ ; Waterfield, MD ; Klenk, HD (Rockefeller University Press, 1980-04-01)
    Two populations of cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) generated after influenza A virus infection can be distinguished into one with specificity for the sensitizing hemagglutinin type and a second with cross-reactivity for antigens induced by other type-A influenza viruses. The molecules carrying the antigenic determinants recognized by the cross-reactive CTL were studied. In L-929 cells abortively infected with fowl plague virus, matrix (M) protein synthesis is specifically inhibited, whereas the envelope glycoproteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, are synthesized and incorporated into the plasma membrane. These target cells were lysed by cross-reactive CTL. The envelope proteins of type A/Victoria virus were separated from the other virion components and reconstituted into lipid vesicles that lacked M protein that subsequently were used to prepare artificial target cells. Target-cell formation with vesicles was achieved by addition of fusion-active Sendai virus. These artificial target cells were also susceptible to lysis by cross-reactive CTL. In contrast to previous observations that suggested that the M protein of influenza viruses is recognized by these effector cells, we present evidence that the antigencic determinants induced by the viral glycoproteins are recognized.
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    Translocation in yeast and mammalian cells: not all signal sequences are functionally equivalent.
    Bird, P ; Gething, MJ ; Sambrook, J (Rockefeller University Press, 1987-12)
    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nascent carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) is directed into the endoplasmic reticulum by an NH2-terminal signal peptide that is removed before the glycosylated protein is transported to the vacuole. In this paper, we show that this signal peptide does not function in mammalian cells: CPY expressed in COS-1 cells is not glycosylated, does not associate with membranes, and retains its signal peptide. In a mammalian cell-free protein-synthesizing system, CPY is not translocated into microsomes. However, if the CPY signal is either mutated to increase its hydrophobicity or replaced with that of influenza virus hemagglutinin, the resulting precursors are efficiently translocated both in vivo and in vitro. The implications of these results for models of signal sequence function are discussed.
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    Isolation of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines temperature conditional for the cell-surface expression of integral membrane glycoproteins.
    Hearing, J ; Hunter, E ; Rodgers, L ; Gething, MJ ; Sambrook, J (Rockefeller University Press, 1989-02)
    A procedure is described to select mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells that are conditionally defective for the cell-surface expression of integral membrane glycoproteins, including the hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus. Using a combination of cell sorting and biochemical screening, seven cell lines were obtained that express more cell-surface HA at 32 degrees C than at 39 degrees C. The production of infectious vesicular stomatitis virus, whose growth requires insertion of an integral membrane protein into the plasma membrane, was also temperature conditional in the majority of these mutant cell lines. Five of the lines synthesized apparently normally core-glycosylated HA at the elevated temperature but the protein was neither displayed on the cell surface nor accumulated intracellularly. In these cell lines, little or no terminally glycosylated HA molecules were observed after synthesis at 39 degrees C. By contrast, the core glycosylation of HA and several other integral membrane proteins was abnormal in the remaining two cell lines at both permissive and restrictive temperatures, due to a lesion in a cellular gene(s) that affects the formation of and/or the addition of mannose-rich oligosaccharide chains to newly synthesized polypeptides. Although HA was transported to the plasma membrane at both 32 and 39 degrees C, it did not accumulate on the cell surface at the higher temperature, apparently because of an increased rate of degradation.
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    Mutations in the cytoplasmic domain of the influenza virus hemagglutinin affect different stages of intracellular transport.
    Doyle, C ; Roth, MG ; Sambrook, J ; Gething, MJ (Rockefeller University Press, 1985-03)
    Mutations have been introduced into the cloned DNA sequences coding for influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA), and the resulting mutant genes have been expressed in simian cells by the use of SV40-HA recombinant viral vectors. In this study we analyzed the effect of specific alterations in the cytoplasmic domain of the HA molecule on its rate of biosynthesis and transport, cellular localization, and biological activity. Several of the mutants displayed abnormalities in the pathway of transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. One mutant HA remained within the endoplasmic reticulum; others were delayed in reaching the Golgi apparatus after core glycosylation had been completed in the endoplasmic reticulum, but then progressed at a normal rate from the Golgi apparatus to the cell surface; another was delayed in transport from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane. However, two mutants were indistinguishable from wild-type HA in their rate of movement from the endoplasmic reticulum through the Golgi apparatus to the cell surface. We conclude that changes in the cytoplasmic domain can powerfully influence the rate of intracellular transport and the efficiency with which HA reaches the cell surface. Nevertheless, absolute conservation of this region of the molecule is not required for maturation and efficient expression of a biologically active HA on the surface of infected cells.
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    Addition of carbohydrate side chains at novel sites on influenza virus hemagglutinin can modulate the folding, transport, and activity of the molecule.
    Gallagher, P ; Henneberry, J ; Wilson, I ; Sambrook, J ; Gething, MJ (Rockefeller University Press, 1988-12)
    We have constructed and expressed a series of mutant influenza virus hemagglutinins, each containing a new consensus site for glycosylation in addition to the seven sites found on the wild-type protein. Oligosaccharide side chains were added with high efficiency at four of the five novel sites, located on areas of the protein's surface that are not normally shielded by carbohydrate. Investigations of the structure, intracellular transport, and biological activities of the mutant hemagglutinin molecules indicated that (a) supernumerary carbohydrate side chains can be used to shield or disrupt functional epitopes on the surface of hemagglutinin, and (b) the presence of an additional oligosaccharide may cause temperature-dependent defects in the transport of the glycoprotein. We discuss the addition of supernumerary oligosaccharides as a general tool for shielding chosen areas of the surface of proteins that enter or traverse the secretory pathway.
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    Addition of truncated oligosaccharides to influenza virus hemagglutinin results in its temperature-conditional cell-surface expression.
    Hearing, J ; Gething, MJ ; Sambrook, J (Rockefeller University Press, 1989-02)
    In the preceding paper (Hearing, J., E. Hunter, L. Rodgers, M.-J. Gething, and J. Sambrook. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 108:339-353) we described the isolation and initial characterization of seven Chinese hamster ovary cell lines that are temperature conditional for the cell-surface expression of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) and other integral membrane glycoproteins. Two of these cell lines appeared to be defective for the synthesis and/or addition of mannose-rich oligosaccharide chains to nascent glycoproteins. In this paper we show that at both 32 and 39 degrees C in two mutant cell lines accumulate a truncated version, Man5GlcNAc2, of the normal lipid-linked precursor oligosaccharide, Glc3Man9GlcNAc2. This is possibly due to a defect in the synthesis of dolichol phosphate because in vitro assays indicate that the mutant cells are not deficient in mannosylphosphoryldolichol synthase at either temperature. A mixture of truncated and complete oligosaccharide chains was transferred to newly synthesized glycoproteins at both the permissive and restrictive temperatures. Both mutant cell lines exhibited altered sensitivity to cytotoxic plant lectins when grown at 32 degrees C, indicating that cellular glycoproteins bearing abnormal oligosaccharide chains were transported to the cell surface at the permissive temperature. Although glycosylation was defective at both 32 and 39 degrees C, the cell lines were temperature conditional for growth, suggesting that cellular glycoproteins were adversely affected by the glycosylation defect at the elevated temperature. The temperature-conditional expression of HA on the cell surface was shown to be due to impairment at 39 degrees C of the folding, trimerization, and stability of HA molecules containing truncated oligosaccharide chains.