Biochemistry and Pharmacology - Research Publications

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    Segregation of the membrane cargoes, BACE1 and amyloid precursor protein (APP) throughout the Golgi apparatus
    Fourriere, L ; Cho, EH-J ; Gleeson, PA (WILEY, 2022-02-13)
    The intracellular trafficking of β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme (BACE1) and APP regulates amyloid-β production. Our previous work demonstrated that newly synthesized BACE1 and APP are segregated into distinct trafficking pathways from the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and that alterations in their trafficking lead to an increase in Aβ production in non-neuronal and neuronal cells. However, it is not known whether BACE1 and APP are transported through the Golgi stacks together and sorted at the TGN or segregated prior to arrival at the TGN. To address this question, we have used high-resolution Airyscan technology followed by Huygens deconvolution to quantify the overlap of BACE1 and APP in Golgi subcompartments in HeLa cells and primary neurons. Here, we show that APP and BACE1 are segregated, on exit from the endoplasmic reticulum and in the cis-Golgi and throughout the Golgi stack. In contrast, the transferrin receptor, which exits the TGN in AP-1 mediated transport carriers as for BACE1, colocalizes with BACE1, but not APP, throughout the Golgi stack. The segregation of APP and BACE1 is independent of the Golgi ribbon structure and the cytoplasmic domain of the cargo. Overall, our findings reveal the segregation of different membrane cargoes early in the secretory pathway, a finding relevant to the regulation of APP processing events.
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    Dynamics of intracellular neonatal Fc receptor-ligand interactions in primary macrophages using biophysical fluorescence techniques
    Pannek, A ; Houghton, FJ ; Verhagen, AM ; Dower, SK ; Hinde, E ; Gleeson, PA ; Munson, M (AMER SOC CELL BIOLOGY, 2022-01-01)
    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is responsible for the recycling of endocytosed albumin and IgG, and contributes to their long plasma half-life. We recently identified an FcRn-dependent recycling pathway from macropinosomes in macrophages; however, little is known about the dynamics of intracellular FcRn-ligand interactions to promote recycling. Here we demonstrate a multiplexed biophysical fluorescent microscopy approach to resolve the spatiotemporal dynamics of albumin-FcRn interactions in living bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). We used the phasor approach to fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to detect the interaction of a FcRn-mCherry fusion protein with endocytosed Alexa Fluor 488-labeled human serum albumin (HSA-AF488) in BMDMs, and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) analysis of single fluorescent-labeled albumin molecules to monitor the diffusion kinetics of internalized albumin. Our data identified a major fraction of immobile HSA-AF488 molecules in endosomal structures of human FcRn-positive mouse macrophages and an increase in FLIM-FRET following endocytosis, including detection of FRET in tubular-like structures. A nonbinding mutant of albumin showed minimum FLIM-FRET and high mobility. These data reveal the kinetics of FcRn-ligand binding within endosomal structures for recruitment into transport carriers for recycling. These approaches have wide applicability for analyses of intracellular ligand-receptor interactions.
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    The Function of the Golgi Ribbon Structure - An Enduring Mystery Unfolds!
    Gosavi, P ; Gleeson, PA (WILEY, 2017-11-01)
    The Golgi apparatus in vertebrate cells consists of individual Golgi stacks fused together in a continuous ribbon structure. The ribbon structure per se is not required to mediate the classical functions of this organelle and the relevance of the "ribbon" structure has been a mystery since first identified ultrastructurally in the 1950s. Recent advances recognize a role for the Golgi apparatus in a range of cellular processes, some mediated by signaling networks which are regulated at the Golgi. Here we review the cellular processes and signaling events regulated by the Golgi apparatus and, in particular, explore an emerging theme that the ribbon structure of the Golgi contributes directly to the regulation of these higher order functions.
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    Amyloid precursor protein traffics from the Golgi directly to early endosomes in an Arl5b-and AP4-dependent pathway
    Toh, WH ; Tan, JZA ; Zulkefli, KL ; Houghton, FJ ; Gleeson, PA (WILEY, 2017-03-01)
    The intracellular trafficking and proteolytic processing of the membrane-bound amyloid precursor protein (APP) are coordinated events leading to the generation of pathogenic amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides. The membrane transport of newly synthesized APP from the Golgi to the endolysosomal system is not well defined, yet it is likely to be critical for regulating its processing by β-secretase (BACE1) and γ-secretase. Here, we show that the majority of newly synthesized APP is transported from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) directly to early endosomes and then subsequently to the late endosomes/lysosomes with very little transported to the cell surface. We show that Arl5b, a small G protein localized to the TGN, and AP4 are essential for the post-Golgi transport of APP to early endosomes. Arl5b is physically associated with AP4 and is required for the recruitment of AP4, but not AP1, to the TGN. Depletion of either Arl5b or AP4 results in the accumulation of APP, but not BACE1, in the Golgi, and an increase in APP processing and Aβ secretion. These findings demonstrate that APP is diverted from BACE1 at the TGN for direct transport to early endosomes and that the TGN represents a site for APP processing with the subsequent secretion of Aβ.
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    Increased endogenous antigen presentation in the periphery enhances susceptibility to inflammation-induced gastric autoimmunity in mice
    Overall, SA ; Bourges, D ; van Driel, IR ; Gleeson, PA (WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2017-01-01)
    How the immune system maintains peripheral tolerance under inflammatory conditions is poorly understood. Here we assessed the fate of gastritogenic T cells following inflammatory activation in vivo. Self-reactive T cells (A23 T cells) specific for the gastric H+ /K+ ATPase α subunit (HKα) were transferred into immunosufficient recipient mice and immunised at a site distant to the stomach with adjuvant containing the cognate HKα peptide antigen. Activation of A23 T cells by immunisation did not impact on either immune tolerance or protection from gastric autoimmunity in wild-type BALB/c mice. However, increased presentation of endogenously derived HKα epitopes by dendritic cells (DCs) in the gastric lymph node of IE-H+ /K+ β transgenic mice (IEβ) reduces A23 T-cell tolerance to gastric antigens after inflammatory activation, with subsequent development of gastritis. While HKα-specific A23 T cells from immunised wild-type mice were poorly responsive to in vitro antigen specific activation, A23 T cells from immunised IEβ transgenic mice were readily re-activated, indicating loss of T-cell anergy. These findings show that DCs of gastric lymph nodes can maintain tolerance of pathogenic T cells following inflammatory stimulation and that the density of endogenous antigen presented to self-reactive T cells is critical in the balance between tolerance and autoimmunity.
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    FcRn mediates fast recycling of endocytosed albumin and IgG from early macropinosomes in primary macrophages
    Toh, WH ; Louber, J ; Mahmoud, IS ; Chia, J ; Bass, GT ; Dower, SK ; Verhagen, AM ; Gleeson, PA ; Lennon-Duménil, A-M (COMPANY BIOLOGISTS LTD, 2020-03-01)
    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) rescues albumin and IgG from degradation following endocytosis and thereby extends the half-life of these plasma proteins. However, the pathways for the uptake of these soluble FcRn ligands, and the recycling itinerary of the FcRn-ligand complexes, have not been identified in primary cells. Here, we have defined the recycling of human albumin and IgG in primary mouse macrophages selectively expressing the human FcRn. Albumin is internalised by macropinocytosis; in the absence of FcRn, internalised albumin is rapidly degraded, while in the presence of FcRn albumin colocalises to SNX5-positive membrane domains and is partitioned into tubules emanating from early macropinosomes for delivery in transport carriers to the plasma membrane. Soluble monomeric IgG was also internalised by macropinocytosis and rapidly recycled by the same pathway. In contrast, the fate of IgG bound to surface Fcγ receptors differed from monomeric IgG endocytosed by macropinocytosis. Overall, our findings identify a rapid recycling pathway for FcRn ligands from early macropinosomes to the cell surface of primary cells.
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    The role of innate immune responses and neuroinflammation in amyloid accumulation and progression of Alzheimer's disease
    Webers, A ; Heneka, MT ; Gleeson, PA (WILEY, 2019-11-20)
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulation, tau pathology and neuroinflammation. Recently, there has been considerable interest in the role of neuroinflammation in directly contributing to the progression of AD. Studies in mice and humans have identified a role for microglial cells, the resident innate immune cells of the central nervous system, in AD. Activated microglia are a key hallmark of the disease and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by microglia may result in a positive feedback loop between neurons and microglia, resulting in ongoing low-grade inflammation. Traditionally, the pathways of Aβ production and neuroinflammation have been considered independently; however, recent studies suggest that these processes may converge to promote the pathology associated with AD. Here we review the importance of inflammation and microglia in AD development and effects of inflammatory responses on cellular pathways of neurons, including Aβ generation.
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    Form and function of the Golgi apparatus: scaffolds, cytoskeleton and signalling
    Kulkarni-Gosavi, P ; Makhoul, C ; Gleeson, PA (WILEY, 2019-08-19)
    In addition to the classical functions of the Golgi in membrane transport and glycosylation, the Golgi apparatus of mammalian cells is now recognised to contribute to the regulation of a range of cellular processes, including mitosis, DNA repair, stress responses, autophagy, apoptosis and inflammation. These processes are often mediated, either directly or indirectly, by membrane scaffold molecules, such as golgins and GRASPs which are located on Golgi membranes. In many cases, these scaffold molecules also link the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton and influence Golgi morphology. An emerging theme is a strong relationship between the morphology of the Golgi and regulation of a variety of signalling pathways. Here, we review the molecular regulation of the morphology of the Golgi, especially the role of the golgins and other scaffolds in the interaction with the microtubule and actin networks. In addition, we discuss the impact of the modulation of the Golgi ribbon in various diseases, such as neurodegeneration and cancer, to the pathology of disease.
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    Regulation of mTORC1 activity by the Golgi apparatus.
    Makhoul, C ; Gleeson, PA (Faculty Opinions Ltd, 2021)
    Mechanistic (or mammalian) target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a major signalling kinase in cells that regulates proliferation and metabolism and is controlled by extrinsic and intrinsic signals. The lysosome has received considerable attention as a major hub of mTORC1 activation. However, mTOR has also been located to a variety of other intracellular sites, indicating the possibility of spatial regulation of mTORC1 signalling within cells. In particular, there have been numerous recent reports of mTORC1 activation associated with the Golgi apparatus. Here, we review the evidence for the regulation of mTORC1 signalling at the Golgi in mammalian cells. mTORC1 signalling is closely linked to the morphology of the Golgi architecture; a number of Golgi membrane tethers/scaffolds that influence Golgi architecture in mammalian cells that directly or indirectly regulate mTORC1 activation have been identified. Perturbation of the Golgi mTORC1 pathway arising from fragmentation of the Golgi has been shown to promote oncogenesis. Here, we highlight the potential mechanisms for the activation mTORC1 at the Golgi, which is emerging as a major site for mTORC1 signalling.
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    Sorting nexin 5 mediates virus-induced autophagy and immunity
    Dong, X ; Yang, Y ; Zou, Z ; Zhao, Y ; Ci, B ; Zhong, L ; Bhave, M ; Wang, L ; Kuo, Y-C ; Zang, X ; Zhong, R ; Aguilera, ER ; Richardson, RB ; Simonetti, B ; Schoggins, JW ; Pfeiffer, JK ; Yu, L ; Zhang, X ; Xie, Y ; Schmid, SL ; Xiao, G ; Gleeson, PA ; Ktistakis, NT ; Cullen, PJ ; Xavier, RJ ; Levine, B (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2020-12-16)
    Autophagy, a process of degradation that occurs via the lysosomal pathway, has an essential role in multiple aspects of immunity, including immune system development, regulation of innate and adaptive immune and inflammatory responses, selective degradation of intracellular microorganisms, and host protection against infectious diseases1,2. Autophagy is known to be induced by stimuli such as nutrient deprivation and suppression of mTOR, but little is known about how autophagosomal biogenesis is initiated in mammalian cells in response to viral infection. Here, using genome-wide short interfering RNA screens, we find that the endosomal protein sorting nexin 5 (SNX5)3,4 is essential for virus-induced, but not for basal, stress- or endosome-induced, autophagy. We show that SNX5 deletion increases cellular susceptibility to viral infection in vitro, and that Snx5 knockout in mice enhances lethality after infection with several human viruses. Mechanistically, SNX5 interacts with beclin 1 and ATG14-containing class III phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3KC3) complex 1 (PI3KC3-C1), increases the lipid kinase activity of purified PI3KC3-C1, and is required for endosomal generation of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) and recruitment of the PtdIns(3)P-binding protein WIPI2 to virion-containing endosomes. These findings identify a context- and organelle-specific mechanism-SNX5-dependent PI3KC3-C1 activation at endosomes-for initiation of autophagy during viral infection.