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ItemPresentation of newly synthesized glycoproteins to CD4+ T lymphocytes. An analysis using influenza hemagglutinin transport mutants.Kittlesen, DJ ; Brown, LR ; Braciale, VL ; Sambrook, JP ; Gething, MJ ; Braciale, TJ (Rockefeller University Press, 1993-04-01)Human lymphoblastoid cells transiently expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein of influenza virus are rapidly and efficiently recognized by CD4+ HA-specific T lymphocytes. This endogenous presentation pathway is sensitive to chloroquine and is therefore likely related to the classical class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exogenous pathway of antigen presentation. In this study we have examined a series of transport-defective HA mutants. We correlate the intracellular fate of the native antigen with its presentation characteristics. We have found that the native antigen must enter the secretory pathway since a cytosolic form is not presented. However, surface expression and normal trafficking through the Golgi apparatus are not required for efficient presentation. Instead, escape of native antigen from the endoplasmic reticulum appears to be both necessary and sufficient for gaining access to a compartment where antigen is processed and binds class II MHC molecules.
ItemDisulfide bond formation during the folding of influenza virus hemagglutinin.Segal, MS ; Bye, JM ; Sambrook, JF ; Gething, MJ (Rockefeller University Press, 1992-07)To study the importance of individual sulfhydryl residues during the folding and assembly in vivo of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA), we have constructed and expressed a series of mutant HA proteins in which cysteines involved in three disulfide bonds have been substituted by serine residues. Investigations of the structure and intracellular transport of the mutant proteins indicate that (a) cysteine residues in the ectodomain are essential both for efficient folding of HA and for stabilization of the folded molecule; (b) cysteine residues in the globular portion of the ectodomain are likely to form native disulfide bonds rapidly and directly, without involvement of intermediate, nonnative linkages; and (c) cysteine residues in the stalk portion of the ectodomain also appear not to form intermediate disulfide bonds, even though they have the opportunity to do so, being separated from their correct partners by hundreds of amino acids including two or more other sulfhydryl residues. We propose a role for the cellular protein BiP in shielding the cysteine residues of the stalk domain during the folding process, thus preventing them from forming intermediate, nonnative disulfide bonds.