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ItemA linear plasmid truncation induces unidirectional flagellar phase change in H : z66 positive Salmonella TyphiBaker, S ; Holt, K ; Whitehead, S ; Goodhead, I ; Perkins, T ; Stocker, B ; Hardy, J ; Dougan, G (WILEY, 2007-12-01)The process by which bacteria regulate flagellar expression is known as phase variation and in Salmonella enterica this process permits the expression of one of two flagellin genes, fliC or fljB, at any one time. Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) is normally not capable of phase variation of flagellar antigen expression as isolates only harbour the fliC gene (H:d) and lacks an equivalent fljB locus. However, some S. Typhi isolates, exclusively from Indonesia, harbour an fljB equivalent encoded on linear plasmid, pBSSB1 that drives the expression of a novel flagellin named H:z66. H:z66+S. Typhi isolates were stimulated to change flagellar phase and genetically analysed for the mechanism of variation. The phase change was demonstrated to be unidirectional, reverting to expression from the resident chromosomal fliC gene. DNA sequencing demonstrated that pBSSB1 linear DNA was still detectable but that these derivatives had undergone deletion and were lacking fljA(z66) (encoding a flagellar repressor) and fljB(z66). The deletion end-point was found to involve one of the plasmid termini and a palindromic repeat sequence within fljB(z66), distinct to that found at the terminus of pBSSB1. These data demonstrate that, like some Streptomyces linear elements, at least one of the terminal inverted repeats of pBSSB1 is non-essential, but that a palindromic repeat sequence may be necessary for replication.
ItemPseudogene accumulation in the evolutionary histories of Salmonella enterica serovars Paratyphi A and TyphiHolt, KE ; Thomson, NR ; Wain, J ; Langridge, GC ; Hasan, R ; Bhutta, ZA ; Quail, MA ; Norbertczak, H ; Walker, D ; Simmonds, M ; White, B ; Bason, N ; Mungall, K ; Dougan, G ; Parkhill, J (BMC, 2009-01-21)BACKGROUND: Of the > 2000 serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies I, most cause self-limiting gastrointestinal disease in a wide range of mammalian hosts. However, S. enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A are restricted to the human host and cause the similar systemic diseases typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Genome sequence similarity between Paratyphi A and Typhi has been attributed to convergent evolution via relatively recent recombination of a quarter of their genomes. The accumulation of pseudogenes is a key feature of these and other host-adapted pathogens, and overlapping pseudogene complements are evident in Paratyphi A and Typhi. RESULTS: We report the 4.5 Mbp genome of a clinical isolate of Paratyphi A, strain AKU_12601, completely sequenced using capillary techniques and subsequently checked using Illumina/Solexa resequencing. Comparison with the published genome of Paratyphi A ATCC9150 revealed the two are collinear and highly similar, with 188 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 39 insertions/deletions. A comparative analysis of pseudogene complements of these and two finished Typhi genomes (CT18, Ty2) identified several pseudogenes that had been overlooked in prior genome annotations of one or both serovars, and identified 66 pseudogenes shared between serovars. By determining whether each shared and serovar-specific pseudogene had been recombined between Paratyphi A and Typhi, we found evidence that most pseudogenes have accumulated after the recombination between serovars. We also divided pseudogenes into relative-time groups: ancestral pseudogenes inherited from a common ancestor, pseudogenes recombined between serovars which likely arose between initial divergence and later recombination, serovar-specific pseudogenes arising after recombination but prior to the last evolutionary bottlenecks in each population, and more recent strain-specific pseudogenes. CONCLUSION: Recombination and pseudogene-formation have been important mechanisms of genetic convergence between Paratyphi A and Typhi, with most pseudogenes arising independently after extensive recombination between the serovars. The recombination events, along with divergence of and within each serovar, provide a relative time scale for pseudogene-forming mutations, affording rare insights into the progression of functional gene loss associated with host adaptation in Salmonella.
ItemDetecting SNPs and estimating allele frequencies in clonal bacterial populations by sequencing pooled DNAHolt, KE ; Teo, YY ; Li, H ; Nair, S ; Dougan, G ; Wain, J ; Parkhill, J (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2009-08-15)SUMMARY: Here, we present a method for estimating the frequencies of SNP alleles present within pooled samples of DNA using high-throughput short-read sequencing. The method was tested on real data from six strains of the highly monomorphic pathogen Salmonella Paratyphi A, sequenced individually and in a pool. A variety of read mapping and quality-weighting procedures were tested to determine the optimal parameters, which afforded > or =80% sensitivity of SNP detection and strong correlation with true SNP frequency at poolwide read depth of 40x, declining only slightly at read depths 20-40x. AVAILABILITY: The method was implemented in Perl and relies on the opensource software Maq for read mapping and SNP calling. The Perl script is freely available from ftp://ftp.sanger.ac.uk/pub/pathogens/pools/.