Biochemistry and Pharmacology - Research Publications

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    p32 protein levels are integral to mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum morphology, cell metabolism and survival
    Hu, M ; Crawford, SA ; Henstridge, DC ; Ng, IHW ; Boey, EJH ; Xu, Y ; Febbraio, MA ; Jans, DA ; Bogoyevitch, MA (PORTLAND PRESS LTD, 2013-08-01)
    p32 [also known as HABP1 (hyaluronan-binding protein 1), gC1qR (receptor for globular head domains complement 1q) or C1qbp (complement 1q-binding protein)] has been shown previously to have both mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial localization and functions. In the present study, we show for the first time that endogenous p32 protein is a mitochondrial protein in HeLa cells under control and stress conditions. In defining the impact of altering p32 levels in these cells, we demonstrate that the overexpression of p32 increased mitochondrial fibrils. Conversely, siRNA-mediated p32 knockdown enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation accompanied by a loss of detectable levels of the mitochondrial fusion mediator proteins Mfn (mitofusin) 1 and Mfn2. More detailed ultrastructure analysis by transmission electron microscopy revealed aberrant mitochondrial structures with less and/or fragmented cristae and reduced mitochondrial matrix density as well as more punctate ER (endoplasmic reticulum) with noticeable dissociation of their ribosomes. The analysis of mitochondrial bioenergetics showed significantly reduced capacities in basal respiration and oxidative ATP turnover following p32 depletion. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated p32 knockdown resulted in differential stress-dependent effects on cell death, with enhanced cell death observed in the presence of hyperosmotic stress or cisplatin treatment, but decreased cell death in the presence of arsenite. Taken together, our studies highlight the critical contributions of the p32 protein to the morphology of mitochondria and ER under normal cellular conditions, as well as important roles of the p32 protein in cellular metabolism and various stress responses.
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    Quantifying the dynamics of the oligomeric transcription factor STAT3 by pair correlation of molecular brightness
    Hinde, E ; Pandzic, E ; Yang, Z ; Ng, IHW ; Jans, DA ; Bogoyevitch, MA ; Gratton, E ; Gaus, K (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2016-03-01)
    Oligomerization of transcription factors controls their translocation into the nucleus and DNA-binding activity. Here we present a fluorescence microscopy analysis termed pCOMB (pair correlation of molecular brightness) that tracks the mobility of different oligomeric species within live cell nuclear architecture. pCOMB amplifies the signal from the brightest species present and filters the dynamics of the extracted oligomeric population based on arrival time between two locations. We use this method to demonstrate a dependence of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mobility on oligomeric state. We find that on entering the nucleus STAT3 dimers must first bind DNA to form STAT3 tetramers, which are also DNA-bound but exhibit a different mobility signature. Examining the dimer-to-tetramer transition by a cross-pair correlation analysis (cpCOMB) reveals that chromatin accessibility modulates STAT3 tetramer formation. Thus, the pCOMB approach is suitable for mapping the impact oligomerization on transcription factor dynamics.
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    TrawlerWeb: an online de novo motif discovery tool for next-generation sequencing datasets
    Dang, LT ; Tondl, M ; Chiu, MHH ; Revote, J ; Paten, B ; Tano, V ; Tokolyi, A ; Besse, F ; Quaife-Ryan, G ; Cumming, H ; Drvodelic, MJ ; Eichenlaub, MP ; Hallab, JC ; Stolper, JS ; Rossello, FJ ; Bogoyevitch, MA ; Jans, DA ; Nim, HT ; Porrello, ER ; Hudson, JE ; Ramialison, M (BMC, 2018-04-05)
    BACKGROUND: A strong focus of the post-genomic era is mining of the non-coding regulatory genome in order to unravel the function of regulatory elements that coordinate gene expression (Nat 489:57-74, 2012; Nat 507:462-70, 2014; Nat 507:455-61, 2014; Nat 518:317-30, 2015). Whole-genome approaches based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) have provided insight into the genomic location of regulatory elements throughout different cell types, organs and organisms. These technologies are now widespread and commonly used in laboratories from various fields of research. This highlights the need for fast and user-friendly software tools dedicated to extracting cis-regulatory information contained in these regulatory regions; for instance transcription factor binding site (TFBS) composition. Ideally, such tools should not require prior programming knowledge to ensure they are accessible for all users. RESULTS: We present TrawlerWeb, a web-based version of the Trawler_standalone tool (Nat Methods 4:563-5, 2007; Nat Protoc 5:323-34, 2010), to allow for the identification of enriched motifs in DNA sequences obtained from next-generation sequencing experiments in order to predict their TFBS composition. TrawlerWeb is designed for online queries with standard options common to web-based motif discovery tools. In addition, TrawlerWeb provides three unique new features: 1) TrawlerWeb allows the input of BED files directly generated from NGS experiments, 2) it automatically generates an input-matched biologically relevant background, and 3) it displays resulting conservation scores for each instance of the motif found in the input sequences, which assists the researcher in prioritising the motifs to validate experimentally. Finally, to date, this web-based version of Trawler_standalone remains the fastest online de novo motif discovery tool compared to other popular web-based software, while generating predictions with high accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: TrawlerWeb provides users with a fast, simple and easy-to-use web interface for de novo motif discovery. This will assist in rapidly analysing NGS datasets that are now being routinely generated. TrawlerWeb is freely available and accessible at: http://trawler.erc.monash.edu.au .
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    Dynamic microtubule association of Doublecortin X (DCX) is regulated by its C-terminus
    Moslehi, M ; Ng, DCH ; Bogoyevitch, MA (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017-07-12)
    Doublecortin X (DCX), known to be essential for neuronal migration and cortical layering in the developing brain, is a 40 kDa microtubule (MT)-associated protein. DCX directly interacts with MTs via its two structured doublecortin (DC) domains, but the dynamics of this association and the possible regulatory roles played by the flanking unstructured regions remain poorly defined. Here, we employ quantitative fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) protocols in living cells to reveal that DCX shows remarkably rapid and complete exchange within the MT network but that the removal of the C-terminal region significantly slows this exchange. We further probed how MT organization or external stimuli could additionally modulate DCX exchange dynamics. MT depolymerisation (nocodazole treatment) or stabilization (taxol treatment) further enhanced DCX exchange rates, however the exchange rates for the C-terminal truncated DCX protein were resistant to the impact of taxol-induced stabilization. Furthermore, in response to a hyperosmotic stress stimulus, DCX exchange dynamics were slowed, and again the C-terminal truncated DCX protein was resistant to the stimulus. Thus, the DCX dynamically associates with MTs in living cells and its C-terminal region plays important roles in the MT-DCX association.
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    Respiratory syncytial virus co-opts host mitochondrial function to favour infectious virus production
    Hu, M ; Schulze, KE ; Ghildyal, R ; Henstridge, DC ; Kolanowski, JL ; New, EJ ; Hong, Y ; Hsu, AC ; Hansbro, PM ; Wark, PAB ; Bogoyevitch, MA ; Jans, DA (ELIFE SCIENCES PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2019-06-27)
    Although respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is responsible for more human deaths each year than influenza, its pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. Here high-resolution quantitative imaging, bioenergetics measurements and mitochondrial membrane potential- and redox-sensitive dyes are used to define RSV's impact on host mitochondria for the first time, delineating RSV-induced microtubule/dynein-dependent mitochondrial perinuclear clustering, and translocation towards the microtubule-organizing centre. These changes are concomitant with impaired mitochondrial respiration, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Strikingly, agents that target microtubule integrity the dynein motor protein, or inhibit mitochondrial ROS production strongly suppresses RSV virus production, including in a mouse model with concomitantly reduced virus-induced lung inflammation. The results establish RSV's unique ability to co-opt host cell mitochondria to facilitate viral infection, revealing the RSV-mitochondrial interface for the first time as a viable target for therapeutic intervention.
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    Complementary proteomics strategies capture an ataxin-1 interactome in Neuro-2a cells
    Zhang, S ; Williamson, NA ; Bogoyevitch, MA (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018-11-20)
    Ataxin-1 mutation, arising from a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract expansion, is the underlying genetic cause of the late-onset neurodegenerative disease Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1). To identify protein partners of polyQ-ataxin-1 in neuronal cells under control or stress conditions, here we report our complementary proteomics strategies of proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) and affinity purification (via GFP-Trap pulldown) in Neuro-2a cells expressing epitope-tagged forms of ataxin-1[85Q]. These approaches allowed our enrichment of proximal proteins and interacting partners, respectively, with the subsequent protein identification performed by liquid chromatography-MS/MS. Background proteins, not dependent on the presence of the polyQ-ataxin-1 protein, were additionally defined by their endogenous biotinylation (for the BioID protocol) or by their non-specific interaction with GFP only (in the GFP-Trap protocol). All datasets were generated from biological replicates. Following the removal of the identified background proteins from the acquired protein lists, our experimental design has captured a comprehensive polyQ-ataxin-1 proximal and direct protein partners under normal and stress conditions. Data are available via ProteomeXchange, with identifier PXD010352.
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    C-Jun N-terminal kinase controls TDP-43 accumulation in stress granules induced by oxidative stress
    Meyerowitz, J ; Parker, SJ ; Vella, LJ ; Ng, DCH ; Price, KA ; Liddell, JR ; Caragounis, A ; Li, Q-X ; Masters, CL ; Nonaka, T ; Hasegawa, M ; Bogoyevitch, MA ; Kanninen, KM ; Crouch, PJ ; White, AR (BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2011-08-08)
    BACKGROUND: TDP-43 proteinopathies are characterized by loss of nuclear TDP-43 expression and formation of C-terminal TDP-43 fragmentation and accumulation in the cytoplasm. Recent studies have shown that TDP-43 can accumulate in RNA stress granules (SGs) in response to cell stresses and this could be associated with subsequent formation of TDP-43 ubiquinated protein aggregates. However, the initial mechanisms controlling endogenous TDP-43 accumulation in SGs during chronic disease are not understood. In this study we investigated the mechanism of TDP-43 processing and accumulation in SGs in SH-SY5Y neuronal-like cells exposed to chronic oxidative stress. Cell cultures were treated overnight with the mitochondrial inhibitor paraquat and examined for TDP-43 and SG processing. RESULTS: We found that mild stress induced by paraquat led to formation of TDP-43 and HuR-positive SGs, a proportion of which were ubiquitinated. The co-localization of TDP-43 with SGs could be fully prevented by inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). JNK inhibition did not prevent formation of HuR-positive SGs and did not prevent diffuse TDP-43 accumulation in the cytosol. In contrast, ERK or p38 inhibition prevented formation of both TDP-43 and HuR-positive SGs. JNK inhibition also inhibited TDP-43 SG localization in cells acutely treated with sodium arsenite and reduced the number of aggregates per cell in cultures transfected with C-terminal TDP-43 162-414 and 219-414 constructs. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies are the first to demonstrate a critical role for kinase control of TDP-43 accumulation in SGs and may have important implications for development of treatments for FTD and ALS, targeting cell signal pathway control of TDP-43 aggregation.
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    Tracking protein aggregation and mislocalization in cells with flow cytometry
    Ramdzan, YM ; Polling, S ; Chia, CPZ ; Ng, IHW ; Ormsby, AR ; Croft, NP ; Purcell, AW ; Bogoyevitch, MA ; Ng, DCH ; Gleeson, PA ; Hatters, DM (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2012-05-01)
    We applied pulse-shape analysis (PulSA) to monitor protein localization changes in mammalian cells by flow cytometry. PulSA enabled high-throughput tracking of protein aggregation, translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and trafficking from the plasma membrane to the Golgi as well as stress-granule formation. Combining PulSA with tetracysteine-based oligomer sensors in a cell model of Huntington's disease enabled further separation of cells enriched with monomers, oligomers and inclusion bodies.
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    Dual role of Src kinase in governing neuronal survival
    Hossaina, MI ; Hoquel, A ; Lessene, G ; Kamaruddin, MA ; Chu, PWY ; Ng, IHW ; Irtegun, S ; Ng, DCH ; Bogoyevitch, MA ; Burgess, AW ; Hill, AF ; Cheng, H-C (ELSEVIER, 2015-01-12)
    BACKGROUND: Src-family kinases (SFKs) are involved in neuronal survival and their aberrant regulation contributes to neuronal death. However, how they control neuronal survival and death remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To define the effect of inhibition of Src activity and expression on neuronal survival. RESULTS: In agreement with our previous findings, we demonstrated that Src was cleaved by calpain to form a 52-kDa truncated fragment in neurons undergoing excitotoxic cell death, and expression of the recombinant truncated Src fragment induced neuronal death. The data confirm that the neurotoxic signaling pathways are intact in the neurons we used for our study. To define the functional role of neuronal SFKs, we treated these neurons with SFK inhibitors and discovered that the treatment induced cell death, suggesting that the catalytic activity of one or more of the neuronal SFKs is critical to neuronal survival. Using small hairpin RNAs that suppress Src expression, we demonstrated that Src is indispensable to neuronal survival. Additionally, we found that neuronal death induced by expression of the neurotoxic truncated Src mutant, treatment of SFK inhibitors or knock-down of Src expression caused inhibition of the neuroprotective protein kinases Erk1/2, or Akt. CONCLUSIONS: Src is critical to both neuronal survival and death. Intact Src sustains neuronal survival. However, in the excitotoxic condition, calpain cleavage of Src generates a neurotoxic truncated Src fragment. Both intact Src and the neurotoxic truncated Src fragment exert their biological actions by controlling the activities of neuroprotective protein kinases.
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    Selective STAT3-alpha or -beta expression reveals spliceform-specific phosphorylation kinetics, nuclear retention and distinct gene expression outcomes
    Ng, IHW ; Ng, DCH ; Jans, DA ; Bogoyevitch, MA (PORTLAND PRESS LTD, 2012-10-01)
    Phosphorylation of STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) is critical for its nuclear import and transcriptional activity. Although a shorter STAT3β spliceform was initially described as a negative regulator of STAT3α, gene knockout studies have revealed that both forms play critical roles. We have expressed STAT3α and STAT3β at comparable levels to facilitate a direct comparison of their functional effects, and have shown their different cytokine-stimulated kinetics of phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Notably, the sustained nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of STAT3β following cytokine exposure contrasted with a transient nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of STAT3α. Importantly, co-expression of the spliceforms revealed that STAT3β enhanced and prolonged the phosphorylation and nuclear retention of STAT3α, but a STAT3β R609L mutant, with a disrupted SH2 (Src homology 2) domain, was not tyrosine phosphorylated following cytokine stimulation and could not cross-regulate STAT3α. The physiological importance of prolonged phosphorylation and nuclear retention was indicated by transcriptome profiling of STAT3(-/-) cells expressing either STAT3α or STAT3β, revealing the complexity of genes that are up- and down-regulated by the STAT3 spliceforms, including a distinct set of STAT3β-specific genes regulated under basal conditions and after cytokine stimulation. These results highlight STAT3β as a significant transcriptional regulator in its own right, with additional actions to cross-regulate STAT3α phosphorylation and nuclear retention after cytokine stimulation.