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ItemPersistent circulation of a fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica Typhi clone in the Indian subcontinentBritto, CD ; Dyson, ZA ; Mathias, S ; Bosco, A ; Dougan, G ; Jose, S ; Nagaraj, S ; Holt, KE ; Pollard, AJ (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2020-02-01)BACKGROUND: The molecular structure of circulating enteric fever pathogens was studied using hospital-based genomic surveillance in a tertiary care referral centre in South India as a first genomic surveillance study, to our knowledge, of blood culture-confirmed enteric fever in the region. METHODS: Blood culture surveillance was conducted at St John's Medical College Hospital, Bengaluru, between July 2016 and June 2017. The bacterial isolates collected were linked to demographic variables of patients and subjected to WGS. The resulting pathogen genomic data were also globally contextualized to gauge possible phylogeographical patterns. RESULTS: Hospital-based genomic surveillance for enteric fever in Bengaluru, India, identified 101 Salmonella enterica Typhi and 14 S. Paratyphi A in a 1 year period. Ninety-six percent of isolates displayed non-susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. WGS showed the dominant pathogen was S. Typhi genotype 126.96.36.199 (H58 lineage II). A fluoroquinolone-resistant triple-mutant clone of S. Typhi 188.8.131.52 previously associated with gatifloxacin treatment failure in Nepal was implicated in 18% of enteric fever cases, indicating ongoing inter-regional circulation. CONCLUSIONS: Enteric fever in South India continues to be a major public health issue and is strongly associated with antimicrobial resistance. Robust microbiological surveillance is necessary to direct appropriate treatment and preventive strategies. Of particular concern is the emergence and expansion of the highly fluoroquinolone-resistant triple-mutant S. Typhi clone and its ongoing inter- and intra-country transmission in South Asia, which highlights the need for regional coordination of intervention strategies, including vaccination and longer-term strategies such as improvements to support hygiene and sanitation.
ItemPathogen genomic surveillance of typhoidalSalmonellainfection in adults and children reveals no association between clinical outcomes and infecting genotypesBritto, CD ; Mathias, S ; Bosco, A ; Dyson, ZA ; Dougan, G ; Raveendran, S ; Abin, VL ; Jose, S ; Nagaraj, S ; Holt, KE ; Pollard, AJ (BMC, 2020-07-13)BACKGROUND: India is endemic for enteric fever, and it is not known whether the variations in clinical manifestations between patients are due to host, environmental or pathogen factors.Blood culture surveillance was conducted at St. John's Medical College Hospital, Bangalore, between July 2016 and June 2017. Clinical, laboratory and demographic data were collected from each case, and bacterial isolates were subjected to whole genome sequencing. Comparative analysis between adults and paediatric patients was carried out to ascertain differences between adult and paediatric disease. RESULTS: Among the 113 cases of blood culture-confirmed enteric fever, young adults (16-30 years) and children < 15 years accounted for 47% and 37% of cases, respectively. Anaemia on presentation was seen in 46% of cases, and 19% had an abnormal leucocyte count on presentation. The majority received treatment as inpatients (70%), and among these, adults had a significantly longer duration of admission when compared with children (p = 0.002). There were atypical presentations including arthritis, acute haemolysis and a case of repeated typhoid infection with two separate S. Typhi genotypes. There was no association between infecting genotype/serovar and treatment status (outpatient vs inpatient), month of isolation, duration of admission, patient age (adult or child), antimicrobial susceptibility, Widal positivity or haematologic parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Amidst the many public health concerns of South India, enteric fever continues to contribute substantially to hospital burden with non-specific as well as uncommon clinical features in both paediatric and adult populations likely driven by host and environmental factors. Robust clinical surveillance as well monitoring of pathogen population structure is required to inform treatment and preventive strategies.
ItemProtection conferred by typhoid fever against recurrent typhoid fever in urban KolkataIm, J ; Islam, MT ; Kim, DR ; Ahmmed, F ; Chon, Y ; Zaman, K ; Khan, AI ; Ali, M ; Sur, D ; Kanungo, S ; Dutta, S ; Bhattacharya, SK ; Dougan, G ; Holt, KE ; Marks, F ; Kim, JH ; Qadri, F ; Clemens, JD ; Diemert, DJ (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2020-08-01)We evaluated the protection conferred by a first documented visit for clinical care of typhoid fever against recurrent typhoid fever prompting a visit. This study takes advantage of multi-year follow-up of a population with endemic typhoid participating in a cluster-randomized control trial of Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine in Kolkata, India. A population of 70,566 individuals, of whom 37,673 were vaccinated with one dose of either Vi vaccine or a control (Hepatitis A) vaccine, were observed for four years. Surveillance detected 315 first typhoid visits, among whom 4 developed subsequent typhoid, 3 due to reinfection, defined using genomic criteria and corresponding to -124% (95% CI: -599, 28) protection by the initial illness. Point estimates of protection conferred by an initial illness were negative or negligible in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated subjects, though confidence intervals around the point estimates were wide. These data provide little support for a protective immunizing effect of clinically treated typhoid illness, though modest levels of protection cannot be excluded.