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    Post-outbreak surveillance strategies to support proof of freedom from foot-and-mouth disease
    Bradhurst, R ; Garner, G ; East, I ; Death, C ; Dodd, A ; Kompas, T ( 2021-04-28)
    Abstract Whilst emergency vaccination may help contain foot-and-mouth disease in a previously FMD-free country, its use complicates post-outbreak surveillance and the recovery of FMD-free status. A structured surveillance program is required that can distinguish between vaccinated and residually infected animals, and provide statistical confidence that the virus is no longer circulating in previously infected areas. Epidemiological models have been well-used to investigate the potential benefits of emergency vaccination during a control progam and when/where/whom to vaccinate in the face of finite supplies of vaccine and personnel. Less well studied are post-outbreak issues such as the management of vaccinated animals and the implications of having used vaccination during surveillance regimes to support proof-of-freedom. This paper presents enhancements to the Australian Animal Disease Model (AADIS) that allow comparisons of different post-outbreak surveillance sampling regimes for establishing proof-of-freedom from FMD. A case study is provided that compares a baseline surveillance sampling regime (derived from current OIE guidelines), with an alternative less intensive sampling regime. It was found that when vaccination was not part of the control program, a reduced sampling intensity significantly reduced the number of samples collected and the cost of the post-outbreak surveillance program, without increasing the risk of missing residual infected herds.
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    Management strategies for vaccinated animals after an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease and the impact on return to trade
    Bradhurst, R ; Garner, G ; East, I ; Death, C ; Dodd, A ; Kompas, T ; Parida, S (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2019-10-11)
    An incursion of Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in a previously FMD-free country can cause significant economic damage from immediate and prolonged closure of FMD-sensitive markets. Whilst emergency vaccination may help contain disease, the presence of vaccinated animals complicates post-outbreak management and the recovery of FMD-free status for return to trade. We present enhancements to the Australian Animal DISease (AADIS) model that allow comparisons of post-outbreak management strategies for vaccinated animals, for the purposes of securing the earliest possible return to trade. Two case studies are provided that compare the retention of vaccinated animals with removal for waste/salvage, and the impact on recovery of FMD-sensitive markets per OIE guidelines. It was found that a vaccinate-and-retain strategy was associated with lower post-outbreak management costs, however this advantage was outweighed by significantly higher trade losses. Under the assumptions of the study there was no cost advantage to salvaging the removed vaccinated animals.