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    Establishment of Wolbachia Strain wAlbB in Malaysian Populations of Aedes aegypti for Dengue Control
    Nazni, WA ; Hoffmann, AA ; NoorAfizah, A ; Cheong, YL ; Mancini, MV ; Golding, N ; Kamarul, GMR ; Arif, MAK ; Thohir, H ; NurSyamimi, H ; ZatilAqmar, MZ ; NurRuqqayah, M ; NorSyazwani, A ; Faiz, A ; Irfan, F-RMN ; Rubaaini, S ; Nuradila, N ; Nizam, NMN ; Irwan, SM ; Endersby-Harshman, NM ; White, VL ; Ant, TH ; Herd, CS ; Hasnor, AH ; AbuBakar, R ; Hapsah, DM ; Khadijah, K ; Kamilan, D ; Lee, SC ; Paid, YM ; Fadzilah, K ; Topek, O ; Gill, BS ; Lee, HL ; Sinkins, SP (CELL PRESS, 2019-12-16)
    Dengue has enormous health impacts globally. A novel approach to decrease dengue incidence involves the introduction of Wolbachia endosymbionts that block dengue virus transmission into populations of the primary vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The wMel Wolbachia strain has previously been trialed in open releases of Ae. aegypti; however, the wAlbB strain has been shown to maintain higher density than wMel at high larval rearing temperatures. Releases of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes carrying wAlbB were carried out in 6 diverse sites in greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with high endemic dengue transmission. The strain was successfully established and maintained at very high population frequency at some sites or persisted with additional releases following fluctuations at other sites. Based on passive case monitoring, reduced human dengue incidence was observed in the release sites when compared to control sites. The wAlbB strain of Wolbachia provides a promising option as a tool for dengue control, particularly in very hot climates.
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    Past and future spread of the arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (vol 4, pg 854, 2019)
    Kraemer, MUG ; Reiner, RC ; Brady, OJ ; Messina, JP ; Gilbert, M ; Pigott, DM ; Yi, D ; Johnson, K ; Earl, L ; Marczak, LB ; Shirude, S ; Weaver, ND ; Bisanzio, D ; Perkins, TA ; Lai, S ; Lu, X ; Jones, P ; Coelho, GE ; Carvalho, RG ; Van Bortel, W ; Marsboom, C ; Hendrickx, G ; Schaffner, F ; Moore, CG ; Nax, HH ; Bengtsson, L ; Wetter, E ; Tatem, AJ ; Brownstein, JS ; Smith, DL ; Lambrechts, L ; Cauchemez, S ; Linard, C ; Faria, NR ; Pybus, OG ; Scott, TW ; Liu, Q ; Yu, H ; Wint, GRW ; Hay, SI ; Golding, N (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-05-01)
    This Article was mistakenly not made Open Access when originally published; this has now been amended, and information about the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License has been added into the 'Additional information' section.
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    Past and future spread of the arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (vol 4, pg 854, 2019)
    Kraemer, MUG ; Reiner, RC ; Brady, OJ ; Messina, JP ; Gilbert, M ; Pigott, DM ; Yi, D ; Johnson, K ; Earl, L ; Marczak, LB ; Shirude, S ; Weaver, ND ; Bisanzio, D ; Perkins, TA ; Lai, S ; Lu, X ; Jones, P ; Coelho, GE ; Carvalho, RG ; Van Bortel, W ; Marsboom, C ; Hendrickx, G ; Schaffner, F ; Moore, CG ; Nax, HH ; Bengtsson, L ; Wetter, E ; Tatem, AJ ; Brownstein, JS ; Smith, DL ; Lambrechts, L ; Cauchemez, S ; Linard, C ; Faria, NR ; Pybus, OG ; Scott, TW ; Liu, Q ; Yu, H ; Wint, GRW ; Hay, SI ; Golding, N (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-05-01)
    In the version of this Article originally published, the affiliation for author Catherine Linard was incorrectly stated as '6Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK'. The correct affiliation is '9Spatial Epidemiology Lab (SpELL), Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium'. The affiliation for author Hongjie Yu was also incorrectly stated as '11Department of Statistics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA'. The correct affiliation is '15School of Health, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, China'. This has now been amended in all versions of the Article.
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    Measurement of the Infection and Dissemination of Bluetongue Virus in Culicoides Biting Midges Using a Semi-Quantitative RT-PCR Assay and Isolation of Infectious Virus
    Veronesi, E ; Antony, F ; Gubbins, S ; Golding, N ; Blackwell, A ; Mertens, PPC ; Brownlie, J ; Darpel, KE ; Mellor, PS ; Carpenter, S ; Brown, JD (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2013-08-05)
    BACKGROUND: Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are the biological vectors of globally significant arboviruses of livestock including bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus (AHSV) and the recently emerging Schmallenberg virus (SBV). From 2006-2009 outbreaks of BTV in northern Europe inflicted major disruption and economic losses to farmers and several attempts were made to implicate Palaearctic Culicoides species as vectors. Results from these studies were difficult to interpret as they used semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sqPCR) assays as the major diagnostic tool, a technique that had not been validated for use in this role. In this study we validate the use of these assays by carrying out time-series detection of BTV RNA in two colony species of Culicoides and compare the results with the more traditional isolation of infectious BTV on cell culture. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A BTV serotype 1 strain mixed with horse blood was fed to several hundred individuals of Culicoides sonorensis (Wirth & Jones) and C. nubeculosus (Mg.) using a membrane-based assay and replete individuals were then incubated at 25°C. At daily intervals 25 Culicoides of each species were removed from incubation, homogenised and BTV quantified in each individual using sqPCR (Cq values) and virus isolation on a KC-C. sonorensis embryonic cell line, followed by antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, comparisons were also drawn between the results obtained with whole C. sonorensis and with individually dissected individuals to determine the level of BTV dissemination. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cq values generated from time-series infection experiments in both C. sonorensis and C. nubeculosus confirmed previous studies that relied upon the isolation and detection of infectious BTV. Implications on the testing of field-collected Culicoides as potential virus vectors by PCR assays and the use of such assays as front-line tools for use in diagnostic laboratories in this role are discussed.
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    Defining the Geographical Range of the Plasmodium knowlesi Reservoir
    Moyes, CL ; Henry, AJ ; Golding, N ; Huang, Z ; Singh, B ; Baird, JK ; Newton, PN ; Huffman, M ; Duda, KA ; Drakeley, CJ ; Elyazar, IRF ; Anstey, NM ; Chen, Q ; Zommers, Z ; Bhatt, S ; Gething, PW ; Hay, SI ; Escalante, AA (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2014-03-01)
    BACKGROUND: The simian malaria parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi, can cause severe and fatal disease in humans yet it is rarely included in routine public health reporting systems for malaria and its geographical range is largely unknown. Because malaria caused by P. knowlesi is a truly neglected tropical disease, there are substantial obstacles to defining the geographical extent and risk of this disease. Information is required on the occurrence of human cases in different locations, on which non-human primates host this parasite and on which vectors are able to transmit it to humans. We undertook a systematic review and ranked the existing evidence, at a subnational spatial scale, to investigate the potential geographical range of the parasite reservoir capable of infecting humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After reviewing the published literature we identified potential host and vector species and ranked these based on how informative they are for the presence of an infectious parasite reservoir, based on current evidence. We collated spatial data on parasite occurrence and the ranges of the identified host and vector species. The ranked spatial data allowed us to assign an evidence score to 475 subnational areas in 19 countries and we present the results on a map of the Southeast and South Asia region. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have ranked subnational areas within the potential disease range according to evidence for presence of a disease risk to humans, providing geographical evidence to support decisions on prevention, management and prophylaxis. This work also highlights the unknown risk status of large parts of the region. Within this unknown category, our map identifies which areas have most evidence for the potential to support an infectious reservoir and are therefore a priority for further investigation. Furthermore we identify geographical areas where further investigation of putative host and vector species would be highly informative for the region-wide assessment.
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    Global Distribution Maps of the Leishmaniases
    Pigott, DM ; Bhatt, S ; Golding, N ; Duda, KA ; Battle, KE ; Brady, OJ ; Messina, JP ; Balard, Y ; Bastien, P ; Pratlong, F ; Brownstein, JS ; Freifeld, C ; Mekaru, SR ; Gething, PW ; George, DB ; Myers, MF ; Reithinger, R ; Hay, SI (ELIFE SCIENCES PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2014-06-27)
    The leishmaniases are vector-borne diseases that have a broad global distribution throughout much of the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Despite representing a significant public health burden, our understanding of the global distribution of the leishmaniases remains vague, reliant upon expert opinion and limited to poor spatial resolution. A global assessment of the consensus of evidence for leishmaniasis was performed at a sub-national level by aggregating information from a variety of sources. A database of records of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis occurrence was compiled from published literature, online reports, strain archives, and GenBank accessions. These, with a suite of biologically relevant environmental covariates, were used in a boosted regression tree modelling framework to generate global environmental risk maps for the leishmaniases. These high-resolution evidence-based maps can help direct future surveillance activities, identify areas to target for disease control and inform future burden estimation efforts.
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    The global distribution of the arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus
    Kraemer, MUG ; Sinka, ME ; Duda, KA ; Mylne, AQN ; Shearer, FM ; Barker, CM ; Moore, CG ; Carvalho, RG ; Coelho, GE ; Van Bortel, W ; Hendrickx, G ; Schaffner, F ; Elyazar, IRF ; Teng, H-J ; Brady, OJ ; Messina, JP ; Pigott, DM ; Scott, TW ; Smith, DL ; Wint, GRW ; Golding, N ; Hay, SI (eLIFE SCIENCES PUBL LTD, 2015-06-30)
    Dengue and chikungunya are increasing global public health concerns due to their rapid geographical spread and increasing disease burden. Knowledge of the contemporary distribution of their shared vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus remains incomplete and is complicated by an ongoing range expansion fuelled by increased global trade and travel. Mapping the global distribution of these vectors and the geographical determinants of their ranges is essential for public health planning. Here we compile the largest contemporary database for both species and pair it with relevant environmental variables predicting their global distribution. We show Aedes distributions to be the widest ever recorded; now extensive in all continents, including North America and Europe. These maps will help define the spatial limits of current autochthonous transmission of dengue and chikungunya viruses. It is only with this kind of rigorous entomological baseline that we can hope to project future health impacts of these viruses.
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    Mapping and Modelling the Geographical Distribution and Environmental Limits of Podoconiosis in Ethiopia
    Deribe, K ; Cano, J ; Newport, MJ ; Golding, N ; Pullan, RL ; Sime, H ; Gebretsadik, A ; Assefa, A ; Kebede, A ; Hailu, A ; Rebollo, MP ; Shafi, O ; Bockarie, MJ ; Aseffa, A ; Hay, SI ; Reithinger, R ; Enquselassie, F ; Davey, G ; Brooker, SJ ; Soares Magalhaes, RJ (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2015-07-01)
    BACKGROUND: Ethiopia is assumed to have the highest burden of podoconiosis globally, but the geographical distribution and environmental limits and correlates are yet to be fully investigated. In this paper we use data from a nationwide survey to address these issues. METHODOLOGY: Our analyses are based on data arising from the integrated mapping of podoconiosis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) conducted in 2013, supplemented by data from an earlier mapping of LF in western Ethiopia in 2008-2010. The integrated mapping used woreda (district) health offices' reports of podoconiosis and LF to guide selection of survey sites. A suite of environmental and climatic data and boosted regression tree (BRT) modelling was used to investigate environmental limits and predict the probability of podoconiosis occurrence. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data were available for 141,238 individuals from 1,442 communities in 775 districts from all nine regional states and two city administrations of Ethiopia. In 41.9% of surveyed districts no cases of podoconiosis were identified, with all districts in Affar, Dire Dawa, Somali and Gambella regional states lacking the disease. The disease was most common, with lymphoedema positivity rate exceeding 5%, in the central highlands of Ethiopia, in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples regional states. BRT modelling indicated that the probability of podoconiosis occurrence increased with increasing altitude, precipitation and silt fraction of soil and decreased with population density and clay content. Based on the BRT model, we estimate that in 2010, 34.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.2-51.7) million people (i.e. 43.8%; 95% CI: 25.3-64.8% of Ethiopia's national population) lived in areas environmentally suitable for the occurrence of podoconiosis. CONCLUSIONS: Podoconiosis is more widespread in Ethiopia than previously estimated, but occurs in distinct geographical regions that are tied to identifiable environmental factors. The resultant maps can be used to guide programme planning and implementation and estimate disease burden in Ethiopia. This work provides a framework with which the geographical limits of podoconiosis could be delineated at a continental scale.
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    Updates to the zoonotic niche map of Ebola virus disease in Africa
    Pigott, DM ; Millear, AI ; Earl, L ; Morozoff, C ; Han, BA ; Shearer, FM ; Weiss, DJ ; Brady, OJ ; Kraemer, MUG ; Moyes, CL ; Bhatt, S ; Gething, PW ; Golding, N ; Hay, SI (ELIFE SCIENCES PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2016-07-14)
    As the outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa is now contained, attention is turning from control to future outbreak prediction and prevention. Building on a previously published zoonotic niche map (Pigott et al., 2014), this study incorporates new human and animal occurrence data and expands upon the way in which potential bat EVD reservoir species are incorporated. This update demonstrates the potential for incorporating and updating data used to generate the predicted suitability map. A new data portal for sharing such maps is discussed. This output represents the most up-to-date estimate of the extent of EVD zoonotic risk in Africa. These maps can assist in strengthening surveillance and response capacity to contain viral haemorrhagic fevers.
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    Mapping global environmental suitability for Zika virus
    Messina, JP ; Kraemer, MUG ; Brady, OJ ; Pigott, DM ; Shearer, FM ; Weiss, DJ ; Golding, N ; Ruktanonchar, CW ; Gething, PW ; Cohn, E ; Brownstein, JS ; Khan, K ; Tatem, AJ ; Jaenisch, T ; Murray, CJL ; Marinho, F ; Scott, TW ; Hay, SI (eLIFE SCIENCES PUBL LTD, 2016-04-19)
    Zika virus was discovered in Uganda in 1947 and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which also act as vectors for dengue and chikungunya viruses throughout much of the tropical world. In 2007, an outbreak in the Federated States of Micronesia sparked public health concern. In 2013, the virus began to spread across other parts of Oceania and in 2015, a large outbreak in Latin America began in Brazil. Possible associations with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome observed in this outbreak have raised concerns about continued global spread of Zika virus, prompting its declaration as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization. We conducted species distribution modelling to map environmental suitability for Zika. We show a large portion of tropical and sub-tropical regions globally have suitable environmental conditions with over 2.17 billion people inhabiting these areas.