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    The metabolic environment of the developing embryo: A multidisciplinary approach on oilseed rapeseed
    Rolletschek, H ; Mayer, S ; Boughton, B ; Wagner, S ; Ortleb, S ; Kiel, C ; Roessner, U ; Borisjuk, L (ELSEVIER GMBH, 2021-09-01)
    Brassicaceae seeds consist of three genetically distinct structures: the embryo, endosperm and seed coat, all of which are involved in assimilate allocation during seed development. The complexity of their metabolic interrelations remains unresolved to date. In the present study, we apply state-of-the-art imaging and analytical approaches to assess the metabolic environment of the Brassica napus embryo. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provided volumetric data on the living embryo and endosperm, revealing how the endosperm envelops the embryo, determining endosperm's priority in assimilate uptake from the seed coat during early development. MRI analysis showed higher levels of sugars in the peripheral endosperm facing the seed coat, but a lower sugar content within the central vacuole and the region surrounding the embryo. Feeding intact siliques with 13C-labeled sucrose allowed tracing of the post-phloem route of sucrose transfer within the seed at the heart stage of embryogenesis, by means of mass spectrometry imaging. Quantification of over 70 organic and inorganic compounds in the endosperm revealed shifts in their abundance over different stages of development, while sugars and potassium were the main determinants of osmolality throughout these stages. Our multidisciplinary approach allows access to the hidden aspects of endosperm metabolism, a task which remains unattainable for the small-seeded model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.
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    Membrane-Enriched Proteomics Link Ribosome Accumulation and Proteome Reprogramming With Cold Acclimation in Barley Root Meristems
    Martinez-Seidel, F ; Suwanchaikasem, P ; Nie, S ; Leeming, MG ; Pereira Firmino, AA ; Williamson, NA ; Kopka, J ; Roessner, U ; Boughton, BA (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2021-04-30)
    Due to their sessile nature, plants rely on root systems to mediate many biotic and abiotic cues. To overcome these challenges, the root proteome is shaped to specific responses. Proteome-wide reprogramming events are magnified in meristems due to their active protein production. Using meristems as a test system, here, we study the major rewiring that plants undergo during cold acclimation. We performed tandem mass tag-based bottom-up quantitative proteomics of two consecutive segments of barley seminal root apexes subjected to suboptimal temperatures. After comparing changes in total and ribosomal protein (RP) fraction-enriched contents with shifts in individual protein abundances, we report ribosome accumulation accompanied by an intricate translational reprogramming in the distal apex zone. Reprogramming ranges from increases in ribosome biogenesis to protein folding factors and suggests roles for cold-specific RP paralogs. Ribosome biogenesis is the largest cellular investment; thus, the vast accumulation of ribosomes and specific translation-related proteins during cold acclimation could imply a divergent ribosomal population that would lead to a proteome shift across the root. Consequently, beyond the translational reprogramming, we report a proteome rewiring. First, triggered protein accumulation includes spliceosome activity in the root tip and a ubiquitous upregulation of glutathione production and S-glutathionylation (S-GSH) assemblage machineries in both root zones. Second, triggered protein depletion includes intrinsically enriched proteins in the tip-adjacent zone, which comprise the plant immune system. In summary, ribosome and translation-related protein accumulation happens concomitantly to a proteome reprogramming in barley root meristems during cold acclimation. The cold-accumulated proteome is functionally implicated in feedbacking transcript to protein translation at both ends and could guide cold acclimation.
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    Comparative spatial lipidomics analysis reveals cellular lipid remodelling in different developmental zones of barley roots in response to salinity
    Sarabia, LD ; Boughton, BA ; Rupasinghe, T ; Callahan, DL ; Hill, CB ; Roessner, U (WILEY, 2019-11-29)
    Salinity-induced metabolic, ionic, and transcript modifications in plants have routinely been studied using whole plant tissues, which do not provide information on spatial tissue responses. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in the lipid profiles in a spatial manner and to quantify the changes in the elemental composition in roots of seedlings of four barley cultivars before and after a short-term salt stress. We used a combination of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging, and reverse transcription - quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction platforms to examine the molecular signatures of lipids, ions, and transcripts in three anatomically different seminal root tissues before and after salt stress. We found significant changes to the levels of major lipid classes including a decrease in the levels of lysoglycerophospholipids, ceramides, and hexosylceramides and an increase in the levels of glycerophospholipids, hydroxylated ceramides, and hexosylceramides. Our results revealed that modifications to lipid and transcript profiles in plant roots in response to a short-term salt stress may involve recycling of major lipid species, such as phosphatidylcholine, via resynthesis from glycerophosphocholine.
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    Metabolic Profiling of Diabetic Cats in Remission
    Gottlieb, S ; Rand, J ; Anderson, ST ; Morton, JM ; Dias, DA ; Boughton, BA ; Roessner, U ; Ramadan, Z (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2020-05-15)
    Background: The majority of diabetic cats in remission have abnormal glucose tolerance, and approximately one third relapse within 1 year. Greater understanding of the metabolic characteristics of diabetic cats in remission, and predictors of relapse is required to effectively monitor and manage these cats. Objectives: To identify and compare differences in plasma metabolites between diabetic cats in remission and healthy control cats using a metabolomics approach. Secondly, to assess whether identified metabolites are predictors of diabetic relapse. Animals: Twenty cats in diabetic remission for a median of 101 days, and 22 healthy matched control cats. Methods: Cats were admitted to a clinic, and casual blood glucose was recorded. After a 24 h fast, blood glucose concentration was measured, then a blood sample was taken for metabolomic (GCMS and LCMS) analyses. Three hours later, a simplified intravenous glucose tolerance test (1 g glucose/kg) was performed. Cats were monitored for diabetes relapse for at least 9 months (270 days) after baseline testing. Results: Most cats in remission continued to display impaired glucose tolerance. Concentrations of 16 identified metabolites differed (P ≤ 0.05) between remission and control cats: 10 amino acids and stearic acid (all lower in remission cats), and glucose, glycine, xylitol, urea and carnitine (all higher in remission cats). Moderately close correlations were found between these 16 metabolites and variables assessing glycaemic responses (most |r| = 0.31 to 0.69). Five cats in remission relapsed during the study period. No metabolite was identified as a predictor of relapse. Conclusion and clinical importance: This study shows that cats in diabetic remission have abnormal metabolism.
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    Insights Into Oxidized Lipid Modification in Barley Roots as an Adaptation Mechanism to Salinity Stress
    Yu, D ; Boughton, BA ; Hill, CB ; Feussner, I ; Roessner, U ; Rupasinghe, TWT (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2020-02-04)
    Lipidomics is an emerging technology, which aims at the global characterization and quantification of lipids within biological matrices including biofluids, cells, whole organs and tissues. The changes in individual lipid molecular species in stress treated plant species and different cultivars can indicate the functions of genes affecting lipid metabolism or lipid signaling. Mass spectrometry-based lipid profiling has been used to track the changes of lipid levels and related metabolites in response to salinity stress. We have developed a comprehensive lipidomics platform for the identification and direct qualification and/or quantification of individual lipid species, including oxidized lipids, which enables a more systematic investigation of peroxidation of individual lipid species in barley roots under salinity stress. This new lipidomics approach has improved with an advantage of analyzing the composition of acyl chains at the molecular level, which facilitates to profile precisely the 18:3-containing diacyl-glycerophosphates and allowed individual comparison of lipids across varieties. Our findings revealed a general decrease in most of the galactolipids in plastid membranes, and an increase of glycerophospholipids and acylated steryl glycosides, which indicate that plastidial and extraplastidial membranes in barley roots ubiquitously tend to form a hexagonal II (HII) phase under salinity stress. In addition, salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivars showed contrasting changes in the levels of oxidized membrane lipids. These results support the hypothesis that salt-induced oxidative damage to membrane lipids can be used as an indication of salt stress tolerance in barley.
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    Spatio-Temporal Metabolite and Elemental Profiling of Salt Stressed Barley Seeds During Initial Stages of Germination by MALDI-MSI and mu-XRF Spectrometry
    Gupta, S ; Rupasinghe, T ; Callahan, DL ; Natera, SHA ; Smith, PMC ; Hill, CB ; Roessner, U ; Boughton, BA (Frontiers Media, 2019-09-25)
    Seed germination is the essential first step in crop establishment, and can be severely affected by salinity stress which can inhibit essential metabolic processes during the germination process. Salt stress during seed germination can trigger lipid-dependent signalling cascades that activate plant adaptation processes, lead to changes in membrane fluidity to help resist the stress, and cause secondary metabolite responses due to increased oxidative stress. In germinating barley (Hordeum vulgare), knowledge of the changes in spatial distribution of lipids and other small molecules at a cellular level in response to salt stress is limited. In this study, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) were used to determine the spatial distribution of metabolites, lipids and a range of elements, such as K+ and Na+, in seeds of two barley genotypes with contrasting germination phenology (Australian barley varieties Mundah and Keel). We detected and tentatively identified more than 200 lipid species belonging to seven major lipid classes (fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, prenol lipids, sterol lipids, and polyketides) that differed in their spatial distribution based on genotype (Mundah or Keel), time post-imbibition (0 to 72 h), or treatment (control or salt). We found a tentative flavonoid was discriminant in post-imbibed Mundah embryos under saline conditions, and a delayed flavonoid response in Keel relative to Mundah. We further employed MSI-MS/MS and LC-QToF-MS/MS to explore the identity of the discriminant flavonoid and study the temporal pattern in five additional barley genotypes. ICP-MS was used to quantify the elemental composition of both Mundah and Keel seeds, showing a significant increase in Na+ in salt treated samples. Spatial mapping of elements using µ-XRF localized the elements within the seeds. This study integrates data obtained from three mass spectrometry platforms together with µ-XRF to yield information on the localization of lipids, metabolites and elements improving our understanding of the germination process under salt stress at a molecular level.
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    Transition from a maternal to external nitrogen source in maize seedlings
    Sabermanesh, K ; Holtham, LR ; George, J ; Roessner, U ; Boughton, BA ; Heuer, S ; Tester, M ; Plett, DC ; Garnett, TP (WILEY, 2017-04-01)
    Maximizing NO3- uptake during seedling development is important as it has a major influence on plant growth and yield. However, little is known about the processes leading to, and involved in, the initiation of root NO3- uptake capacity in developing seedlings. This study examines the physiological processes involved in root NO3- uptake and metabolism, to gain an understanding of how the NO3- uptake system responds to meet demand as maize seedlings transition from seed N use to external N capture. The concentrations of seed-derived free amino acids within root and shoot tissues are initially high, but decrease rapidly until stabilizing eight days after imbibition (DAI). Similarly, shoot N% decreases, but does not stabilize until 12-13 DAI. Following the decrease in free amino acid concentrations, root NO3- uptake capacity increases until shoot N% stabilizes. The increase in root NO3- uptake capacity corresponds with a rapid rise in transcript levels of putative NO3- transporters, ZmNRT2.1 and ZmNRT2.2. The processes underlying the increase in root NO3- uptake capacity to meet N demand provide an insight into the processes controlling N uptake.
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    Diurnal Changes in Transcript and Metabolite Levels during the Iron Deficiency Response of Rice
    Selby-Pham, J ; Lutz, A ; Moreno-Moyano, LT ; Boughton, BA ; Roessner, U ; Johnson, AAT (SpringerOpen, 2017-04-20)
    Background Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is highly susceptible to iron (Fe) deficiency due to low secretion levels of the mugineic acid (MA) family phytosiderophore (PS) 2′-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) into the rhizosphere. The low levels of DMA secreted by rice have proved challenging to measure and, therefore, the pattern of DMA secretion under Fe deficiency has been less extensively studied relative to other graminaceous monocot species that secrete high levels of PS, such as barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Results Gene expression and metabolite analyses were used to characterise diurnal changes occurring during the Fe deficiency response of rice. Iron deficiency inducible genes involved in root DMA biosynthesis and secretion followed a diurnal pattern with peak induction occurring 3–5 h after the onset of light; a result consistent with that of other Strategy II plant species such as barley and wheat. Furthermore, triple quadrupole mass spectrometry identified 3–5 h after the onset of light as peak time of DMA secretion from Fe-deficient rice roots. Metabolite profiling identified accumulation of amines associated with metal chelation, metal translocation and plant oxidative stress responses occurring with peak induction 10–12 h after the onset of light. Conclusion The results of this study confirmed that rice shares a similar peak time of Fe deficiency associated induction of DMA secretion compared to other Strategy II plant species but has less prominent daily fluctuations of DMA secretion. It also revealed metabolic changes associated with the remediation of Fe deficiency and mitigation of damage from resulting stress in rice roots. This study complements previous studies on the genetic changes in response to Fe deficiency in rice and constitutes an important advance towards our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the rice Fe deficiency response.
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    Mass spectrometry imaging for plant biology: a review
    Boughton, BA ; Thinagaran, D ; Sarabia, D ; Bacic, A ; Roessner, U (SPRINGER, 2016-06-01)
    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a developing technique to measure the spatio-temporal distribution of many biomolecules in tissues. Over the preceding decade, MSI has been adopted by plant biologists and applied in a broad range of areas, including primary metabolism, natural products, plant defense, plant responses to abiotic and biotic stress, plant lipids and the developing field of spatial metabolomics. This review covers recent advances in plant-based MSI, general aspects of instrumentation, analytical approaches, sample preparation and the current trends in respective plant research.
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    High-mass-resolution MALDI mass spectrometry imaging reveals detailed spatial distribution of metabolites and lipids in roots of barley seedlings in response to salinity stress
    Sarabia, LD ; Boughton, BA ; Rupasinghe, T ; van de Meene, AML ; Callahan, DL ; Hill, CB ; Roessner, U (SPRINGER, 2018-05-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a technology that enables the visualization of the spatial distribution of hundreds to thousands of metabolites in the same tissue section simultaneously. Roots are below-ground plant organs that anchor plants to the soil, take up water and nutrients, and sense and respond to external stresses. Physiological responses to salinity are multifaceted and have predominantly been studied using whole plant tissues that cannot resolve plant salinity responses spatially. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to use a comprehensive approach to study the spatial distribution and profiles of metabolites, and to quantify the changes in the elemental content in young developing barley seminal roots before and after salinity stress. METHODS: Here, we used a combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-MSI) platforms to profile and analyze the spatial distribution of ions, metabolites and lipids across three anatomically different barley root zones before and after a short-term salinity stress (150 mM NaCl). RESULTS: We localized, visualized and discriminated compounds in fine detail along longitudinal root sections and compared ion, metabolite, and lipid composition before and after salt stress. Large changes in the phosphatidylcholine (PC) profiles were observed as a response to salt stress with PC 34:n showing an overall reduction in salt treated roots. ICP-MS analysis quantified changes in the elemental content of roots with increases of Na+ and decreases of K+ content. CONCLUSION: Our results established the suitability of combining three mass spectrometry platforms to analyze and map ionic and metabolic responses to salinity stress in plant roots and to elucidate tolerance mechanisms in response to abiotic stress, such as salinity stress.