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    Stevens-Johnson Syndrome complicated by obstructive uropathy, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum: a case report and literature review
    Bruce-Hickman, D ; Jiang, X ; Thia, JJ-P ; Kansal, A (BMC, 2019-06-11)
    BACKGROUND: Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) is an acute mucocutaneous eruption with blisters of the skin and haemorrhagic erosions of mucous membranes. This report describes air-leak syndrome and obstructive uropathy occurring simultaneously in a teenage patient affected by SJS. CASE PRESENTATION: A 17-year-old Malay female with SJS suffered from bilateral pneumothoraces, pneumomediastinum, and obstructive uropathy as early complications of her disease. She required intubation, chest tube insertion, and bilateral ureteric stenting as part of her intensive care management. These extra-cutaneous complications of renal and pulmonary systems were likely secondary to widespread epithelial detachment. CONCLUSION: Despite paucity of cases in adult literature, post-renal causes for acute kidney injury must be considered in SJS, especially in the setting of gross haematuria. Bedside point-of-care ultrasonography may be a useful tool for excluding obstructive uropathy. Pneumothorax is a rare but documented complication of SJS in paediatric cases and, to a lesser extent, adult patients. Extra care should be exercised when caring for mechanically ventilated patients suffering from SJS.
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    Wider sampling reveals a non-sister relationship for geographically contiguous lineages of a marine mussel
    Cunha, RL ; Nicastro, KR ; Costa, J ; McQuaid, CD ; Serrao, EA ; Zardi, GI (WILEY, 2014-06-01)
    The accuracy of phylogenetic inference can be significantly improved by the addition of more taxa and by increasing the spatial coverage of sampling. In previous studies, the brown mussel Perna perna showed a sister-lineage relationship between eastern and western individuals contiguously distributed along the South African coastline. We used mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS) sequence data to further analyze phylogeographic patterns within P. perna. Significant expansion of the geographical coverage revealed an unexpected pattern. The western South African lineage shared the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) with specimens from Angola, Venezuela, and Namibia, whereas eastern South African specimens and Mozambique grouped together, indicating a non-sister relationship for the two South African lineages. Two plausible biogeographic scenarios to explain their origin were both supported by the hypotheses-testing analysis. One includes an Indo-Pacific origin for P. perna, dispersal into the Mediterranean and Atlantic through the Tethys seaway, followed by recent secondary contact after southward expansion of the western and eastern South African lineages. The other scenario (Out of South Africa) suggests an ancient vicariant divergence of the two lineages followed by their northward expansion. Nevertheless, the "Out of South Africa" hypothesis would require a more ancient divergence between the two lineages. Instead, our estimates indicated that they diverged very recently (310 kyr), providing a better support for an Indo-Pacific origin of the two South African lineages. The arrival of the MRCA of P. perna in Brazil was estimated at 10 [0-40] kyr. Thus, the hypothesis of a recent introduction in Brazil through hull fouling in wooden vessels involved in the transatlantic itineraries of the slave trade did not receive strong support, but given the range for this estimate, it could not be discarded. Wider geographic sampling of marine organisms shows that lineages with contiguous distributions need not share a common ancestry.
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    Intraspecific genetic lineages of a marine mussel show behavioural divergence and spatial segregation over a tropical/subtropical biogeographic transition
    Zardi, GI ; Nicastro, KR ; McQuaid, CD ; Castilho, R ; Costa, J ; Serrao, EA ; Pearson, GA (BMC, 2015-05-31)
    BACKGROUND: Intraspecific variability is seen as a central component of biodiversity. We investigated genetic differentiation, contemporary patterns of demographic connectivity and intraspecific variation of adaptive behavioural traits in two lineages of an intertidal mussel (Perna perna) across a tropical/subtropical biogeographic transition. RESULTS: Microsatellite analyses revealed clear genetic differentiation between western (temperate) and eastern (subtropical/tropical) populations, confirming divergence previously detected with mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS) markers. Gene flow between regions was predominantly east-to-west and was only moderate, with higher heterozygote deficiency where the two lineages co-occur. This can be explained by differential selection and/or oceanographic dynamics acting as a barrier to larval dispersal. Common garden experiments showed that gaping (periodic closure and opening of the shell) and attachment to the substratum differed significantly between the two lineages. Western individuals gaped more and attached less strongly to the substratum than eastern ones. CONCLUSIONS: These behavioural differences are consistent with the geographic and intertidal distributions of each lineage along sharp environmental clines, indicating their strong adaptive significance. We highlight the functional role of diversity below the species level in evolutionary trends and the need to understand this when predicting biodiversity responses to environmental change.
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    Marine forests of the Mediterranean-Atlantic Cystoseira tamariscifolia complex show a southern Iberian genetic hotspot and no reproductive isolation in parapatry
    Bermejo, R ; Chefaoui, RM ; Engelen, AH ; Buonomo, R ; Neiva, J ; Ferreira-Costa, J ; Pearson, GA ; Marba, N ; Duarte, CM ; Airoldi, L ; Hernandez, I ; Guiry, MD ; Serrao, EA (NATURE RESEARCH, 2018-07-11)
    Climate-driven range-shifts create evolutionary opportunities for allopatric divergence and subsequent contact, leading to genetic structuration and hybrid zones. We investigate how these processes influenced the evolution of a complex of three closely related Cystoseira spp., which are a key component of the Mediterranean-Atlantic seaweed forests that are undergoing population declines. The C. tamariscifolia complex, composed of C. tamariscifolia s.s., C. amentacea and C. mediterranea, have indistinct boundaries and natural hybridization is suspected. Our aims are to (1) infer the genetic structure and diversity of these species throughout their distribution ranges using microsatellite markers to identify ancient versus recent geographical populations, contact zones and reproductive barriers, and (2) hindcast past distributions using niche models to investigate the influence of past range shifts on genetic divergence at multiple spatial scales. Results supported a single, morphologically plastic species the genetic structure of which was incongruent with a priori species assignments. The low diversity and low singularity in northern European populations suggest recent colonization after the LGM. The southern Iberian genetic hotspot most likely results from the role of this area as a climatic refugium or a secondary contact zone between differentiated populations or both. We hypothesize that life-history traits (selfing, low dispersal) and prior colonization effects, rather than reproductive barriers, might explain the observed genetic discontinuities.
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    Adaptive Traits Are Maintained on Steep Selective Gradients despite Gene Flow and Hybridization in the Intertidal Zone
    Zardi, GI ; Nicastro, KR ; Canovas, F ; Costa, JF ; Serrao, EA ; Pearson, GA ; Ortiz-Barrientos, D (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2011-06-14)
    Gene flow among hybridizing species with incomplete reproductive barriers blurs species boundaries, while selection under heterogeneous local ecological conditions or along strong gradients may counteract this tendency. Congeneric, externally-fertilizing fucoid brown algae occur as distinct morphotypes along intertidal exposure gradients despite gene flow. Combining analyses of genetic and phenotypic traits, we investigate the potential for physiological resilience to emersion stressors to act as an isolating mechanism in the face of gene flow. Along vertical exposure gradients in the intertidal zone of Northern Portugal and Northwest France, the mid-low shore species Fucus vesiculosus, the upper shore species Fucus spiralis, and an intermediate distinctive morphotype of F. spiralis var. platycarpus were morphologically characterized. Two diagnostic microsatellite loci recovered 3 genetic clusters consistent with prior morphological assignment. Phylogenetic analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms in 14 protein coding regions unambiguously resolved 3 clades; sympatric F. vesiculosus, F. spiralis, and the allopatric (in southern Iberia) population of F. spiralis var. platycarpus. In contrast, the sympatric F. spiralis var. platycarpus (from Northern Portugal) was distributed across the 3 clades, strongly suggesting hybridization/introgression with both other entities. Common garden experiments showed that physiological resilience following exposure to desiccation/heat stress differed significantly between the 3 sympatric genetic taxa; consistent with their respective vertical distribution on steep environmental clines in exposure time. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that F. spiralis var. platycarpus is a distinct entity in allopatry, but that extensive gene flow occurs with both higher and lower shore species in sympatry. Experimental results suggest that strong selection on physiological traits across steep intertidal exposure gradients acts to maintain the 3 distinct genetic and morphological taxa within their preferred vertical distribution ranges. On the strength of distributional, genetic, physiological and morphological differences, we propose elevation of F. spiralis var. platycarpus from variety to species level, as F. guiryi.
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    Novel molecular approach to define pest species status and tritrophic interactions from historical Bemisia specimens
    Tay, WT ; Elfekih, S ; Polaszek, A ; Court, LN ; Evans, GA ; Gordon, KHJ ; De Barro, PJ (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2017-03-27)
    Museum specimens represent valuable genomic resources for understanding host-endosymbiont/parasitoid evolutionary relationships, resolving species complexes and nomenclatural problems. However, museum collections suffer DNA degradation, making them challenging for molecular-based studies. Here, the mitogenomes of a single 1912 Sri Lankan Bemisia emiliae cotype puparium, and of a 1942 Japanese Bemisia puparium are characterised using a Next-Generation Sequencing approach. Whiteflies are small sap-sucking insects including B. tabaci pest species complex. Bemisia emiliae's draft mitogenome showed a high degree of homology with published B. tabaci mitogenomes, and exhibited 98-100% partial mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome Oxidase I (mtCOI) gene identity with the B. tabaci species known as Asia II-7. The partial mtCOI gene of the Japanese specimen shared 99% sequence identity with the Bemisia 'JpL' genetic group. Metagenomic analysis identified bacterial sequences in both Bemisia specimens, while hymenopteran sequences were also identified in the Japanese Bemisia puparium, including complete mtCOI and rRNA genes, and various partial mtDNA genes. At 88-90% mtCOI sequence identity to Aphelinidae wasps, we concluded that the 1942 Bemisia nymph was parasitized by an Eretmocerus parasitoid wasp. Our approach enables the characterisation of genomes and associated metagenomic communities of museum specimens using 1.5 ng gDNA, and to infer historical tritrophic relationships in Bemisia whiteflies.
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    Identification and preliminary characterization of chemosensory perception-associated proteins in the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae using RNA-seq
    Elfekih, S ; Chen, C-Y ; Hsu, J-C ; Belcaid, M ; Haymer, D (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2016-01-11)
    An investigation into proteins involved in chemosensory perception in the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is described here using a newly generated transcriptome dataset. The melon fly is a major agricultural pest, widely distributed in the Asia-Pacific region and some parts of Africa. For this study, a transcriptome dataset was generated using RNA extracted from 4-day-old adult specimens of the melon fly. The dataset was assembled and annotated via Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. Based on this and similarity searches to data from other species, a number of protein sequences putatively involved in chemosensory reception were identified and characterized in the melon fly. This included the highly conserved "Orco" along with a number of other less conserved odorant binding protein sequences. In addition, several sequences representing putative ionotropic and gustatory receptors were also identified. This study provides a foundation for future functional studies of chemosensory proteins in the melon fly and for making more detailed comparisons to other species. In the long term, this will ultimately help in the development of improved tools for pest management.
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    Population genetics and migration pathways of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata inferred with coalescent methods
    Arias, MB ; Elfekih, S ; Vogler, AP (PEERJ INC, 2018-08-07)
    BACKGROUND: Invasive species are a growing threat to food biosecurity and cause significant economic losses in agricultural systems. Despite their damaging effect, they are attractive models for the study of evolution and adaptation in newly colonised environments. The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, as a member of the family Tephritidae, is one of the most studied invasive species feeding on many fruit crops in the tropics and subtropics worldwide. This study aims to determine the global macrogeographic population structure of Ceratitis capitata and reconstruct its potential migration routes. METHOD: A partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene from >400 individual medflies and 14 populations from four continents was sequenced and subjected to Bayesian demographic modelling. RESULTS: The Afrotropical populations (Kenya, South Africa and Ghana) harbour the majority of haplotypes detected, which also are highly divergent, in accordance with the presumed ancestral range of medflies in Sub-Saharan Africa. All other populations in the presumed non-native areas were dominated by a single haplotype also present in South Africa, in addition to a few, closely related haplotypes unique to a single local population or regional set, but missing from Africa. Bayesian coalescence methods revealed recent migration pathways from Africa to all continents, in addition to limited bidirectional migration among many local and intercontinental routes. CONCLUSION: The detailed investigation of the recent migration history highlights the interconnectedness of affected crop production regions worldwide and pinpoints the routes and potential source areas requiring more specific quarantine measures.
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    Genome-wide analyses of the Bemisia tabaci species complex reveal contrasting patterns of admixture and complex demographic histories
    Elfekih, S ; Etter, P ; Tay, WT ; Fumagalli, M ; Gordon, K ; Johnson, E ; De Barro, P ; Ghanim, M (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2018-01-24)
    Once considered a single species, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is a complex of numerous morphologically indistinguishable species. Within the last three decades, two of its members (MED and MEAM1) have become some of the world's most damaging agricultural pests invading countries across Europe, Africa, Asia and the Americas and affecting a vast range of agriculturally important food and fiber crops through both feeding-related damage and the transmission of numerous plant viruses. For some time now, researchers have relied on a single mitochondrial gene and/or a handful of nuclear markers to study this species complex. Here, we move beyond this by using 38,041 genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, and show that the two invasive members of the complex are closely related species with signatures of introgression with a third species (IO). Gene flow patterns were traced between contemporary invasive populations within MED and MEAM1 species and these were best explained by recent international trade. These findings have profound implications for delineating the B. tabaci species status and will impact quarantine measures and future management strategies of this global pest.
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    The Trouble with MEAM2: Implications of Pseudogenes on Species Delimitation in the Globally Invasive Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Cryptic Species Complex
    Tay, WT ; Elfekih, S ; Court, LN ; Gordon, KHJ ; Delatte, H ; De Barro, PJ (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2017-10-01)
    Molecular species identification using suboptimal PCR primers can over-estimate species diversity due to coamplification of nuclear mitochondrial (NUMT) DNA/pseudogenes. For the agriculturally important whitefly Bemisia tabaci cryptic pest species complex, species identification depends primarily on characterization of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (mtDNA COI) gene. The lack of robust PCR primers for the mtDNA COI gene can undermine correct species identification which in turn compromises management strategies. This problem is identified in the B. tabaci Africa/Middle East/Asia Minor clade which comprises the globally invasive Mediterranean (MED) and Middle East Asia Minor I (MEAM1) species, Middle East Asia Minor 2 (MEAM2), and the Indian Ocean (IO) species. Initially identified from the Indian Ocean island of Réunion, MEAM2 has since been reported from Japan, Peru, Turkey and Iraq. We identified MEAM2 individuals from a Peruvian population via Sanger sequencing of the mtDNA COI gene. In attempting to characterize the MEAM2 mitogenome, we instead characterized mitogenomes of MEAM1. We also report on the mitogenomes of MED, AUS, and IO thereby increasing genomic resources for members of this complex. Gene synteny (i.e., same gene composition and orientation) was observed with published B. tabaci cryptic species mitogenomes. Pseudogene fragments matching MEAM2 partial mtDNA COI gene exhibited low frequency single nucleotide polymorphisms that matched low copy number DNA fragments (<3%) of MEAM1 genomes, whereas presence of internal stop codons, loss of expected stop codons and poor primer annealing sites, all suggested MEAM2 as a pseudogene artifact and so not a real species.