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ItemNo Preview AvailableDevelopment of a transboundary model of livestock disease in EuropeBradhurst, R ; Garner, G ; Hóvári, M ; de la Puente, M ; Mintiens, K ; Yadav, S ; Federici, T ; Kopacka, I ; Stockreiter, S ; Kuzmanova, I ; Paunov, S ; Cacinovic, V ; Rubin, M ; Szilágyi, J ; Kókány, ZS ; Santi, A ; Sordilli, M ; Sighinas, L ; Spiridon, M ; Potocnik, M ; Sumption, K (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 2021)Epidemiological models of notifiable livestock disease are typically framed at a national level and targeted for specific diseases. There are inherent difficulties in extending models beyond national borders as details of the livestock population, production systems and marketing systems of neighbouring countries are not always readily available. It can also be a challenge to capture heterogeneities in production systems, control policies, and response resourcing across multiple countries, in a single transboundary model. In this paper we describe EuFMDiS, a continental-scale modelling framework for transboundary animal disease, specifically designed to support emergency animal disease planning in Europe. EuFMDiS simulates the spread of livestock disease within and between countries and allows control policies to be enacted and resourced on per-country basis. It provides a sophisticated decision support tool that can be used to look at the risk of disease introduction, establishment and spread; control approaches in terms of effectiveness and costs; resource management; and post-outbreak management issues.
ItemNo Preview AvailablePost-outbreak surveillance strategies to support proof of freedom from foot-and-mouth diseaseBradhurst, R ; Garner, G ; East, I ; Death, C ; Dodd, A ; Kompas, T ( 2021-04-28)Abstract Whilst emergency vaccination may help contain foot-and-mouth disease in a previously FMD-free country, its use complicates post-outbreak surveillance and the recovery of FMD-free status. A structured surveillance program is required that can distinguish between vaccinated and residually infected animals, and provide statistical confidence that the virus is no longer circulating in previously infected areas. Epidemiological models have been well-used to investigate the potential benefits of emergency vaccination during a control progam and when/where/whom to vaccinate in the face of finite supplies of vaccine and personnel. Less well studied are post-outbreak issues such as the management of vaccinated animals and the implications of having used vaccination during surveillance regimes to support proof-of-freedom. This paper presents enhancements to the Australian Animal Disease Model (AADIS) that allow comparisons of different post-outbreak surveillance sampling regimes for establishing proof-of-freedom from FMD. A case study is provided that compares a baseline surveillance sampling regime (derived from current OIE guidelines), with an alternative less intensive sampling regime. It was found that when vaccination was not part of the control program, a reduced sampling intensity significantly reduced the number of samples collected and the cost of the post-outbreak surveillance program, without increasing the risk of missing residual infected herds.
ItemNo Preview AvailableCharacterization of Epidermal Bladder Cells in Chenopodium quinoaOtterbach, S ; Khoury, H ; Rupasinghe, T ; Mendis, H ; Kwan, K ; Lui, V ; Natera, S ; Klaiber, I ; Allen, N ; Jarvis, D ; Tester, M ; Roessner, U ; Schmöckel, S ( 2021-05-10)Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is considered a superfood, as it has favourable nutrient composition and is gluten free. Quinoa has high tolerance to several abiotic stresses, i.e. salinity, water deficit (drought) and cold. The tolerance mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Quinoa has Epidermal Bladder Cells (EBCs) that densely cover the shoot surface, particularly the younger parts of the plant. Here, we report on the EBC’s primary and secondary metabolomes, as well as the lipidome in response to abiotic stresses. EBCs were isolated from plants after cold, heat, high-light, water deficit and salt treatments. We used untargeted Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) to analyse metabolites and untargeted and targeted Liquid Chromatography-MS (LC-MS) for lipids and secondary metabolite analyses. We identified 64 primary metabolites, including sugars, organic acids and amino acids, 19 secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds, betanin and saponins and 240 lipids categorized in five groups including glycerolipids and phospholipids. Although we found only few changes in the metabolic composition of bladders in response to abiotic stresses, metabolites related with heat, cold and high-light treatments, but not salt stress, were changed significantly. Na concentrations were low in EBCs with all treatments, and approximately two orders of magnitude lower than K concentrations.