Economics - Research Publications
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ItemThe child health/family income gradient: Evidence from EnglandCurrie, A ; Shields, MA ; Price, SW (ELSEVIER, 2007-03-01)Recent studies using Canadian and US data have documented a positive relationship between family income and child health, with the slope of the gradient being larger for older than younger children [Case, A., Lubotsky, D., Paxson, C., 2002. Economic status and health in childhood: the origins of the gradient. American Economic Review 92, 1308-1334; Currie, J., Stabile, M., 2003. Socioeconomic status and child health: why is the relationship stronger for older children? American Economic Review 93, 1813-1823]. In this paper we explore whether or not these findings hold for England, analysing a sample of over 13,000 children (and their parents) drawn from the Health Survey for England. While we find consistent and robust evidence of a significant family income gradient in child health, using the subjective general health status measure, the slope of the gradient is very small. Moreover, we find no evidence that the slope of the gradient increases with child age. Furthermore, we find no evidence of such a gradient with more objective measures, based on nurse examinations and blood test results. Together these results suggest that family income is not a major determinant of child health in England. Finally, we provide some evidence that nutrition and family lifestyle choices have an important role in determining child health and that child health is highly correlated within the family.
ItemInvestigating the quitting decision of nurses: Panel data evidence from the British National Health ServiceFrijters, P ; Shields, MA ; Price, SW (WILEY, 2007-01-01)In this paper, we provide a detailed investigation into the quitting behaviour of nurses in the British National Health Service (NHS), using a recently constructed longitudinal survey. We fit both single and competing risks duration models that enable us to establish the characteristics of those nurses who leave the public sector, distinguish the importance of pay in this decision and document the destinations that nurses move to. Contrary to expectations, we find that the hourly wage received by nurses outside of the NHS is around 20% lower than in the NHS, and that hours of work are about the same. However, while the effect of wages is found to be statistically significant, the predicted impact of an increase in nurses' pay on retention rates is small. The current nurse retention problem in the NHS is therefore unlikely to be eliminated through substantially increased pay.
ItemRelative income, happiness and utility: An explanation for the Easterlin Paradox and other puzzlesClark, A ; Frijters, P ; SHIELDS, M ( 2008)