Soil carbon sequestration (SCS) is the transferral of atmospheric carbon dioxide into the soil. The sequestration process can be enhanced through employing particular land management practices (such as reduced tillage). Some research has found that increasing the carbon pool of soils brings benefits through offsetting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and comes with the additional benefits related to improvements in soil quality, such as increased agricultural productivity and profitability. However, the widespread uptake of SCS land management practices in Victoria has not yet been realised. This is due to a variety of constraints. The key barriers arise out of economic and scientific uncertainty. Specific concerns include issues around transaction costs, the difficulties with measurement and verification of the extent of SCS. A number of practical difficulties embedded in the current legislative framework aimed at achieving carbon abatement through enhancing SCS have also been identified (such as the 100 year `permanence' rule under the Carbon Farming Initiative). To address these issues, more research into the science and economics of SCS land management activities within Victoria is needed. Given the now recognised effects of climate change further research is warranted. This study also identifies that aspects of current policies should be examined and modified so that the implementation of SCS land management activities may commence without constraints.