General Practice - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 741
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    The Safe Pregnancy study - promoting safety behaviours in antenatal care among Norwegian, Pakistani and Somali pregnant women: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
    Henriksen, L ; Flaathen, EM ; Angelshaug, J ; Garnweidner-Holme, L ; Småstuen, MC ; Noll, J ; Taft, A ; Schei, B ; Lukasse, M (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-06-10)
    BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) around the time of pregnancy is a recognized global health problem with damaging consequences. However, little is known about the effect of violence assessment and intervention during pregnancy. We hypothesise that routine enquiry about IPV during pregnancy, in combination with information about IPV and safety behaviours, has the potential to increase the use of these behaviours and prevent and reduce IPV. METHODS: The Safe Pregnancy study is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the effectiveness of a tablet-based intervention to promote safety behaviours among pregnant women. Midwives include women who attend routine antenatal care. The intervention consists of a screening questionnaire for violence and information about violence and safety behaviours through a short video shown on a tablet. The materials are available in different languages to ensure participation of Norwegian, Urdu, Somali and English-speaking women. Eligible women answer baseline questions on the tablet including the Abuse Assessment Scale (AAS). Women who screen positive on the AAS will be randomized to an intervention video that contains information about violence and safety behaviours and women in the control group to a video with general information about a healthy and a safe pregnancy. All women receive information about referral resources. Follow up will be at three months post-partum, when the woman attends the maternal and child health centre (MCHC) for the baby's check-up. Outcome measures are: Use of safety behaviours and quality of life (primary outcomes), prevalence of violence, mental health measures and birth outcomes (secondary outcomes). Intention to treat analysis will be performed. DISCUSSION: The project will provide evidence on whether enquiry about violence and a short video intervention on a tablet is effective and feasible to prevent or reduce harm from IPV among women who attend antenatal care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT03397277 (Registered 11th January 2018).
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Healthcare system responses to intimate partner violence in low and middle-income countries: evidence is growing and the challenges become clearer
    Taft, A ; Colombini, M (BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2017-07-12)
    The damage to health caused by intimate partner violence demands effective responses from healthcare providers and healthcare systems worldwide. To date, most evidence for the few existing, effective interventions in use comes from high-income countries. Gupta et al. provide rare evidence of a nurse-delivered intimate partner violence screening, supportive care and referral intervention from a large-scale randomised trial in Mexican public health clinics. No difference was found in the primary outcome of reduction in intimate partner violence. There were significant short-term benefits in safety planning and mental health (secondary outcomes) for women in the intervention arm, but these were not sustained.This important study highlights the challenges of primary outcome choices in such studies, and further challenges for the sustainability of healthcare systems and healthcare provider interventions. These challenges include the role of theory for sustainability and the risk that baseline measures of intimate partner violence can wash out intervention effects. We emphasise the importance of studying the processes of adaptation, integration and coordination in the context of the wider healthcare system.Please see related article: https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-017-0880-y.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Increasing the uptake of long-acting reversible contraception in general practice: the Australian Contraceptive ChOice pRoject (ACCORd) cluster randomised controlled trial protocol
    Mazza, D ; Black, K ; Taft, A ; Lucke, J ; McGeechan, K ; Haas, M ; McKay, H ; Peipert, JF (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2016-01-01)
    INTRODUCTION: The increased use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), such as intrauterine devices and hormonal implants, has the potential to reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion rates. However, use of LARCs in Australia is very low, despite clinical practice guidance and statements by national and international peak bodies advocating their increased use. This protocol paper describes the Australian Contraceptive ChOice pRojet (ACCORd), a cluster randomised control trial that aims to test whether an educational intervention targeting general practitioners (GPs) and establishing a rapid referral service are a cost-effective means of increasing LARC uptake. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The ACCORd intervention is adapted from the successful US Contraceptive CHOICE study and involves training GPs to provide 'LARC First' structured contraceptive counselling to women seeking contraception, and implementing rapid referral pathways for LARC insertion. Letters of invitation will be sent to 600 GPs in South-Eastern Melbourne. Using randomisation stratified by whether the GP inserts LARCs or not, a total of 54 groups will be allocated to the intervention (online 'LARC First' training and rapid referral pathways) or control arm (usual care). We aim to recruit 729 women from each arm. The primary outcome will be the number of LARCs inserted; secondary outcomes include the women's choice of contraceptive method and quality of life (Short Form Health Survey, SF-36). The costs and outcomes of the intervention and control will be compared in a cost-effectiveness analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The ACCORd study has been approved by the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee: CF14/3990-2014002066 and CF16/188-2016000080. Any protocol modifications will be communicated to Ethics Committee and Trial Registration registry. The authors plan to disseminate trial outcomes through formal academic pathways comprising journal articles, nation and international conferences and reports, as well as using more 'popular' strategies including seminars, workshops and media engagements. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12615001346561.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Alcohol interventions, alcohol policy and intimate partner violence: a systematic review
    Wilson, IM ; Graham, K ; Taft, A (BMC, 2014-08-27)
    BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant global public health issue. The consistent evidence that alcohol use by one or both partners contributes to the risk and severity of IPV suggests that interventions that reduce alcohol consumption may also reduce IPV. This study sought to review the evidence for effects on IPV of alcohol interventions at the population, community, relationship and individual levels using the World Health Organization ecological framework for violence. METHODS: Eleven databases including Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE were searched for English-language studies and grey literature published 1 January 1992 - 1 March 2013 investigating whether alcohol interventions/policies were associated with IPV reduction within adult (≥ 18) intimate relationships. Eleven studies meeting design criteria for attributing effects to the intervention and ten studies showing mediation of alcohol consumption were included in the review. The heterogeneity of study designs precluded quantitative meta analysis; therefore, a critical narrative approach was used. RESULTS: Population-level pricing and taxation studies found weak or no evidence for alcohol price changes influencing IPV. Studies of community-level policies or interventions (e.g., hours of sale, alcohol outlet density) showed weak evidence of an association with IPV. Couples-based and individual alcohol treatment studies found a relationship between reductions in alcohol consumption and reductions in IPV but their designs precluded attributing changes to treatment. Randomized controlled trials of combined alcohol and violence treatment programs found some positive effects of brief alcohol intervention as an adjunct to batterer treatment for hazardous drinking IPV perpetrators, and of brief interventions with non-dependent younger populations, but effects were often not sustained. CONCLUSIONS: Despite evidence associating problematic alcohol use with IPV, the potential for alcohol interventions to reduce IPV has not been adequately tested, possibly because studies have not focused on those most at risk of alcohol-related IPV. Research using rigorous designs should target young adult populations among whom IPV and drinking is highly prevalent. Combining alcohol and IPV intervention/policy approaches at the population, community, relationship and individual-level may provide the best opportunity for effective intervention.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Creatine and pregnancy outcomes, a prospective cohort study in low-risk pregnant women: study protocol.
    De Guingand, DL ; Ellery, SJ ; Davies-Tuck, ML ; Dickinson, H (BMJ, 2019-01-15)
    INTRODUCTION: The creatine kinase circuit is central to the regulation of high-energy phosphate metabolism and the maintenance of cellular energy turnover. This circuit is fuelled by creatine, an amino acid derivative that can be obtained from a diet containing animal products, and by synthesis in the body de novo. A recent retrospective study conducted in a cohort of 287 pregnant women determined that maternal excreted levels of creatine may be associated with fetal growth. This prospective study aims to overcome some of the limitations associated with the previous study and thoroughly characterise creatine homeostasis throughout gestation in a low-risk pregnant population. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is recruiting women with a singleton low-risk pregnancy who are attending Monash Health, in Melbourne, Australia. Maternal blood and urine samples, along with dietary surveys, are collected at five time points during pregnancy and then at delivery. Cord blood and placenta (including membranes and cord) are collected at birth. A biobank of tissue samples for future research is being established. Primary outcome measures will include creatine, creatine kinase and associated metabolites in antenatal bloods and urine, cord bloods and placenta, along with molecular analysis of the creatine transporter (SLC6A8) and synthesising enzymes L - arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) in placental tissues. Secondary outcome measures include dietary protein intake over pregnancy and any associations with maternal creatine, pregnancy events and birth outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was granted in August 2015 from Monash Health (Ref: 14140B) and Monash University (Ref: 7785). Study outcomes will be disseminated at international conferences and published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12618001558213; Pre-results.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Improving Primary Care After Stroke (IPCAS) trial: protocol of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate a novel model of care for stroke survivors living in the community.
    Mullis, R ; Aquino, MRJR ; Dawson, SN ; Johnson, V ; Jowett, S ; Kreit, E ; Mant, J ; IPCAS investigator team, (BMJ, 2019-08-18)
    INTRODUCTION: Survival after stroke is improving, leading to increased demand on primary care and community services to meet the long-term care needs of people living with stroke. No formal primary care-based holistic model of care with clinical trial evidence exists to support stroke survivors living in the community, and stroke survivors report that many of their needs are not being met. We have developed a multifactorial primary care model to address these longer term needs. We aim to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of this new model of primary care for stroke survivors compared with standard care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Improving Primary Care After Stroke (IPCAS) is a two-arm cluster-randomised controlled trial with general practice as the unit of randomisation. People on the stroke registers of general practices will be invited to participate. One arm will receive the IPCAS model of care including a structured review using a checklist; a self-management programme; enhanced communication pathways between primary care and specialist services; and direct point of contact for patients. The other arm will receive usual care. We aim to recruit 920 people with stroke registered with 46 general practices. The primary endpoint is two subscales (emotion and handicap) of the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) as coprimary outcomes at 12 months (adjusted for baseline). Secondary outcomes include: SIS Short Form, EuroQol EQ-5D-5L, ICEpop CAPability measure for Adults, Southampton Stroke Self-management Questionnaire, Health Literacy Questionnaire and medication use. Cost-effectiveness of the new model will be determined in a within-trial economic evaluation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Favourable ethical opinion was gained from Yorkshire and the Humber-Bradford Leeds NHS Research Ethics Committee. Approval to start was given by the Health Research Authority prior to recruitment of participants at any NHS site. Data will be presented at national and international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Patient and public involvement helped develop the dissemination plan. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03353519.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Quality of the diagnostic process in patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of bladder or kidney cancer: a systematic review
    Zhou, Y ; van Melle, M ; Singh, H ; Hamilton, W ; Lyratzopoulos, G ; Walter, FM (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-10-01)
    OBJECTIVES: In urological cancers, sex disparity exists for survival, with women doing worse than men. Suboptimal evaluation of presenting symptoms may contribute. DESIGN: We performed a systematic review examining factors affecting the quality of the diagnostic process of patients presenting with symptoms of bladder or kidney cancer. DATA SOURCES: We searched Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library from 1 January 2000 to 13 June 2019. ELIGIBLE CRITERIA: We focused on one of the six domains of quality of healthcare: timeliness, and examined the quality of the diagnostic process more broadly, by assessing whether guideline-concordant history, examination, tests and referrals were performed. Studies describing the factors that affect the timeliness or quality of the assessment of urinary tract infections, haematuria and lower urinary tract symptoms in the context of bladder or kidney cancer, were included. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data extraction and quality assessment were independently performed by two authors. Due to the heterogeneity of study design and outcomes, the results could not be pooled. A narrative synthesis was performed. RESULTS: 28 studies met review criteria, representing 583 636 people from 9 high-income countries. Studies were based in primary care (n=8), specialty care (n=12), or both (n=8). Up to two-thirds of patients with haematuria received no further evaluation in the 6 months after their initial visit. Urinary tract infections, nephrolithiasis and benign prostatic conditions before cancer diagnosis were associated with diagnostic delay. Women were more likely to experience diagnostic delay than men. Patients who first saw a urologist were less likely to experience delayed evaluation and cancer diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Women, and patients with non-cancerous urological diagnoses just prior to their cancer diagnosis, were more likely to experience lower quality diagnostic processes. Risk prediction tools, and improving guideline ambiguity, may improve outcomes and reduce sex disparity in survival for these cancers.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Ethnic Differences in Diabetes Management in Patients With and Without Comorbid Medical Conditions A cross-sectional study
    Alshamsan, R ; Majeed, A ; Vamos, EP ; Khunti, K ; Curcin, V ; Rawaf, S ; Millett, C (AMER DIABETES ASSOC, 2011-03-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To examine ethnic disparities in diabetes management among patients with and without comorbid medical conditions after a period of sustained investment in quality improvement in the U.K. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study examined associations between ethnicity, comorbidity, and intermediate outcomes for mean A1C, total cholesterol, and blood pressure levels in 6,690 diabetes patients in South West London. RESULTS: The presence of ≥ 2 cardiovascular comorbidities was associated with similar blood pressure control among white and South Asian patients when compared with whites without comorbidity but with worse blood pressure control among black patients, with a mean difference in systolic blood pressure of +1.5, +1.4, and +6.2 mmHg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite major reforms to improve quality, disparities in blood pressure management have persisted in the U.K., particularly among patients with cardiovascular comorbidities. Policy makers should consider the potential impacts of quality initiatives on high-risk groups.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Feasibility of a structured group education session to improve self-management of blood pressure in people with chronic kidney disease: an open randomised pilot trial
    Byrne, J ; Khunti, K ; Stone, M ; Farooqi, A ; Carr, S (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2011-01-01)
    Objectives We aimed to test, at pilot level, a structured group educational intervention to improve self-management of blood pressure in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The current paper explores patient acceptability of the intervention. Design This was an open randomised pilot trial. Participants were randomly assigned to either: A control group (n=41) receiving standard clinical management of hypertension. An intervention group (n=40) receiving standard clinical care plus the educational intervention. Setting Renal outpatient clinics at a single study centre. Participants Patients with early CKD and hypertension were identified and approached for recruitment. Intervention An evidence-based structured group educational intervention (CHEERS) using the principles of social cognitive theory to improve knowledge and self-management skills. Outcomes Recruitment, uptake of the intervention and patient satisfaction were evaluated to explore patient acceptability of the intervention and to determine any differences between patients regarding recruitment and retention. Measures Data on age, sex and ethnicity were collected for all patients approached to take part. For recruited patients, data were also collected on self-efficacy (ability to self-manage). Reasons given by patients declining to take part were recorded. Patients attending the educational session also completed an evaluation form to assess satisfaction. Results A total of 267 patients were approached, and 30% were randomly assigned. Lack of time (48%) and lack of interest (44%) were the main reasons cited for non-participation in the study. Men were significantly more likely to be recruited (p=0.048). The intervention was rated enjoyable and useful by 100% of participants. However, 37.5% of the intervention group failed to attend the educational session after recruitment. Participants failing to attend were significantly more likely to be older (p=0.039) and have lower self-efficacy (p=0.034). Conclusion The findings suggest that delivering and evaluating an effective structured group educational intervention to promote better blood pressure control in patients with CKD would be challenging in the current context of kidney care.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    A cluster randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Intermediate Care Clinics for Diabetes (ICCD): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
    Armstrong, N ; Baines, D ; Baker, R ; Crossman, R ; Davies, M ; Hardy, A ; Khunti, K ; Kumar, S ; O'Hare, JP ; Raymond, N ; Saravanan, P ; Stallard, N ; Szczepura, A ; Wilson, A (BMC, 2012-09-12)
    BACKGROUND: World-wide healthcare systems are faced with an epidemic of type 2 diabetes. In the United Kingdom, clinical care is primarily provided by general practitioners (GPs) rather than hospital specialists. Intermediate care clinics for diabetes (ICCD) potentially provide a model for supporting GPs in their care of people with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and in their management of cardiovascular risk factors. This study aims to (1) compare patients with type 2 diabetes registered with practices that have access to an ICCD service with those that have access only to usual hospital care; (2) assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention; and (3) explore the views and experiences of patients, health professionals and other stakeholders. METHODS/DESIGN: This two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial (with integral economic evaluation and qualitative study) is set in general practices in three UK Primary Care Trusts. Practices are randomized to one of two groups with patients referred to either an ICCD (intervention) or to hospital care (control). Intervention group: GP practices in the intervention arm have the opportunity to refer patients to an ICCD - a multidisciplinary team led by a specialist nurse and a diabetologist. Patients are reviewed and managed in the ICCD for a short period with a goal of improving diabetes and cardiovascular risk factor control and are then referred back to practice. or CONTROL GROUP: Standard GP care, with referral to secondary care as required, but no access to ICCD. Participants are adults aged 18 years or older who have type 2 diabetes that is difficult for their GPs to control. The primary outcome is the proportion of participants reaching three risk factor targets: HbA1c (≤7.0%); blood pressure (<140/80); and cholesterol (<4 mmol/l), at the end of the 18-month intervention period. The main secondary outcomes are the proportion of participants reaching individual risk factor targets and the overall 10-year risks for coronary heart disease(CHD) and stroke assessed by the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk engine. Other secondary outcomes include body mass index and waist circumference, use of medication, reported smoking, emotional adjustment, patient satisfaction and views on continuity, costs and health related quality of life. We aimed to randomize 50 practices and recruit 2,555 patients. DISCUSSION: Forty-nine practices have been randomized, 1,997 patients have been recruited to the trial, and 20 patients have been recruited to the qualitative study. Results will be available late 2012. TRIAL REGISTRATION: [ClinicalTrials.gov: Identifier NCT00945204].