General Practice - Research Publications

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    Prevalence of co-morbidities and their association with mortality in patients withCOVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Singh, AK ; Gillies, CL ; Singh, R ; Singh, A ; Chudasama, Y ; Coles, B ; Seidu, S ; Zaccardi, F ; Davies, MJ ; Khunti, K (WILEY, 2020-07-16)
    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of both cardiometabolic and other co-morbidities in patients with COVID-19, and to estimate the increased risk of severity of disease and mortality in people with co-morbidities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medline, Scopus and the World Health Organization website were searched for global research on COVID-19 conducted from January 2019 up to 23 April 2020. Study inclusion was restricted to English language publications, original articles that reported the prevalence of co-morbidities in individuals with COVID-19, and case series including more than 10 patients. Eighteen studies were selected for inclusion. Data were analysed using random effects meta-analysis models. RESULTS: Eighteen studies with a total of 14 558 individuals were identified. The pooled prevalence for co-morbidities in patients with COVID-19 disease was 22.9% (95% CI: 15.8 to 29.9) for hypertension, 11.5% (9.7 to 13.4) for diabetes, and 9.7% (6.8 to 12.6) for cardiovascular disease (CVD). For chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), cerebrovascular disease and cancer, the pooled prevalences were all less than 4%. With the exception of cerebrovascular disease, all the other co-morbidities presented a significantly increased risk for having severe COVID-19. In addition, the risk of mortality was significantly increased in individuals with CVD, COPD, CKD, cerebrovascular disease and cancer. CONCLUSIONS: In individuals with COVID-19, the presence of co-morbidities (both cardiometabolic and other) is associated with a higher risk of severe COVID-19 and mortality. These findings have important implications for public health with regard to risk stratification and future planning.
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    Effectiveness of a Pragmatic Education Program Designed to Promote Walking Activity in Individuals With Impaired Glucose Tolerance A randomized controlled trial
    Yates, T ; Davies, M ; Gorely, T ; Bull, F ; Khunti, K (AMER DIABETES ASSOC, 2009-08-01)
    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether a pragmatic structured education program with and without pedometer use is effective for promoting physical activity and improving glucose tolerance in those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Overweight and obese individuals with IGT were recruited from ongoing screening studies at the University Hospitals of Leicester, U.K. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Group 1 received a 3-h group-based structured education program designed to promote walking activity using personalized steps-per-day goals and pedometers. Group 2 received a 3-h group-based structured education program designed to promote walking activity using generic time-based goals. Group 3 received a brief information leaflet (control condition). Outcomes included an oral glucose tolerance test, standard anthropometric measures, ambulatory activity, and psychological variables. Follow-up was conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months. RESULTS A total of 87 individuals (66% male, mean age 65 years) were included in this study. At 12 months, significant decreases in 2-h postchallenge glucose and fasting glucose of -1.31 mmol/l (95% CI -2.20 to -0.43) and -0.32 mmol/l (-0.59 to -0.03), respectively, were seen in the pedometer group compared with the control group. No significant improvements in glucose control were seen in those given the standard education program. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that a pragmatic structured education program that incorporates pedometer use is effective for improving glucose tolerance in those with IGT. This result is likely to have important implications for future primary care-based diabetes prevention initiatives.
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    Use of electronic medical records to monitor the safe and effective prescribing of medicinal cannabis: is it feasible?
    Hallinan, CM ; Gunn, JM ; Bonomo, YA (CSIRO Publishing, 2022)
    General practitioners are well positioned to contribute to the pharmacovigilance of medical cannabis via the general practice electronic medical record (EMR). The aim of this research is to interrogate de-identified patient data from the Patron primary care data repository for reports of medicinal cannabis to ascertain the feasibility of using EMRs to monitor medicinal cannabis prescribing in Australia. Methods. EMR rule-based digital phenotyping of 1 164 846 active patients from 109 practices was undertaken to investigate reports of medicinal cannabis use from September 2017 to September 2020. Results. Eighty patients with 170 prescriptions of medicinal cannabis were identified in the Patron repository. Reasons for prescription included anxiety, multiple sclerosis, cancer, nausea, and Crohn’s disease. Nine patients showed symptoms of a possible adverse event, including depression, motor vehicle accident, gastrointestinal symptoms, and anxiety. Conclusions. The recording of medicinal cannabis effects in the patient EMR provides potential for medicinal cannabis monitoring in the community. This is especially feasible if monitoring were to be embedded into general practitioner workflow.
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    "He'd Tell Me I was Frigid and Ugly and Force me to Have Sex with Him Anyway": Women's Experiences of Co-Occurring Sexual Violence and Psychological Abuse in Heterosexual Relationships
    Tarzia, L ; Hegarty, K (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2022-04-20)
    Intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) is a common yet hidden form of violence. It is primarily perpetrated against women by their male partners and is associated with a range of serious mental and physical health outcomes. Despite these harms, it is chronically under-researched. In particular, the overlaps between IPSV and psychological abuse in relationships are poorly understood. Extant literature has focused primarily on the relationship between IPSV and physical violence, neglecting the fact that IPSV often involves verbal or emotional coercion, threats or blackmail rather than the use of 'force'. In this paper, we draw on reflexive thematic analysis of qualitative interviews with n = 38 victim/survivors of IPSV to explore how they understood the relationship between sexual and psychological abuse in their heterosexual relationships. Four themes were developed from this analysis: 1. I felt like I couldn't say Nno'; 2. I felt degraded and worthless; 3. Letting me know who's boss; and 4. Making me feel crazy. These themes broadly correspond to four distinct patterns or interactions between IPSV and psychological abuse. Our findings strongly suggest that the relationship between sexual and psychological abuse in relationships is far more complex than previous research would indicate. Psychological abuse is not simply a tool to obtain sex and sexual violence is not only used as a mechanism of psychological control. Instead, the two forms of abuse interact in ways that can be unidirectional, bi-directional or simultaneous to develop and maintain an environment of fear and control and erode women's self-worth.
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    Prescribing of long-acting reversible contraception by general practice registrars across different rural regions of australia: A cross-sectional analysis of the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training Study data
    Turner, R ; Tapley, A ; Sweeney, S ; Davey, A ; Driel, M ; Morgan, S ; Spike, N ; FitzGerald, K ; Magin, P (WILEY, 2021-06-20)
    OBJECTIVE: To describe the pattern of prescribing long-acting reversible contraception by Australian general practitioner registrars across different classifications of rurality/urbanicity. METHODS: A study nested within the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training ongoing cohort study of Australian general practitioner registrars' in-consultation experience. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis of Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training data collected 2010-2017. Type of contraception prescribed by general practitioner registrars to women aged 12-55 for contraception-related indications was documented. Chi-square statistical analysis was performed to assess association of specific long-acting reversible contraception methods with rurality/urbanicity. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: General practitioner registrars enrolled in the Australian General Practice Training program in regional training providers/organisations participating in Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Long-acting reversible contraception was defined as etonogestrel implant, copper intrauterine device, levonorgestrel intrauterine device and medroxyprogesterone injection. RESULTS: In all 1737 registrars recorded 4073 registrar rounds of data from 2010 to 2017 (response rate 96%). Type of long-acting reversible contraception prescribed differed significantly across Australian Statistical Geography Standards classification of rurality (Pearson's χ2  = 17, P = .002). Women living in outer regional/remote/very remote regions are prescribed proportionately more medroxyprogesterone injection and less levonorgestrel intrauterine device compared to major cities/inner regional areas. CONCLUSIONS: Long-acting reversible contraception methods prescribed differ across different classifications of rurality. Women living in more rural/remote regions might have access difficulties for the levonorgestrel intrauterine device.
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    Does drinking modify the relationship between men's gender-inequitable attitudes and their perpetration of intimate partner violence? A meta-analysis of surveys of men from seven countries in the Asia Pacific region
    Laslett, A-M ; Graham, K ; Wilson, IM ; Kuntsche, S ; Fulu, E ; Jewkes, R ; Taft, A (WILEY, 2021-04-28)
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although men's alcohol misuse and less gender-equitable attitudes have been identified as risks for perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV), less is known about how men's gender-equitable attitudes and drinking act together to increase risk of IPV. This study aimed to assess the independent relationships of lower gender-equitable attitudes and drinking to perpetration of IPV and their interaction among men in seven countries. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the United Nations Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence (UNMCS) and Nabilan Study databases consisting of (1) unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression to measure the association of perpetration of IPV with gender-equitable men (GEM) scale score and regular heavy episodic drinking (RHED) and (2) meta-analyses of prevalence and effect estimates adjusted for country-level sites and countries. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 9148 ever-partnered 18-49-year-old men surveyed in 2011-15 from 18 sites in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka and Timor Leste. MEASUREMENTS: The outcome variable is reported perpetration of physical or sexual IPV in the previous year. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: GEM scale scores; RHED, defined as six or more drinks in one session at least monthly (compared with other drinkers and abstainers). FINDINGS: Pooled past-year prevalence of perpetration of IPV was 13% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 9-16%]. GEM scores and RHED were independently associated with perpetration of IPV overall and in most sites. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) for perpetration of IPV with less equitable GEM scores were 1.07 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.09) and with RHED were 3.42 (95% CI = 2.43, 4.81). A significant interaction between GEM score and RHED (P = 0.001) indicated that RHED increased the relationship of less gender-equitable attitudes and perpetration of IPV. CONCLUSION: Both gender-inequitable attitudes and drinking appear to be associated with perpetration of intimate partner violence by men, with regular heavy episodic drinking increasing the likelihood of intimate partner violence among men with less equitable gender attitudes.
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    The impact of COVID-19 restrictions on accelerometer-assessed physical activity and sleep in individuals with type 2 diabetes
    Rowlands, AV ; Henson, JJ ; Coull, NA ; Edwardson, CL ; Brady, E ; Hall, A ; Khunti, K ; Davies, M ; Yates, T (WILEY, 2021-03-23)
    AIMS: Restrictions during the COVID-19 crisis will have impacted on opportunities to be active. We aimed to (a) quantify the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on accelerometer-assessed physical activity and sleep in people with type 2 diabetes and (b) identify predictors of physical activity during COVID-19 restrictions. METHODS: Participants were from the UK Chronotype of Patients with type 2 diabetes and Effect on Glycaemic Control (CODEC) observational study. Participants wore an accelerometer on their wrist for 8 days before and during COVID-19 restrictions. Accelerometer outcomes included the following: overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), time spent inactive, days/week with ≥30-minute continuous MVPA and sleep. Predictors of change in physical activity taken pre-COVID included the following: age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), socio-economic status and medical history. RESULTS: In all, 165 participants (age (mean±S.D = 64.2 ± 8.3 years, BMI=31.4 ± 5.4 kg/m2 , 45% women) were included. During restrictions, overall physical activity was lower by 1.7 mg (~800 steps/day) and inactive time 21.9 minutes/day higher, but time in MVPA and sleep did not statistically significantly change. In contrast, the percentage of people with ≥1 day/week with ≥30-minute continuous MVPA was higher (34% cf. 24%). Consistent predictors of lower physical activity and/or higher inactive time were higher BMI and/or being a woman. Being older and/or from ethnic minorities groups was associated with higher inactive time. CONCLUSIONS: Overall physical activity, but not MVPA, was lower in adults with type 2 diabetes during COVID-19 restrictions. Women and individuals who were heavier, older, inactive and/or from ethnic minority groups were most at risk of lower physical activity during restrictions.
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    Improved diabetes-related distress and self-efficacy outcomes in a self-management digital programme for people with type 2 diabetes, myDESMOND
    Hadjiconstantinou, M ; Barker, MM ; Brough, C ; Schreder, S ; Northern, A ; Stribling, B ; Khunti, K ; Davies, MJ (WILEY, 2021-03-15)
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    Effects of liraglutide versus sitagliptin on circulating cardiovascular biomarkers, including circulating progenitor cells, in individuals with type 2 diabetes and obesity: Analyses from the LYDIA trial
    Ahmad, E ; Waller, HL ; Sargeant, JA ; Webb, MA ; Htike, ZZ ; McCann, GP ; Gulsin, G ; Khunti, K ; Yates, T ; Henson, J ; Davies, MJ ; Webb, DR (WILEY, 2021-02-26)
    The mechanisms behind the beneficial cardiovascular effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) compared with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4is) remain largely unknown, despite both targeting the incretin pathway to improve glycaemic control. In these prespecified secondary analyses of the LYDIA trial, we examined the impact of the GLP-1RA liraglutide (1.8 mg once-daily) and the DPP4i sitagliptin (100 mg once-daily) on circulating cardiovascular biomarkers associated with atherosclerotic risk, including circulating progenitor cells (CPCs). LYDIA was a 26-week, randomized, active-comparator trial in 61 adults with type 2 diabetes and obesity (mean ± SD: age 43.8 ± 6.5 years, body mass index 35.3 ± 6.4 kg/m2 , HbA1c 7.5% ± 0.83% [58.5 ± 9.1 mmol/mol]). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stromal cell-derived factor-1-alpha (SDF-1ɑ), both of which are implicated in endothelial function, were higher at 26 weeks with liraglutide therapy compared with sitagliptin (mean between-group difference [95% CI]: 77.03 [18.29, 135.77] pg/mL, p = .010; and 996.25 [818.85, 1173.64] pg/mL, p < .001, respectively). There were no between-group differences in CPCs, nitric oxide, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha and advanced glycation end-products. These analyses suggest a favourable impact of liraglutide on VEGF and SDF-1ɑ levels compared with sitagliptin. These factors may therefore be implicated in the differential cardiovascular effects observed between these agents in large cardiovascular outcome trials. However, these are secondary analyses from a previous trial and thus hypothesis-generating. Purposive trials are required to examine these findings further.
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    Rates and estimated cost of primary care consultations in people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and comorbidities: A retrospective analysis of 8.9 million consultations
    Coles, B ; Zaccardi, F ; Seidu, S ; Gillies, CL ; Davies, MJ ; Hvid, C ; Khunti, K (WILEY, 2021-02-19)
    AIMS: To determine whether telephone and face-to-face primary care consultation rates, costs, and temporal trends during 2000 to 2018 differed by the number of comorbidities in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: A total of 120 409 adults with newly diagnosed T2DM between 2000 and 2018 were classified by the number of prevalent and incident comorbidities. Data on face-to-face and telephone primary care consultations with a nurse or physician were obtained. Crude and sex- and age-adjusted annual consultation rates and associated costs were calculated based on the number of comorbidities at the time of consultation. RESULTS: The crude rate of face-to-face primary care consultations for patients without comorbidities was 10.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.3-10.4) per person-year, 12.7 (95% CI 12.7-12.7) for patients with one comorbidity, 15.1 (95% CI 15.1-15.2) for those with two comorbidities, and 18.7 (95% CI 18.7-18.8) for those with three or more comorbidities. The mean annual inflation-adjusted cost for face-to-face consultations was £412.70 per patient without comorbidities, £516.80 for one comorbidity, £620.75 for two comorbidities, and £778.83 for three or more comorbidities. The age- and sex-adjusted face-to-face consultation rate changed by an average of -3.3% (95% CI -4.4 to -2.3) per year from 2000 to 2018 for patients without comorbidities, -2.7% (95% CI -4.0 to -1.3) for those with one comorbidity, -2.2% (95% CI -3.3 to -1.2) for those with two comorbidities, and -4.3% (95% CI -8.7 to +0.3) for those with three or more comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Although consultation rates for all patients decreased from 2000 to 2018, there was a significant disparity between the rate for patients with and without comorbidities. Patients with T2DM and comorbidities may require different models of service delivery.