General Practice - Research Publications

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    Expert Opinion: Patient Selection for Premixed Insulin Formulations in Diabetes Care
    Kalra, S ; Czupryniak, L ; Kilov, G ; Lamptey, R ; Kumar, A ; Unnikrishnan, AG ; Boudiba, A ; Abid, M ; Akanov, ZA ; Latheef, A ; Araz, M ; Audehm, R ; Bahendeka, S ; Balde, N ; Chaudhary, S ; Deerochanawong, C ; Fasanmade, O ; Iraqi, H ; Latt, TS ; Mbanya, JC ; Rodriguez-Saldana, J ; Hyun, KS ; Latif, ZA ; Lushchyk, M ; Megallaa, M ; Naseri, MW ; Nguyen, QB ; Ramaiya, K ; Randeree, H ; Raza, SA ; Shaikh, K ; Shrestha, D ; Sobngwi, E ; Somasundaram, N ; Sukor, N ; Tan, R (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2018-12-01)
    Premixed insulins are an important tool for glycemic control in persons with diabetes. Equally important in diabetes care is the selection of the most appropriate insulin regimen for a particular individual at a specific time. Currently, the choice of insulin regimens for initiation or intensification of therapy is a subjective decision. In this article, we share insights, which will help in rational and objective selection of premixed formulations for initiation and intensification of insulin therapy. The glycemic status and its variations in a person help to identify the most appropriate insulin regimen and formulation for him or her. The evolution of objective glucometric indices has enabled better glycemic monitoring of individuals with diabetes. Management of diabetes has evolved from a 'glucocentric' approach to a 'patient-centered' approach; patient characteristics, needs, and preferences should be evaluated when considering premixed insulin for treatment of diabetes.Funding: Novo Nordisk, India.
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    Update on the General Practice Optimising Structured Monitoring to Improve Clinical Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes (GP-OSMOTIC) trial: statistical analysis plan for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial
    Thuraisingam, S ; Chondros, P ; Catchpool, M ; Dalziel, K ; Manski-Nankervis, J-A ; Speight, J ; Holmes-Truscott, E ; Audehm, R ; Chiang, J ; Blackberry, I ; O'Neal, D ; Khunti, K ; Best, J ; Furler, J (BMC, 2019-01-30)
    BACKGROUND: General Practice Optimising Structured Monitoring to Improve Clinical Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes (GP-OSMOTIC) is a multicentre, individually randomised controlled trial aiming to compare the use of intermittent retrospective continuous glucose monitoring (r-CGM) to usual care in patients with type 2 diabetes attending general practice. The study protocol was published in the British Medical Journal Open and described the principal features of the statistical methods that will be used to analyse the trial data. This paper provides greater detail on the statistical analysis plan, including background and justification for the statistical methods chosen, in accordance with SPIRIT guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To describe in detail the data management process and statistical methods that will be used to analyse the trial data. METHODS: An overview of the trial design and primary and secondary research questions are provided. Sample size assumptions and calculations are explained, and randomisation and data management processes are described in detail. The planned statistical analyses for primary and secondary outcomes and sub-group analyses are specified along with the intended table layouts for presentation of the results. CONCLUSION: In accordance with best practice, all analyses outlined in the document are based on the aims of the study and have been pre-specified prior to the completion of data collection and outcome analyses. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12616001372471 . Registered on 3 August 2016.
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    GP-OSMOTIC trial protocol: an individually randomised controlled trial to determine the effect of retrospective continuous glucose monitoring (r-CGM) on HbA1c in adults with type 2 diabetes in general practice
    Furler, J ; O'Neal, DN ; Speight, J ; Blackberry, I ; Manski-Nankervis, J-A ; Thuraisingam, S ; de La Rue, K ; Ginnivan, L ; Browne, JL ; Holmes-Truscott, E ; Khunti, K ; Dalziel, K ; Chiang, J ; Audehm, R ; Kennedy, M ; Clark, M ; Jenkins, AJ ; Liew, D ; Clarke, P ; Best, J (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018-09-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Optimal glycaemia can reduce type 2 diabetes (T2D) complications. Observing retrospective continuous glucose monitoring (r-CGM) patterns may prompt therapeutic changes but evidence for r-CGM use in T2D is limited. We describe the protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) examining intermittent r-CGM use (up to 14 days every three months) in T2D in general practice (GP). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: General Practice Optimising Structured MOnitoring To achieve Improved Clinical Outcomes is a two-arm RCT asking 'does intermittent r-CGM in adults with T2D in primary care improve HbA1c?' PRIMARY OUTCOME: Absolute difference in mean HbA1c at 12 months follow-up between intervention and control arms. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: (a) r-CGM per cent time in target (4-10 mmol/L) range, at baseline and 12 months; (b) diabetes-specific distress (Problem Areas in Diabetes). ELIGIBILITY: Aged 18-80 years, T2D for ≥1 year, a (past month) HbA1c>5.5 mmol/mol (0.5%) above their individualised target while prescribed at least two non-insulin hypoglycaemic therapies and/or insulin (therapy stable for the last four months). Our general glycaemic target is 53 mmol/mol (7%) (patients with a history of severe hypoglycaemia or a recorded diagnosis of hypoglycaemia unawareness will have a target of 64 mmol/mol (8%)).Our trial compares r-CGM use and usual care. The r-CGM report summarising daily glucose patterns will be reviewed by GP and patient and inform treatment decisions. Participants in both arms are provided with 1 hour education by a specialist diabetes nurse.The sample (n=150/arm) has 80% power to detect a mean HbA1c difference of 5.5 mmol/mol (0.5%) with an SD of 14.2 (1.3%) and alpha of 0.05 (allowing for 10% clinic and 20% patient attrition). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: University of Melbourne Human Ethics Sub-Committee (ID 1647151.1). Dissemination will be in peer-reviewed journals, conferences and a plain-language summary for participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: >ACTRN12616001372471; Pre-results.