General Practice and Primary Care - Research Publications

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    Therapeutic inertia in the management of dyslipidaemia and hypertension in incident type 2 diabetes and the resulting risk factor burden: Real-world evidence from primary care
    Ling, JZJ ; Montvida, O ; Khunti, K ; Zhang, AL ; Xue, CC ; Paul, SK (WILEY, 2021-07)
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate trends in the prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidaemia in incident type 2 diabetes (T2DM), time to antihypertensive (AHT) and lipid-lowering therapy (LLT), and the association with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and lipid control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using The Health Improvement Network UK primary care database, 254 925 people with incident T2DM and existing dyslipidaemia or hypertension were identified. Among those without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) history and not on AHT or LLT at diagnosis, the adjusted median months to initiating an AHT or an LLT, and the probabilities of high SBP or lipid levels over 2 years in people initiating therapy within or after 1 year were evaluated according to high and low ASCVD risk status. RESULTS: At diabetes diagnosis, 66% and 66% had dyslipidaemia and hypertension, respectively. During 2005 to 2016, dyslipidaemia prevalence increased by 10% in people aged <60 years, while hypertension prevalence remained stable in all age groups. Among those with high ASCVD risk status in the age groups 18 to 39, 40 to 49, and 50 to 59 years, the median number of months to initiation of therapy were 20.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 20.3-20.5), 10.9 (95% CI 10.8-11.0), and 9.5 (95% CI 9.4-9.6) in the dyslipidaemia subcohort, and 28.1 (95% CI 28.0-28.2), 19.2 (95% CI 19.1-19.3), and 19.9 (95% CI 19.8-20.0) in the hypertension subcohort. Among people with high and low ASCVD risk status, respectively, compared to early LLT initiators, those who initiated LLT after 1 year had a 65.3% to 85.3% and a 65.0% to 85.3% significantly higher probability of failing lipid control at 2 years of follow-up, while late AHT initiators had a 46.5% to 57.9% and a 40.0% to 58.7% significantly higher probability of failing SBP control. CONCLUSIONS: Significant delay in initiating cardioprotective therapies was observed, and time to first prescription was similar in the primary prevention setting, irrespective of ASCVD risk status across all T2DM diagnosis age groups, resulting in poor risk factor control at 2 years of follow-up.
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    Temporal trends in co-morbidities and cardiometabolic risk factors at the time of type 2 diabetes diagnosis in the UK
    Ling, J ; Koye, D ; Buizen, L ; Khunti, K ; Montvida, O ; Paul, SK (WILEY, 2021-05)
    AIM: To evaluate temporal patterns in co-morbidities, cardiometabolic risk factors and a high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk population at type 2 diabetes (T2D) diagnosis by age groups and sex. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the UK primary care database, 248,619 people with a new diagnosis of T2D during 2005-2016 were identified. Among people without ASCVD, high ASCVD risk was defined as two or more of current smoker, grade 2+ obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia or microvascular disease. Cardiometabolic multimorbidity (CMM) was defined as two or more of cardiovascular disease, microvascular disease, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, grade 2+ obesity or cancer. Temporal patterns in the distribution of cardiometabolic risk factors were evaluated. RESULTS: While the prevalence of ASCVD was stable over time (approximately 18%), 50% were identified to have a high ASCVD risk (26% and 38% in the 18-39 and 40-49 years age groups, respectively), with an increasing trend across all age groups. Overall, 51% had CMM at diagnosis, increasing during 2005-2016 for the 18-39 years age group by 14%-17%, for the 40-49 years age group by 27%-33%, for the 50-59 years age group by 41%-50%, for the 60-69 years age group by 56%-65%, and for the 70-79 years age group by 65%-80%. People with young-onset T2D had significantly higher HbA1c, body mass index and lipids at diagnosis (all p < .01). The proportions with an HbA1c of 7.5% or higher in the 18-39 and 40-49 years age groups were 58% and 54%, respectively, significantly and consistently higher over the last decade compared with those aged 50 years or older, with males having higher proportions of 15-26 and 10-18 percentage points, respectively, compared with females. CONCLUSIONS: CMM and high ASCVD risk have been increasing consistently across all age groups and in both sex, in particular CMM in those aged younger than 50 years. Our findings indicate that the European Society of Cardiology-European Association for the Study of Diabetes recommendations need to change to consider people with young-onset T2D as a high-risk group, as recommended in the Primary Care Diabetes Europe position statement.