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    Physical activity and the 'pediatric inactivity triad' in children living with chronic kidney disease: a narrative review
    Wilkinson, TJ ; O'Mahoney, LL ; Highton, P ; Viana, JL ; Ribeiro, HS ; Lightfoot, CJ ; Curtis, F ; Khunti, K (SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2022-07-01)
    The 'paediatric inactivity triad' (PIT) framework consists of three complex inter-related conditions that influence physical inactivity and related health risks. In those living with chronic kidney disease (CKD), a multi-factorial milieu of components likely confound the PIT elements, resulting in a cycle of decreased physical functioning and reduced physical activity. In this review, we explore and summarize previous research on each of the three principal PIT components (exercise deficit disorder, dynapenia, and physical illiteracy) in the pediatric CKD population. We found those living with CKD are significantly physically inactive compared to their peers. Physical inactivity occurs early in the disease process and progressively gets worse as disease burden increases. Although physical activity appears to increase post-transplantation, it remains lower compared to healthy controls. There is limited evidence on interventions to increase physical activity behaviour in this population, and those that have attempted have had negligible effects. Studies reported profound reductions in muscle strength, physical performance, and cardiorespiratory fitness. A small number of exercise-based interventions have shown favourable improvements in physical function and cardiorespiratory fitness, although small sample sizes and methodological issues preclude the generalization of findings. Physical activity must be adapted and individualized to the needs and goals of the children, particularly those with acute and chronic medical needs as is the case in CKD, and further work is needed to define optimal interventions across the life course in this population if we aim to prevent physical activity declining further.
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    Access to personal protective equipment in healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom: results from a nationwide cohort study (UK-REACH)
    Martin, CA ; Pan, D ; Nazareth, J ; Aujayeb, A ; Bryant, L ; Carr, S ; Gray, LJ ; Gregary, B ; Gupta, A ; Guyatt, AL ; Gopal, A ; Hine, T ; John, C ; McManus, IC ; Melbourne, C ; Nellums, LB ; Reza, R ; Simpson, S ; Tobin, MD ; Woolf, K ; Zingwe, S ; Khunti, K ; Pareek, M (BMC, 2022-07-05)
    BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Effective use of personal protective equipment (PPE) reduces this risk. We sought to determine the prevalence and predictors of self-reported access to appropriate PPE (aPPE) for HCWs in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted cross sectional analyses using data from a nationwide questionnaire-based cohort study administered between December 2020-February 2021. The outcome was a binary measure of self-reported aPPE (access all of the time vs access most of the time or less frequently) at two timepoints: the first national lockdown in the UK in March 2020 (primary analysis) and at the time of questionnaire response (secondary analysis). RESULTS: Ten thousand five hundred eight HCWs were included in the primary analysis, and 12,252 in the secondary analysis. 35.2% of HCWs reported aPPE at all times in the primary analysis; 83.9% reported aPPE at all times in the secondary analysis. In the primary analysis, after adjustment (for age, sex, ethnicity, migration status, occupation, aerosol generating procedure exposure, work sector and region, working hours, night shift frequency and trust in employing organisation), older HCWs and those working in Intensive Care Units were more likely to report aPPE at all times. Asian HCWs (aOR:0.77, 95%CI 0.67-0.89 [vs White]), those in allied health professional and dental roles (vs those in medical roles), and those who saw a higher number of COVID-19 patients compared to those who saw none (≥ 21 patients/week 0.74, 0.61-0.90) were less likely to report aPPE at all times. Those who trusted their employing organisation to deal with concerns about unsafe clinical practice, compared to those who did not, were twice as likely to report aPPE at all times. Significant predictors were largely unchanged in the secondary analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Only a third of HCWs in the UK reported aPPE at all times during the first lockdown and that aPPE had improved later in the pandemic. We also identified key determinants of aPPE during the first UK lockdown, which have mostly persisted since lockdown was eased. These findings have important implications for the safe delivery of healthcare during the pandemic.
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    Predictors and determinants of albuminuria in people with prediabetes and diabetes based on smoking status: A cross-sectional study using the UK Biobank data.
    Kar, D ; El-Wazir, A ; Delanerolle, G ; Forbes, A ; Sheppard, JP ; Nath, M ; Joy, M ; Cole, N ; Arnold, JR ; Lee, A ; Feher, M ; Davies, MJ ; Khunti, K ; de Lusignan, S ; Goyder, E (Elsevier BV, 2022-09)
    Background: Smoking is attributed to both micro- and macrovascular complications at any stage of metabolic deregulation including prediabetes. Current global diabetes prevention programmes appear to be glucocentric, and do not fully acknowledge the ramifications of cardiorenal risk factors in smokers and ex-smokers. A more holistic approach is needed to prevent vascular complications in people with prediabetes and diabetes before and after quitting. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on participants who agreed to take part in the UK Biobank dataset at the time of their first attendances between March 01, 2006, and December 31, 2010. Those who had their urinary albumin concentration (UAC) data available were included, and those who did not have this data, were excluded. A logistic regression model was fitted to explore the relationship between cardiorenal risk factors and albuminuria in people with prediabetes and diabetes, based on smoking status. Findings: A total of 502,490 participants were included in the UK Biobank dataset. Of them, 30.4% (n=152,896) had their UAC level recorded. Compared with non-smokers, the odds of albuminuria in smokers with prediabetes and diabetes were 1.21 (95% CI 1.05 - 1.39, p=0.009), and 1.26 (95% CI 1.10 - 1.44, p=0.001), respectively. The odds declined after quitting in both groups, but it was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Each unit increase in HbA1c was associated with equivalent increased odds of albuminuria in current and ex-smokers, OR 1.035 (95% CI 1.030 - 1.039, p<0.001), and 1.026 (95% CI 1.023 - 1.028, p <0.001), respectively. Compared to females, male ex-smokers were at 15% increased odds of albuminuria. In ex-smokers, each unit increase in waist circumference was associated with 1% increased risk of albuminuria. Compared with the least deprived quintiles, the odds of albuminuria in the most deprived quintiles, in current and ex-smokers were identical, OR 1.18 (95% CI 1.04-1.324, p=0.010), and 1.19 (95% CI 1.11 - 1.27, p<0.001), respectively. Interpretation: Male smokers are at a higher risk of albuminuria after smoking cessation. Monitoring waist circumference in quitters may identify those who are at a higher risk of albuminuria. Combining smoking cessation intervention in smokers with prediabetes in the current diabetes prevention programmes may offset post-cessation weight gain and reduce the risk of albuminuria. Funding: University of Sheffield.
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    Risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in a multiethnic cohort of United Kingdom healthcare workers (UK-REACH): A cross-sectional analysis.
    Martin, CA ; Pan, D ; Melbourne, C ; Teece, L ; Aujayeb, A ; Baggaley, RF ; Bryant, L ; Carr, S ; Gregary, B ; Gupta, A ; Guyatt, AL ; John, C ; McManus, IC ; Nazareth, J ; Nellums, LB ; Reza, R ; Simpson, S ; Tobin, MD ; Woolf, K ; Zingwe, S ; Khunti, K ; Abrams, KR ; Gray, LJ ; Pareek, M ; UK-REACH Study Collaborative Group, ; Geng, EH (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2022-05)
    BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs), particularly those from ethnic minority groups, have been shown to be at disproportionately higher risk of infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) compared to the general population. However, there is insufficient evidence on how demographic and occupational factors influence infection risk among ethnic minority HCWs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from the baseline questionnaire of the United Kingdom Research study into Ethnicity and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outcomes in Healthcare workers (UK-REACH) cohort study, administered between December 2020 and March 2021. We used logistic regression to examine associations of demographic, household, and occupational risk factors with SARS-CoV-2 infection (defined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), serology, or suspected COVID-19) in a diverse group of HCWs. The primary exposure of interest was self-reported ethnicity. Among 10,772 HCWs who worked during the first UK national lockdown in March 2020, the median age was 45 (interquartile range [IQR] 35 to 54), 75.1% were female and 29.6% were from ethnic minority groups. A total of 2,496 (23.2%) reported previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. The fully adjusted model contained the following dependent variables: demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, migration status, deprivation, religiosity), household factors (living with key workers, shared spaces in accommodation, number of people in household), health factors (presence/absence of diabetes or immunosuppression, smoking history, shielding status, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination status), the extent of social mixing outside of the household, and occupational factors (job role, the area in which a participant worked, use of public transport to work, exposure to confirmed suspected COVID-19 patients, personal protective equipment [PPE] access, aerosol generating procedure exposure, night shift pattern, and the UK region of workplace). After adjustment, demographic and household factors associated with increased odds of infection included younger age, living with other key workers, and higher religiosity. Important occupational risk factors associated with increased odds of infection included attending to a higher number of COVID-19 positive patients (aOR 2.59, 95% CI 2.11 to 3.18 for ≥21 patients per week versus none), working in a nursing or midwifery role (1.30, 1.11 to 1.53, compared to doctors), reporting a lack of access to PPE (1.29, 1.17 to 1.43), and working in an ambulance (2.00, 1.56 to 2.58) or hospital inpatient setting (1.55, 1.38 to 1.75). Those who worked in intensive care units were less likely to have been infected (0.76, 0.64 to 0.92) than those who did not. Black HCWs were more likely to have been infected than their White colleagues, an effect which attenuated after adjustment for other known risk factors. This study is limited by self-selection bias and the cross sectional nature of the study means we cannot infer the direction of causality. CONCLUSIONS: We identified key sociodemographic and occupational risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among UK HCWs, and have determined factors that might contribute to a disproportionate odds of infection in HCWs from Black ethnic groups. These findings demonstrate the importance of social and occupational factors in driving ethnic disparities in COVID-19 outcomes, and should inform policies, including targeted vaccination strategies and risk assessments aimed at protecting HCWs in future waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was prospectively registered at ISRCTN (reference number: ISRCTN11811602).
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    The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on glycaemic control in people with diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    O'Mahoney, LL ; Highton, PJ ; Kudlek, L ; Morgan, J ; Lynch, R ; Schofield, E ; Sreejith, N ; Kapur, A ; Otunla, A ; Kerneis, S ; James, O ; Rees, K ; Curtis, F ; Khunti, K ; Hartmann-Boyce, J (WILEY, 2022-06-20)
    AIM: To identify, appraise and synthesize the available evidence on the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and lockdown (LD) on glycaemic control in people with diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched multiple databases up to 2 February 2021 for studies reporting HbA1c, time in range (TIR), average or fasting glucose, severe hypoglycaemia and diabetic ketoacidosis. Data were pooled using random effects meta-analysis and are presented as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). This review was preregistered on PROSPERO (CRD42020179319). RESULTS: We include 59 studies; 44 (n = 15 464) were included in quantitative syntheses and 15 were narratively synthesized. Pooled data were grouped by diabetes type. Results from 28 studies (n = 5048 type 1 diabetes [T1D] and combined diabetes participants) showed that TIR increased during LD compared with before LD (MD 2.74%, 95% CI 1.80% to 3.69%). Data from 10 studies (n = 1294 T1D participants) showed that TIR increased after LD compared with before LD (MD 5.14%, 95% CI 3.12% to 7.16%). Pooled results from 12 studies (n = 4810 T1D and type 2 diabetes participants) resulted in average glucose decreasing after LD compared with before LD (MD -6.86 mg/dl, 95% CI -8.54 to -5.18). Results for other outcomes, including HbA1c, were not statistically significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with small improvements across multiple outcomes of glycaemic control, although there was insufficient evidence to suggest that this led to changes in HbA1c. Most evidence came from people with access to diabetes technologies in high-income countries; more research is needed in less advantaged populations.
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    Trajectory of long covid symptoms after covid-19 vaccination: community based cohort study
    Ayoubkhani, D ; Bermingham, C ; Pouwels, KB ; Glickman, M ; Nafilyan, V ; Zaccardi, F ; Khunti, K ; Alwan, NA ; Walker, AS (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2022-05-18)
    OBJECTIVE: To estimate associations between covid-19 vaccination and long covid symptoms in adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection before vaccination. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Community dwelling population, UK. PARTICIPANTS: 28 356 participants in the Office for National Statistics COVID-19 Infection Survey aged 18-69 years who received at least one dose of an adenovirus vector or mRNA covid-19 vaccine after testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Presence of long covid symptoms at least 12 weeks after infection over the follow-up period 3 February to 5 September 2021. RESULTS: Mean age of participants was 46 years, 55.6% (n=15 760) were women, and 88.7% (n=25 141) were of white ethnicity. Median follow-up was 141 days from first vaccination (among all participants) and 67 days from second vaccination (83.8% of participants). 6729 participants (23.7%) reported long covid symptoms of any severity at least once during follow-up. A first vaccine dose was associated with an initial 12.8% decrease (95% confidence interval -18.6% to -6.6%, P<0.001) in the odds of long covid, with subsequent data compatible with both increases and decreases in the trajectory (0.3% per week, 95% confidence interval -0.6% to 1.2% per week, P=0.51). A second dose was associated with an initial 8.8% decrease (95% confidence interval -14.1% to -3.1%, P=0.003) in the odds of long covid, with a subsequent decrease by 0.8% per week (-1.2% to -0.4% per week, P<0.001). Heterogeneity was not found in associations between vaccination and long covid by sociodemographic characteristics, health status, hospital admission with acute covid-19, vaccine type (adenovirus vector or mRNA), or duration from SARS-CoV-2 infection to vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The likelihood of long covid symptoms was observed to decrease after covid-19 vaccination and evidence suggested sustained improvement after a second dose, at least over the median follow-up of 67 days. Vaccination may contribute to a reduction in the population health burden of long covid, although longer follow-up is needed.
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    The Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation on Depression in Adults with Cardiometabolic Disease: A Systematic Review of Randomised Control Trials
    Arsenyadis, F ; Ahmad, E ; Redman, E ; Yates, T ; Davies, M ; Khunti, K (MDPI, 2022-05-01)
    BACKGROUND: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids' concurrent benefits for cardiometabolic and mental health are equivocal. Despite lack of evidence, up to a third of adults consume Omega-3 supplements. No review has yet been published to report effect on depression in this cardiometabolic population. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of double-blinded, controlled randomised trials to investigate the safety and effect of Omega-3 supplementation on depression scores in people with cardiometabolic diseases. Primary outcome was change in depression scores versus placebo. Secondary outcomes were side-effects, concurrent medication and adherence. RESULTS: Seven trials reporting on 2575 (672 female) adults aged 39-73 were included. Omega-3 dosages ranged from 1-3 g with an intervention duration of 10-48 weeks. Six out of seven trials found no statistically or clinically significant change to depression scores compared to placebo. One trial favoured intervention (Relative Risk Reduction: 47.93%, 95% CI: 24.89-63.98%, p < 0.001). Sub-analyses showed clinically meaningful reductions in depression scores for those on antidepressants (Intervention: 20.9 (SD: 7.1), Placebo: 24.9 (SD: 8.5) p < 0.05) or with severe depression (-1.74; 95% CI -3.04 to -0.05, p < 0.05) in two separate trials. Side effects were comparable between treatment arms. CONCLUSIONS: Omega-3 supplementation is safe to use but not superior to placebo for depression in adults with concurrent cardiometabolic disease.
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    Prevalence of co-morbidities and their association with mortality in patients withCOVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Singh, AK ; Gillies, CL ; Singh, R ; Singh, A ; Chudasama, Y ; Coles, B ; Seidu, S ; Zaccardi, F ; Davies, MJ ; Khunti, K (WILEY, 2020-07-16)
    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of both cardiometabolic and other co-morbidities in patients with COVID-19, and to estimate the increased risk of severity of disease and mortality in people with co-morbidities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medline, Scopus and the World Health Organization website were searched for global research on COVID-19 conducted from January 2019 up to 23 April 2020. Study inclusion was restricted to English language publications, original articles that reported the prevalence of co-morbidities in individuals with COVID-19, and case series including more than 10 patients. Eighteen studies were selected for inclusion. Data were analysed using random effects meta-analysis models. RESULTS: Eighteen studies with a total of 14 558 individuals were identified. The pooled prevalence for co-morbidities in patients with COVID-19 disease was 22.9% (95% CI: 15.8 to 29.9) for hypertension, 11.5% (9.7 to 13.4) for diabetes, and 9.7% (6.8 to 12.6) for cardiovascular disease (CVD). For chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), cerebrovascular disease and cancer, the pooled prevalences were all less than 4%. With the exception of cerebrovascular disease, all the other co-morbidities presented a significantly increased risk for having severe COVID-19. In addition, the risk of mortality was significantly increased in individuals with CVD, COPD, CKD, cerebrovascular disease and cancer. CONCLUSIONS: In individuals with COVID-19, the presence of co-morbidities (both cardiometabolic and other) is associated with a higher risk of severe COVID-19 and mortality. These findings have important implications for public health with regard to risk stratification and future planning.
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    Effectiveness of a Pragmatic Education Program Designed to Promote Walking Activity in Individuals With Impaired Glucose Tolerance A randomized controlled trial
    Yates, T ; Davies, M ; Gorely, T ; Bull, F ; Khunti, K (AMER DIABETES ASSOC, 2009-08-01)
    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether a pragmatic structured education program with and without pedometer use is effective for promoting physical activity and improving glucose tolerance in those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Overweight and obese individuals with IGT were recruited from ongoing screening studies at the University Hospitals of Leicester, U.K. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Group 1 received a 3-h group-based structured education program designed to promote walking activity using personalized steps-per-day goals and pedometers. Group 2 received a 3-h group-based structured education program designed to promote walking activity using generic time-based goals. Group 3 received a brief information leaflet (control condition). Outcomes included an oral glucose tolerance test, standard anthropometric measures, ambulatory activity, and psychological variables. Follow-up was conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months. RESULTS A total of 87 individuals (66% male, mean age 65 years) were included in this study. At 12 months, significant decreases in 2-h postchallenge glucose and fasting glucose of -1.31 mmol/l (95% CI -2.20 to -0.43) and -0.32 mmol/l (-0.59 to -0.03), respectively, were seen in the pedometer group compared with the control group. No significant improvements in glucose control were seen in those given the standard education program. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that a pragmatic structured education program that incorporates pedometer use is effective for improving glucose tolerance in those with IGT. This result is likely to have important implications for future primary care-based diabetes prevention initiatives.