General Practice - Research Publications

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    Histopathologic indicators of breast cancer biology: insights from population mammographic screening
    Webster, LR ; Bilous, AM ; Willis, L ; Byth, K ; Burgemeister, FC ; Salisbury, ELC ; Clarke, CL ; Balleine, RL (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2005-04-25)
    Histopathologic features of breast cancer such as tumour size, grade and axillary lymph node (LN) status variably reflect tumour biology and time. Recent evidence suggests that the biological character of breast cancer is established at an early stage and has a major impact on clinical course. The aim of this study was to distinguish the impact of biology on breast cancer histopathology by comparing features of breast cancers diagnosed following population mammographic screening with prevalent vs incident detection and screening interval. Central histopathology review data from 1147 cases of ductal in situ and/or invasive breast cancer were examined. Size, grade and LN status of invasive cancers were positively correlated (P < 0.001). Prevalent invasive cancers were larger (P < 0.001) and more likely to be LN positive (P = 0.02) than incident cases, but grade was not associated with screening episode (P = 0.7). Screening interval for incident cancers was positively associated with invasive cancer size (P = 0.05) and LN status (P = 0.002) but not grade (P = 0.1). Together, these data indicate that biology and time both impact on size and LN status of invasive breast cancer, but grade reflects biology alone. In view of the clinical importance of breast cancer biology, grade as its most direct indicator assumes particular significance.
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    Effectiveness of a Pragmatic Education Program Designed to Promote Walking Activity in Individuals With Impaired Glucose Tolerance A randomized controlled trial
    Yates, T ; Davies, M ; Gorely, T ; Bull, F ; Khunti, K (AMER DIABETES ASSOC, 2009-08-01)
    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether a pragmatic structured education program with and without pedometer use is effective for promoting physical activity and improving glucose tolerance in those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Overweight and obese individuals with IGT were recruited from ongoing screening studies at the University Hospitals of Leicester, U.K. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Group 1 received a 3-h group-based structured education program designed to promote walking activity using personalized steps-per-day goals and pedometers. Group 2 received a 3-h group-based structured education program designed to promote walking activity using generic time-based goals. Group 3 received a brief information leaflet (control condition). Outcomes included an oral glucose tolerance test, standard anthropometric measures, ambulatory activity, and psychological variables. Follow-up was conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months. RESULTS A total of 87 individuals (66% male, mean age 65 years) were included in this study. At 12 months, significant decreases in 2-h postchallenge glucose and fasting glucose of -1.31 mmol/l (95% CI -2.20 to -0.43) and -0.32 mmol/l (-0.59 to -0.03), respectively, were seen in the pedometer group compared with the control group. No significant improvements in glucose control were seen in those given the standard education program. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that a pragmatic structured education program that incorporates pedometer use is effective for improving glucose tolerance in those with IGT. This result is likely to have important implications for future primary care-based diabetes prevention initiatives.
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    Supporting schools to create an inclusive environment for refugee students
    Block, K ; Cross, S ; Riggs, E ; Gibbs, L (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2014-01-01)
    In a context of increasing numbers of refugees and asylum seekers globally, recognition of the importance of the school environment for promoting successful settlement outcomes and inclusion for refugee-background young people is growing. Yet schools may be poorly equipped to recognise and respond to the multiple challenges faced by children and young people who must learn a new language while grappling with unfamiliar educational and social systems. Refugee-background students often have minimal or significantly disrupted formal education prior to arrival in their new country. Young people, and sometimes their families, may lack literacy in first languages and many are coping with the impacts of trauma associated with forced displacement. Evidence for effective interventions in schools that promote an inclusive learning environment is scarce. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the School Support Programme operating in schools in Victoria, Australia. The programme is provided to networks of schools in a region and facilitates partnerships between schools and agencies and provides a holistic model for a whole-school approach focused on the learning, social and emotional needs of refugee-background students. The evaluation concluded that the programme provides an appropriate and feasible model that supports the capacity of schools to provide an inclusive education for this group.
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    Alcohol interventions, alcohol policy and intimate partner violence: a systematic review
    Wilson, IM ; Graham, K ; Taft, A (BMC, 2014-08-27)
    BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant global public health issue. The consistent evidence that alcohol use by one or both partners contributes to the risk and severity of IPV suggests that interventions that reduce alcohol consumption may also reduce IPV. This study sought to review the evidence for effects on IPV of alcohol interventions at the population, community, relationship and individual levels using the World Health Organization ecological framework for violence. METHODS: Eleven databases including Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE were searched for English-language studies and grey literature published 1 January 1992 - 1 March 2013 investigating whether alcohol interventions/policies were associated with IPV reduction within adult (≥ 18) intimate relationships. Eleven studies meeting design criteria for attributing effects to the intervention and ten studies showing mediation of alcohol consumption were included in the review. The heterogeneity of study designs precluded quantitative meta analysis; therefore, a critical narrative approach was used. RESULTS: Population-level pricing and taxation studies found weak or no evidence for alcohol price changes influencing IPV. Studies of community-level policies or interventions (e.g., hours of sale, alcohol outlet density) showed weak evidence of an association with IPV. Couples-based and individual alcohol treatment studies found a relationship between reductions in alcohol consumption and reductions in IPV but their designs precluded attributing changes to treatment. Randomized controlled trials of combined alcohol and violence treatment programs found some positive effects of brief alcohol intervention as an adjunct to batterer treatment for hazardous drinking IPV perpetrators, and of brief interventions with non-dependent younger populations, but effects were often not sustained. CONCLUSIONS: Despite evidence associating problematic alcohol use with IPV, the potential for alcohol interventions to reduce IPV has not been adequately tested, possibly because studies have not focused on those most at risk of alcohol-related IPV. Research using rigorous designs should target young adult populations among whom IPV and drinking is highly prevalent. Combining alcohol and IPV intervention/policy approaches at the population, community, relationship and individual-level may provide the best opportunity for effective intervention.
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    Stepwise screening for diabetes identifies people with high but modifiable coronary heart disease risk. The ADDITION study
    Sandbaek, A ; Griffin, SJ ; Rutten, G ; Davies, M ; Stolk, R ; Khunti, K ; Borch-Johnsen, K ; Wareham, NJ ; Lauritzen, T (SPRINGER, 2008-07-01)
    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The Anglo-Danish-Dutch study of intensive treatment in people with screen-detected diabetes in primary care (ADDITION) is a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of intensified multi-factorial treatment on 5 year cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates in people with screen-detected type 2 diabetes in the Netherlands, UK and Denmark. This paper describes the baseline characteristics of the study population, their estimated risk of coronary heart disease and the extent to which that risk is potentially modifiable. METHODS: Stepwise screening strategies were performed using risk questionnaires and routine general practice data plus random blood glucose, HbA(1c) and fasting blood glucose measurement. Diabetes was diagnosed using the 1999 World Health Organization criteria and estimated 10 year coronary heart disease risk was calculated using the UK Prospective Diabetes Study risk engine. RESULTS: Between April 2001 and December 2006, 3,057 people with screen-detected diabetes were recruited to the study (mean age 59.7 years, 58% men) after a stepwise screening programme involving 76,308 people screened in 334 general practices in three countries. Their median estimated 10 year risk of coronary heart disease was 11% in women (interquartile range 7-16%) and 21% (15-30%) in men. There were differences in the distribution of risk factors by country, linked to differences in approaches to screening and the extent to which risk factors had already been detected and treated. The mean HbA(1c) at recruitment was 7.0% (SD 1.6%). Of the people recruited, 73% had a blood pressure > or =140/90 and of these 58% were not on antihypertensive medication. Cholesterol levels were above 5.0 mmol/l in 70% of participants, 91% of whom were not being treated with lipid-lowering drugs. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: People with type 2 diabetes detected by screening and included in the ADDITION study have a raised and potentially modifiable risk of CHD. ClinicalTrials.gov ID no.: NCT 00237549.
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    Ethnic Differences in Diabetes Management in Patients With and Without Comorbid Medical Conditions A cross-sectional study
    Alshamsan, R ; Majeed, A ; Vamos, EP ; Khunti, K ; Curcin, V ; Rawaf, S ; Millett, C (AMER DIABETES ASSOC, 2011-03-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To examine ethnic disparities in diabetes management among patients with and without comorbid medical conditions after a period of sustained investment in quality improvement in the U.K. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study examined associations between ethnicity, comorbidity, and intermediate outcomes for mean A1C, total cholesterol, and blood pressure levels in 6,690 diabetes patients in South West London. RESULTS: The presence of ≥ 2 cardiovascular comorbidities was associated with similar blood pressure control among white and South Asian patients when compared with whites without comorbidity but with worse blood pressure control among black patients, with a mean difference in systolic blood pressure of +1.5, +1.4, and +6.2 mmHg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite major reforms to improve quality, disparities in blood pressure management have persisted in the U.K., particularly among patients with cardiovascular comorbidities. Policy makers should consider the potential impacts of quality initiatives on high-risk groups.
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    Ethnic disparities in diabetes management and pay-for-performance in the UK: The Wandsworth prospective diabetes study
    Millett, C ; Gray, J ; Saxena, S ; Netuveli, G ; Khunti, K ; Majeed, A ; Home, P (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2007-06-01)
    BACKGROUND: Pay-for-performance rewards health-care providers by paying them more if they succeed in meeting performance targets. A new contract for general practitioners in the United Kingdom represents the most radical shift towards pay-for-performance seen in any health-care system. The contract provides an important opportunity to address disparities in chronic disease management between ethnic and socioeconomic groups. We examined disparities in management of people with diabetes and intermediate clinical outcomes within a multiethnic population in primary care before and after the introduction of the new contract in April 2004. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based longitudinal survey, using electronic general practice records, in an ethnically diverse part of southwest London. Outcome measures were prescribing levels and achievement of national treatment targets (HbA1c < or = 7.0%; blood pressure [BP] < 140/80 mm Hg; total cholesterol < or = 5 mmol/l or 193 mg/dl). The proportion of patients reaching treatment targets for HbA1c, BP, and total cholesterol increased significantly after the implementation of the new contract. The extents of these increases were broadly uniform across ethnic groups, with the exception of the black Caribbean patient group, which had a significantly lower improvement in HbA1c (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-0.97) and BP control (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.53-0.81) relative to the white British patient group. Variations in prescribing and achievement of treatment targets between ethnic groups present in 2003 were not attenuated in 2005. CONCLUSIONS: Pay-for-performance incentives have not addressed disparities in the management and control of diabetes between ethnic groups. Quality improvement initiatives must place greater emphasis on minority communities to avoid continued disparities in mortality from cardiovascular disease and the other major complications of diabetes.
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    The National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) for Leicestershire, Northamptonshire and Rutland (LNR): a programme protocol
    Baker, R ; Robertson, N ; Rogers, S ; Davies, M ; Brunskill, N ; Khunti, K ; Steiner, M ; Williams, M ; Sinfield, P (BMC, 2009-11-12)
    BACKGROUND: In October 2008, the National Institute for Health Research launched nine new research projects to develop and investigate methods of translating research evidence into practice. Given the title Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC), all involve collaboration between one or more universities and the local health service, but they are adopting different approaches to achieve translation. METHODS: The translation and implementation programme of this CLAHRC has been built around a pragmatic framework for undertaking research to address live concerns in the delivery of care, in partnership with the managers, practitioners, and patients of the provider organisations of the CLAHRC. Focused on long-term conditions, the constituent research themes are prevention, early detection, self-management, rehabilitation, and implementation. Individual studies have various designs, and include both randomised trials of new ways to deliver care and qualitative studies of, for example, means of identifying barriers to research translation. A mix of methods will be used to evaluate the CLAHRC as a whole, including use of public health indicators, social research methods, and health economics. DISCUSSION: This paper describes one of the nine collaborations, that of Leicestershire, Northamptonshire, and Rutland. Drawing a distinction between translation as an organising principle for healthcare providers and implementation as a discrete activity, this collaboration is built on a substantial programme of applied research intended to create both research generation and research use capacity in provider organisations. The collaboration in Leicestershire, Northamptonshire, and Rutland has potential to provide evidence on how partnerships between practitioners, patients, and researchers can improve the transfer of evidence into practice.
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    The Prevalence of Depression in White-European and South-Asian People with Impaired Glucose Regulation and Screen-Detected Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Aujla, N ; Abrams, KR ; Davies, MJ ; Taub, N ; Skinner, TC ; Khunti, K ; Domschke, K (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2009-11-09)
    BACKGROUND: There is a clear relationship between depression and diabetes. However, the directionality of the relationship remains unclear and very little research has considered a multi-ethnic population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depression in a White-European (WE) and South-Asian (SA) population attending a community diabetes screening programme, and to explore the association of depression with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and impaired glucose regulation (IGR). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants were recruited from general practices in Leicestershire (United Kingdom) between August 2004 and December 2007. 4682 WE (40-75 years) and 1327 SA participants (25-75 years) underwent an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, detailed history, anthropometric measurements and completed the World Health Organisation-Five (WHO-5) Wellbeing Index. Depression was defined by a WHO-5 wellbeing score < or =13. Unadjusted prevalence of depression for people in the total sample with T2DM and IGR was 21.3% (21.6% in WE, 20.6% in SA, p = 0.75) and 26.0% (25.3% in WE, 28.9% in SA, p = 0.65) respectively. For people with normal glucose tolerance, the prevalence was 25.1% (24.9% in WE, 26.4% in SA, p = 0.86). Age-adjusted prevalences were higher for females than males. Odds ratios adjusted for age, gender, and ethnicity, showed no significant increase in prevalent depression for people with T2DM (OR = 0.95, 95%CI 0.62 to 1.45) or IGR (OR = 1.17, 95%CI 0.96 to 1.42). CONCLUSIONS: Prior to the knowledge of diagnosis, depression was not significantly more prevalent in people with screen detected T2DM or IGR. Differences in prevalent depression between WE and SA people were also not identified. In this multi-ethnic population, female gender was significantly associated with depression.
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    Feasibility of a structured group education session to improve self-management of blood pressure in people with chronic kidney disease: an open randomised pilot trial
    Byrne, J ; Khunti, K ; Stone, M ; Farooqi, A ; Carr, S (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2011-01-01)
    Objectives We aimed to test, at pilot level, a structured group educational intervention to improve self-management of blood pressure in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The current paper explores patient acceptability of the intervention. Design This was an open randomised pilot trial. Participants were randomly assigned to either: A control group (n=41) receiving standard clinical management of hypertension. An intervention group (n=40) receiving standard clinical care plus the educational intervention. Setting Renal outpatient clinics at a single study centre. Participants Patients with early CKD and hypertension were identified and approached for recruitment. Intervention An evidence-based structured group educational intervention (CHEERS) using the principles of social cognitive theory to improve knowledge and self-management skills. Outcomes Recruitment, uptake of the intervention and patient satisfaction were evaluated to explore patient acceptability of the intervention and to determine any differences between patients regarding recruitment and retention. Measures Data on age, sex and ethnicity were collected for all patients approached to take part. For recruited patients, data were also collected on self-efficacy (ability to self-manage). Reasons given by patients declining to take part were recorded. Patients attending the educational session also completed an evaluation form to assess satisfaction. Results A total of 267 patients were approached, and 30% were randomly assigned. Lack of time (48%) and lack of interest (44%) were the main reasons cited for non-participation in the study. Men were significantly more likely to be recruited (p=0.048). The intervention was rated enjoyable and useful by 100% of participants. However, 37.5% of the intervention group failed to attend the educational session after recruitment. Participants failing to attend were significantly more likely to be older (p=0.039) and have lower self-efficacy (p=0.034). Conclusion The findings suggest that delivering and evaluating an effective structured group educational intervention to promote better blood pressure control in patients with CKD would be challenging in the current context of kidney care.