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    Prescribing of long-acting reversible contraception by general practice registrars across different rural regions of australia: A cross-sectional analysis of the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training Study data
    Turner, R ; Tapley, A ; Sweeney, S ; Davey, A ; Driel, M ; Morgan, S ; Spike, N ; FitzGerald, K ; Magin, P (WILEY, 2021-06-20)
    OBJECTIVE: To describe the pattern of prescribing long-acting reversible contraception by Australian general practitioner registrars across different classifications of rurality/urbanicity. METHODS: A study nested within the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training ongoing cohort study of Australian general practitioner registrars' in-consultation experience. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis of Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training data collected 2010-2017. Type of contraception prescribed by general practitioner registrars to women aged 12-55 for contraception-related indications was documented. Chi-square statistical analysis was performed to assess association of specific long-acting reversible contraception methods with rurality/urbanicity. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: General practitioner registrars enrolled in the Australian General Practice Training program in regional training providers/organisations participating in Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Long-acting reversible contraception was defined as etonogestrel implant, copper intrauterine device, levonorgestrel intrauterine device and medroxyprogesterone injection. RESULTS: In all 1737 registrars recorded 4073 registrar rounds of data from 2010 to 2017 (response rate 96%). Type of long-acting reversible contraception prescribed differed significantly across Australian Statistical Geography Standards classification of rurality (Pearson's χ2  = 17, P = .002). Women living in outer regional/remote/very remote regions are prescribed proportionately more medroxyprogesterone injection and less levonorgestrel intrauterine device compared to major cities/inner regional areas. CONCLUSIONS: Long-acting reversible contraception methods prescribed differ across different classifications of rurality. Women living in more rural/remote regions might have access difficulties for the levonorgestrel intrauterine device.
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    Does drinking modify the relationship between men's gender-inequitable attitudes and their perpetration of intimate partner violence? A meta-analysis of surveys of men from seven countries in the Asia Pacific region
    Laslett, A-M ; Graham, K ; Wilson, IM ; Kuntsche, S ; Fulu, E ; Jewkes, R ; Taft, A (WILEY, 2021-04-28)
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although men's alcohol misuse and less gender-equitable attitudes have been identified as risks for perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV), less is known about how men's gender-equitable attitudes and drinking act together to increase risk of IPV. This study aimed to assess the independent relationships of lower gender-equitable attitudes and drinking to perpetration of IPV and their interaction among men in seven countries. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the United Nations Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence (UNMCS) and Nabilan Study databases consisting of (1) unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression to measure the association of perpetration of IPV with gender-equitable men (GEM) scale score and regular heavy episodic drinking (RHED) and (2) meta-analyses of prevalence and effect estimates adjusted for country-level sites and countries. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 9148 ever-partnered 18-49-year-old men surveyed in 2011-15 from 18 sites in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka and Timor Leste. MEASUREMENTS: The outcome variable is reported perpetration of physical or sexual IPV in the previous year. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: GEM scale scores; RHED, defined as six or more drinks in one session at least monthly (compared with other drinkers and abstainers). FINDINGS: Pooled past-year prevalence of perpetration of IPV was 13% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 9-16%]. GEM scores and RHED were independently associated with perpetration of IPV overall and in most sites. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) for perpetration of IPV with less equitable GEM scores were 1.07 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.09) and with RHED were 3.42 (95% CI = 2.43, 4.81). A significant interaction between GEM score and RHED (P = 0.001) indicated that RHED increased the relationship of less gender-equitable attitudes and perpetration of IPV. CONCLUSION: Both gender-inequitable attitudes and drinking appear to be associated with perpetration of intimate partner violence by men, with regular heavy episodic drinking increasing the likelihood of intimate partner violence among men with less equitable gender attitudes.
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    The impact of COVID-19 restrictions on accelerometer-assessed physical activity and sleep in individuals with type 2 diabetes
    Rowlands, AV ; Henson, JJ ; Coull, NA ; Edwardson, CL ; Brady, E ; Hall, A ; Khunti, K ; Davies, M ; Yates, T (WILEY, 2021-03-23)
    AIMS: Restrictions during the COVID-19 crisis will have impacted on opportunities to be active. We aimed to (a) quantify the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on accelerometer-assessed physical activity and sleep in people with type 2 diabetes and (b) identify predictors of physical activity during COVID-19 restrictions. METHODS: Participants were from the UK Chronotype of Patients with type 2 diabetes and Effect on Glycaemic Control (CODEC) observational study. Participants wore an accelerometer on their wrist for 8 days before and during COVID-19 restrictions. Accelerometer outcomes included the following: overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), time spent inactive, days/week with ≥30-minute continuous MVPA and sleep. Predictors of change in physical activity taken pre-COVID included the following: age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), socio-economic status and medical history. RESULTS: In all, 165 participants (age (mean±S.D = 64.2 ± 8.3 years, BMI=31.4 ± 5.4 kg/m2 , 45% women) were included. During restrictions, overall physical activity was lower by 1.7 mg (~800 steps/day) and inactive time 21.9 minutes/day higher, but time in MVPA and sleep did not statistically significantly change. In contrast, the percentage of people with ≥1 day/week with ≥30-minute continuous MVPA was higher (34% cf. 24%). Consistent predictors of lower physical activity and/or higher inactive time were higher BMI and/or being a woman. Being older and/or from ethnic minorities groups was associated with higher inactive time. CONCLUSIONS: Overall physical activity, but not MVPA, was lower in adults with type 2 diabetes during COVID-19 restrictions. Women and individuals who were heavier, older, inactive and/or from ethnic minority groups were most at risk of lower physical activity during restrictions.
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    Improved diabetes-related distress and self-efficacy outcomes in a self-management digital programme for people with type 2 diabetes, myDESMOND
    Hadjiconstantinou, M ; Barker, MM ; Brough, C ; Schreder, S ; Northern, A ; Stribling, B ; Khunti, K ; Davies, MJ (WILEY, 2021-03-15)
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    Effects of liraglutide versus sitagliptin on circulating cardiovascular biomarkers, including circulating progenitor cells, in individuals with type 2 diabetes and obesity: Analyses from the LYDIA trial
    Ahmad, E ; Waller, HL ; Sargeant, JA ; Webb, MA ; Htike, ZZ ; McCann, GP ; Gulsin, G ; Khunti, K ; Yates, T ; Henson, J ; Davies, MJ ; Webb, DR (WILEY, 2021-02-26)
    The mechanisms behind the beneficial cardiovascular effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) compared with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4is) remain largely unknown, despite both targeting the incretin pathway to improve glycaemic control. In these prespecified secondary analyses of the LYDIA trial, we examined the impact of the GLP-1RA liraglutide (1.8 mg once-daily) and the DPP4i sitagliptin (100 mg once-daily) on circulating cardiovascular biomarkers associated with atherosclerotic risk, including circulating progenitor cells (CPCs). LYDIA was a 26-week, randomized, active-comparator trial in 61 adults with type 2 diabetes and obesity (mean ± SD: age 43.8 ± 6.5 years, body mass index 35.3 ± 6.4 kg/m2 , HbA1c 7.5% ± 0.83% [58.5 ± 9.1 mmol/mol]). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stromal cell-derived factor-1-alpha (SDF-1ɑ), both of which are implicated in endothelial function, were higher at 26 weeks with liraglutide therapy compared with sitagliptin (mean between-group difference [95% CI]: 77.03 [18.29, 135.77] pg/mL, p = .010; and 996.25 [818.85, 1173.64] pg/mL, p < .001, respectively). There were no between-group differences in CPCs, nitric oxide, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha and advanced glycation end-products. These analyses suggest a favourable impact of liraglutide on VEGF and SDF-1ɑ levels compared with sitagliptin. These factors may therefore be implicated in the differential cardiovascular effects observed between these agents in large cardiovascular outcome trials. However, these are secondary analyses from a previous trial and thus hypothesis-generating. Purposive trials are required to examine these findings further.
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    Rates and estimated cost of primary care consultations in people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and comorbidities: A retrospective analysis of 8.9 million consultations
    Coles, B ; Zaccardi, F ; Seidu, S ; Gillies, CL ; Davies, MJ ; Hvid, C ; Khunti, K (WILEY, 2021-02-19)
    AIMS: To determine whether telephone and face-to-face primary care consultation rates, costs, and temporal trends during 2000 to 2018 differed by the number of comorbidities in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: A total of 120 409 adults with newly diagnosed T2DM between 2000 and 2018 were classified by the number of prevalent and incident comorbidities. Data on face-to-face and telephone primary care consultations with a nurse or physician were obtained. Crude and sex- and age-adjusted annual consultation rates and associated costs were calculated based on the number of comorbidities at the time of consultation. RESULTS: The crude rate of face-to-face primary care consultations for patients without comorbidities was 10.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.3-10.4) per person-year, 12.7 (95% CI 12.7-12.7) for patients with one comorbidity, 15.1 (95% CI 15.1-15.2) for those with two comorbidities, and 18.7 (95% CI 18.7-18.8) for those with three or more comorbidities. The mean annual inflation-adjusted cost for face-to-face consultations was £412.70 per patient without comorbidities, £516.80 for one comorbidity, £620.75 for two comorbidities, and £778.83 for three or more comorbidities. The age- and sex-adjusted face-to-face consultation rate changed by an average of -3.3% (95% CI -4.4 to -2.3) per year from 2000 to 2018 for patients without comorbidities, -2.7% (95% CI -4.0 to -1.3) for those with one comorbidity, -2.2% (95% CI -3.3 to -1.2) for those with two comorbidities, and -4.3% (95% CI -8.7 to +0.3) for those with three or more comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Although consultation rates for all patients decreased from 2000 to 2018, there was a significant disparity between the rate for patients with and without comorbidities. Patients with T2DM and comorbidities may require different models of service delivery.
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    Effectiveness of the Transformation model, a model of care that integrates diabetes services across primary, secondary and community care: A retrospective study
    Brady, EM ; Bodicoat, DH ; Zaccardi, F ; Seidu, S ; Idris, I ; Khunti, K ; Farooqi, A ; Davies, MJ (WILEY, 2021-02-14)
    AIMS: The primary aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a model integrating diabetes services across primary, secondary and community care (Transformation model). The secondary aim was to understand whether changes resulted from the model. METHODS: The model was implemented In Leicester, Leicestershire and Rutland (UK) across three clinical commissioning groups, the acute trust and accompanying stakeholders. One clinical commissioning group (Leicester City) implemented the entire model and was the primary evaluation population. A quasi-experimental interrupted time series design was employed. The primary outcome was number of Type 2 diabetes-related bed-days per 1000 patients. RESULTS: In the primary population, the mean number of Type 2 diabetes-related bed-days per 1000 patients was increasing before model implementation by 0.33/month (95% confidence interval: -0.07, 0.72), whereas it was decreasing after implementation by a mean value of -0.14/month (-0.33, 0.06); a statistically significant difference (p = 0.04). Secondary analyses showed: nationally, there was no significant change between the pre- and post-periods so it is unlikely that large secular change drove the improvement; the other two Leicestershire clinical commissioning groups saw improvement or stability; underlying processes worked as hypothesised overall; diabetes biomedical markers deteriorated in the primary care population suggesting a change in case-mix due to moving some patients out of secondary care. CONCLUSIONS: Given that the initial aim was to shift services from secondary to primary care without causing harm, an improvement is better than expected. This observational evaluation cannot show conclusively that improvements were due to the Transformation model, but secondary analyses support this.
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    Physical, cognitive, and mental health impacts of COVID-19 after hospitalisation (PHOSP-COVID): a UK multicentre, prospective cohort study
    Evans, RA ; McAuley, H ; Harrison, EM ; Shikotra, A ; Singapuri, A ; Sereno, M ; Elneima, O ; Docherty, AB ; Lone, N ; Leavy, OC ; Daines, L ; Baillie, JK ; Brown, JS ; Chalder, T ; De Soyza, A ; Bakerly, ND ; Easom, N ; Geddes, JR ; Greening, NJ ; Hart, N ; Heaney, LG ; Heller, S ; Howard, L ; Hurst, JR ; Jacob, J ; Jenkins, RG ; Jolley, C ; Kerr, S ; Kon, OM ; Lewis, K ; Lord, JM ; McCann, GP ; Neubauer, S ; Openshaw, PJM ; Parekh, D ; Pfeffer, P ; Rahman, NM ; Raman, B ; Richardson, M ; Rowland, M ; Semple, MG ; Shah, AM ; Singh, SJ ; Sheikh, A ; Thomas, D ; Toshner, M ; Chalmers, JD ; Ho, L-P ; Horsley, A ; Marks, M ; Poinasamy, K ; Wain, L ; Brightling, CE (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2021-11-02)
    BACKGROUND: The impact of COVID-19 on physical and mental health and employment after hospitalisation with acute disease is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of COVID-19-related hospitalisation on health and employment, to identify factors associated with recovery, and to describe recovery phenotypes. METHODS: The Post-hospitalisation COVID-19 study (PHOSP-COVID) is a multicentre, long-term follow-up study of adults (aged ≥18 years) discharged from hospital in the UK with a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19, involving an assessment between 2 and 7 months after discharge, including detailed recording of symptoms, and physiological and biochemical testing. Multivariable logistic regression was done for the primary outcome of patient-perceived recovery, with age, sex, ethnicity, body-mass index, comorbidities, and severity of acute illness as covariates. A post-hoc cluster analysis of outcomes for breathlessness, fatigue, mental health, cognitive impairment, and physical performance was done using the clustering large applications k-medoids approach. The study is registered on the ISRCTN Registry (ISRCTN10980107). FINDINGS: We report findings for 1077 patients discharged from hospital between March 5 and Nov 30, 2020, who underwent assessment at a median of 5·9 months (IQR 4·9-6·5) after discharge. Participants had a mean age of 58 years (SD 13); 384 (36%) were female, 710 (69%) were of white ethnicity, 288 (27%) had received mechanical ventilation, and 540 (50%) had at least two comorbidities. At follow-up, only 239 (29%) of 830 participants felt fully recovered, 158 (20%) of 806 had a new disability (assessed by the Washington Group Short Set on Functioning), and 124 (19%) of 641 experienced a health-related change in occupation. Factors associated with not recovering were female sex, middle age (40-59 years), two or more comorbidities, and more severe acute illness. The magnitude of the persistent health burden was substantial but only weakly associated with the severity of acute illness. Four clusters were identified with different severities of mental and physical health impairment (n=767): very severe (131 patients, 17%), severe (159, 21%), moderate along with cognitive impairment (127, 17%), and mild (350, 46%). Of the outcomes used in the cluster analysis, all were closely related except for cognitive impairment. Three (3%) of 113 patients in the very severe cluster, nine (7%) of 129 in the severe cluster, 36 (36%) of 99 in the moderate cluster, and 114 (43%) of 267 in the mild cluster reported feeling fully recovered. Persistently elevated serum C-reactive protein was positively associated with cluster severity. INTERPRETATION: We identified factors related to not recovering after hospital admission with COVID-19 at 6 months after discharge (eg, female sex, middle age, two or more comorbidities, and more acute severe illness), and four different recovery phenotypes. The severity of physical and mental health impairments were closely related, whereas cognitive health impairments were independent. In clinical care, a proactive approach is needed across the acute severity spectrum, with interdisciplinary working, wide access to COVID-19 holistic clinical services, and the potential to stratify care. FUNDING: UK Research and Innovation and National Institute for Health Research.
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    The SYMPTOM-upper gastrointestinal study: A mixed methods study exploring symptom appraisal and help-seeking in Australian upper gastrointestinal cancer patients
    Karnchanachari, N ; Milton, S ; Muhlen-Schulte, T ; Scarborough, R ; Holland, JF ; Walter, FM ; Zalcberg, J ; Emery, J (WILEY, 2022-05-06)
    OBJECTIVE: There is limited evidence on the development of pancreatic and oesophagogastric cancer, how patients decide to seek help and the factors impacting help-seeking. Our study, the first in Australia, aimed to explore symptom appraisal and diagnostic pathways in these patients. A secondary aim was to examine the potential to recruit cancer patients through a cancer quality registry. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with pancreatic or oesophagogastric cancer were recruited through Monash University's Upper-Gastrointestinal Cancer Registry. Data collected through general practitioners (GP) and patient questionnaires included symptoms and their onset, whereas patient interviews focused on the patient's decision-making in seeking help from healthcare pracitioners. Data collection and analysis was informed by the Aarhus statement. Coding was inductive, and themes were mapped onto the Model of Pathways to Treatment. RESULTS: Between November 2018 and March 2020, 27 patient questionnaires and 13 phone interviews were completed. Prior to diagnosis, patients lacked awareness of pancreatic and oesophagogastric cancer symptoms, leading to the normalisation, dismissal and misattribution of the symptoms. Patients initially self-managed symptoms, but worsening of symptoms and jaundice triggered help-seeking. Competing priorities, beliefs about illnesses and difficulties accessing healthcare delayed help-seeking. CONCLUSION: Increased awareness of insidious pancreatic and oesophagogastric cancer symptoms in patients and general practitioners may prompt more urgent investigations and lead to earlier diagnosis.
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    Incidence and Characteristics of Remission of Type 2 Diabetes in England: A Cohort Study Using the National Diabetes Audit.
    Holman, N ; Wild, SH ; Khunti, K ; Knighton, P ; O'Keefe, J ; Bakhai, C ; Young, B ; Sattar, N ; Valabhji, J ; Gregg, EW (American Diabetes Association, 2022-05-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of remission of type 2 diabetes in routine care settings. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: People with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c ≥48 mmol/mol [6.5%] or <48 mmol/mol [6.5%] with a prescription for glucose-lowering medications) alive on 1 April 2018 were identified from a national collation of health records in England and followed until 31 December 2019. Remission was defined as two HbA1c measurements of <48 mmol/mol (6.5%) at least 182 days apart, with no prescription for glucose-lowering medications 90 days before these measurements. RESULTS: In 2,297,700 people with type 2 diabetes, the overall incidence of remission per 1,000 person-years was 9.7 (95% CI 9.6-9.8) and 44.9 (95% CI 44.0-45.7) in 75,610 (3.3%) people who were diagnosed <1 year. In addition to shorter duration of diagnosis, baseline factors associated with higher odds of remission were no prescription for glucose-lowering medication, lower HbA1c and BMI, BMI reduction, White ethnicity, female sex, and lower socioeconomic deprivation. Among 8,940 (0.4%) with characteristics associated with remission (diagnosed <2 years, HbA1c <53 mmol/mol [7.0%], prescribed metformin alone or no glucose-lowering medications, BMI reduction of ≥10%), incidence of remission per 1,000 person-years was 83.2 (95% CI 78.7-87.9). CONCLUSIONS: Remission of type 2 diabetes was generally infrequent in routine care settings but may be a reasonable goal for a subset of people who lose a significant amount of weight shortly after diagnosis. Policies that encourage intentional remission of type 2 diabetes should seek to reduce the ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities identified.