General Practice - Research Publications

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    Vaccine Adverse Event Mining of Twitter Conversations: 2-Phase Classification Study
    Habibabadi, SK ; Haghighi, PD ; Burstein, F ; Buttery, J (JMIR PUBLICATIONS, INC, 2022-06-01)
    BACKGROUND: Traditional monitoring for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) relies on various established reporting systems, where there is inevitable lag between an AEFI occurring and its potential reporting and subsequent processing of reports. AEFI safety signal detection strives to detect AEFI as early as possible, ideally close to real time. Monitoring social media data holds promise as a resource for this. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study is to investigate the utility of monitoring social media for gaining early insights into vaccine safety issues, by extracting vaccine adverse event mentions (VAEMs) from Twitter, using natural language processing techniques. The secondary aims are to document the natural language processing techniques used and identify the most effective of them for identifying tweets that contain VAEM, with a view to define an approach that might be applicable to other similar social media surveillance tasks. METHODS: A VAEM-Mine method was developed that combines topic modeling with classification techniques to extract maximal VAEM posts from a vaccine-related Twitter stream, with high degree of confidence. The approach does not require a targeted search for specific vaccine reaction-indicative words, but instead, identifies VAEM posts according to their language structure. RESULTS: The VAEM-Mine method isolated 8992 VAEMs from 811,010 vaccine-related Twitter posts and achieved an F1 score of 0.91 in the classification phase. CONCLUSIONS: Social media can assist with the detection of vaccine safety signals as a valuable complementary source for monitoring mentions of vaccine adverse events. A social media-based VAEM data stream can be assessed for changes to detect possible emerging vaccine safety signals, helping to address the well-recognized limitations of passive reporting systems, including lack of timeliness and underreporting.
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    Developing a core outcome set for patient-reported symptom monitoring to reduce hospital admissions for patients with heart failure
    Lawson, CA ; Lam, C ; Jaarsma, T ; Kadam, U ; Stromberg, A ; Ali, M ; Tay, WT ; Clayton, L ; Khunti, K ; Squire, I (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2022-04-11)
    AIMS: In patients with heart failure (HF), hospitalization rates are increasing, particularly for non-HF causes and over half may be avoidable. Self-monitoring of symptoms plays a key part in the early identification of deterioration. Our objective was to develop expert consensus for a core outcome set (COS) of symptoms to be monitored by patients, using validated single-item patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), focused on the key priority of reducing admissions in HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: A rigorous COS development process incorporating systematic review, modified e-Delphi and nominal group technique (NGT) methods. Participants included 24 HF patients, 4 carers, 29 HF nurses, and 9 doctors. In three Delphi and NGT rounds, participants rated potential outcomes on their importance before a HF or a non-HF admission using a 5-point Likert scale. Opinion change between rounds was assessed and a two-thirds threshold was used for outcome selection.Item generation using systematic review identified 100 validated single-item PROMs covering 34 symptoms or signs, relevant to admission for people with HF. De-duplication and formal consensus processes, resulted in a COS comprising eight symptoms and signs; shortness of breath, arm or leg swelling, abdomen bloating, palpitations, weight gain, chest pain, anxiety, and overall health. In the NGT, a numerical rating scale was selected as the optimal approach to symptom monitoring. CONCLUSION: Recognition of a range of HF-specific and general symptoms, alongside comorbidities, is an important consideration for admission prevention. Further work is needed to validate and integrate the COS in routine care with the aim of facilitating faster identification of clinical deterioration.
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    Investigation of a UK biobank cohort reveals causal associations of self-reported walking pace with telomere length (vol 5, 381, 2022)
    Dempsey, PC ; Musicha, C ; Rowlands, AV ; Davies, M ; Khunti, K ; Razieh, C ; Timmins, I ; Zaccardi, F ; Codd, V ; Nelson, CP ; Yates, T ; Samani, NJ (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2022-05-19)
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    Climate change and Australian general practice vocational education: a cross-sectional study.
    Wild, K ; Tapley, A ; Fielding, A ; Holliday, E ; Ball, J ; Horton, G ; Blashki, G ; Davey, A ; van Driel, M ; Turner, A ; FitzGerald, K ; Spike, N ; Magin, P (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2022-05-25)
    BACKGROUND: Climate change is a rapidly progressing threat to global health and well-being. For general practitioners (GPs) currently in training, the effects of climate change on public health will shape their future professional practice We aimed to establish the prevalence and associations of Australian GP registrars' (trainees') perceptions of climate change as it relates to public health, education, and workplaces. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of GP registrars of three Australian training organizations. The questionnaire assessed attitudes regarding adverse health effects of climate change (over the next 10-20 years), and agreement with statements on (i) integrating health impacts of climate change into GP vocational training, and (ii) GPs' role in making general practices environmentally sustainable. RESULTS: Of 879 registrars who participated (response rate 91%), 50.4% (95% CI 46.8%, 54.0%) perceived a large or very large future health effect of climate change on their patients, and 61.8% (95% CI 58.6%, 65.0%) agreed that climate health impacts should be integrated within their education programme. 77.8% (95% CI 74.9%, 80.4%) agreed that GPs should have a leadership role in their practices' environmental sustainability. Multivariable associations of these attitudes included female gender, training region, and (for the latter two outcomes) perceptions of future impact of climate change on patient health. CONCLUSIONS: GP registrars are motivated to receive climate health education and engage in environmentally sustainable practice. This may primarily reflect concern for future practice and patient care.
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    Antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections and acute bronchitis: a longitudinal analysis of general practitioner trainees.
    Baillie, EJ ; Merlo, G ; Magin, P ; Tapley, A ; Mulquiney, KJ ; Davis, JS ; Fielding, A ; Davey, A ; Holliday, E ; Ball, J ; Spike, N ; FitzGerald, K ; van Driel, ML (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2022-11-22)
    BACKGROUND: Most antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and acute bronchitis is inappropriate. Substantive and sustained reductions in prescribing are needed to reduce antibiotic resistance. Prescribing habits develop early in clinicians' careers. Hence, general practice (GP) trainees are an important group to target. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to establish temporal trends in antibiotic prescribing for URTIs and acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis by Australian GP trainees (registrars). METHODS: A longitudinal analysis, 2010-2019, of the Registrars Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT) dataset. In ReCEnT, registrars record clinical and educational content of 60 consecutive consultations, on 3 occasions, 6 monthly. Analyses were of new diagnoses of URTI and acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis, with the outcome variable a systemic antibiotic being prescribed. The independent variable of interest was year of prescribing (modelled as a continuous variable). RESULTS: 28,372 diagnoses of URTI and 5,289 diagnoses of acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis were recorded by 2,839 registrars. Antibiotic prescribing for URTI decreased from 24% in 2010 to 12% in 2019. Prescribing for acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis decreased from 84% to 72%. "Year" was significantly, negatively associated with antibiotic prescribing for both URTI (odds ratio [OR] 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.93) and acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis (OR 0.92; 95% CI: 0.88-0.96) on multivariable analysis, with estimates representing the mean annual change. CONCLUSIONS: GP registrars' prescribing for URTI and acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis declined over the 10-year period. Prescribing for acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis, however, remains higher than recommended benchmarks. Continued education and programme-level antibiotic stewardship interventions are required to further reduce registrars' antibiotic prescribing for acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis to appropriate levels.
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    Correction to: Substance Use and Intimate Partner Abuse (IPA): A Descriptive Model of the Pathways Between Substance Use and IPA Perpetration for Men (Journal of Family Violence, (2022), 10.1007/s10896-022-00395-5)
    Gilchrist, E ; Johnson, A ; Thomson, K ; Stephens Lewis, D ; Henderson, J ; Gadd, D ; Radclife, P ; Halliwell, G ; Gilchrist, G (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-01-01)
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    Development, acceptability and construct validity of the Aboriginal Women's Experiences of Partner Violence Scale (AEPVS): a co-designed, multiphase study nested within an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander birth cohort.
    Glover, K ; Gartland, D ; Leane, C ; Nikolof, A ; Weetra, D ; Clark, Y ; Giallo, R ; Brown, SJ (BMJ, 2022-08-25)
    OBJECTIVE: Few studies employ culturally safe approaches to understanding Indigenous women's experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV). The aim of this study was to develop a brief, culturally safe, self-report measure of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women's experiences of different types of IPV. DESIGN: Multistage process to select, adapt and test a modified version of the Australian Composite Abuse Scale using community discussion groups and pretesting. Revised draft measure tested in Wave 2 follow-up of an existing cohort of Aboriginal families. Psychometric testing and revision included assessment of the factor structure, construct validity, scale reliability and acceptability to create the Aboriginal Women's Experiences of Partner Violence Scale (AEPVS). SETTING: South Australia, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 14 Aboriginal women participated in discussion groups, 58 women participated in pretesting of the draft version of the AEPVS and 216 women participating in the Aboriginal Families Study completed the revised draft version of the adapted measure. RESULTS: The initial version of the AEPVS based on item review and adaptation by the study's Aboriginal Advisory Group comprised 31 items measuring physical, emotional and financial IPV. After feedback from community discussion groups and two rounds of testing, the 18-item AEPVS consists of three subscales representing physical, emotional and financial IPV. All subscales had excellent construct validity and internal consistency. The AEPVS had high acceptability among Aboriginal women participating in the Aboriginal Families Study. CONCLUSIONS: The AEPVS is the first co-designed, multidimensional measure of Aboriginal women's experience of physical, emotional and financial IPV. The measure demonstrated cultural acceptability and construct validity within the setting of an Aboriginal-led, community-based research project. Validation in other settings (eg, primary care) and populations (eg, other Indigenous populations) will need to incorporate processes for community governance and tailoring of research processes to local community contexts.
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    All-cause and cardiorenal mortality in 6 million adults with and without type 2 diabetes: A comparative, trend analysis in Canada, Spain, and the UK
    Ling, S ; Zaccardi, F ; Vlacho, B ; Li, P ; Gatius, JR ; Mata-Cases, M ; Franch-Nadal, J ; Kosiborod, MN ; Gillies, C ; Fenici, P ; Mauricio, D ; Shah, BR ; Khunti, K (WILEY, 2022-09-26)
    AIMS: To understand geographical and temporal patterns in the diabetes gap, the excess mortality risk associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), in three high-income countries. METHODS: Using databases from Canada (Ontario), Spain (Catalonia) and the UK (England), we harmonized the study design and the analytical strategy to extract information on subjects aged over 35 years with incident T2D between 1998 and 2018 matched to up to five subjects without diabetes. We used Poisson models to estimate age-specific mortality trends by diabetes status and rate ratios and rate differences associated with T2D. RESULTS: In more than 6 million people, 694 454 deaths occurred during a follow-up of 52 million person-years. Trends in all-cause mortality rates differed between Ontario and England; yet, the diabetes gaps were very similar in recent years: in 2018, we estimated 1.3 (95% confidence interval: 0.8, 1.8) and 0.8 (0.2, 1.5) more deaths per 1000 person-years in 50-year-old men with diabetes in Ontario and England, respectively, and 8.9 (6.1, 11.7) and 12.1 (9.1, 15.1) in 80-year-old men; between-country differences were small also in women. In Catalonia, rate ratios comparing T2D with no diabetes in men in 2018 were 1.53 (1.11, 2.11) at 50 years old, 0.88 (0.72, 1.06) at 60 years old, 0.74 (0.60, 0.90) at 70 years old and 0.81 (0.66, 1.00) at 80 years old, indicating lower mortality rates in men with T2D from the age of 60 years; rates were similar in women with and without diabetes at all ages. The diabetes gaps in cardiorenal mortality mirrored those of all-cause mortality: we observed consistent reductions in the proportions of cardiorenal deaths in subjects aged 80 years but variations in subjects aged ≤70 years, regardless of the presence of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: By reducing the confounding impact of epidemiological and analytical differences, this study showed geographical similarities and differences in the diabetes gap: an excess risk of all-cause and cardiorenal mortality in subjects with T2D is still present in Ontario and England in recent years, particularly in elderly subjects. Conversely, there were very small gaps in young men with T2D or even lower mortality rates in older subjects with T2D in Catalonia.
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    Associations of microvascular complications with all-cause death in patients with diabetes and COVID-19: The CORONADO, ABCD COVID-19 UK national audit and AMERICADO study groups
    Hadjadj, S ; Saulnier, P-J ; Ruan, Y ; Zhu, X ; Pekmezaris, R ; Marre, M ; Halimi, JM ; Wargny, M ; Rea, R ; Gourdy, P ; Cariou, B ; Myers, AK ; Khunti, K (WILEY, 2022-09-12)
    AIM: To provide a detailled analysis of the microvascular burden in patients with diabetes hopitalized for COVD-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed data from the French CORONADO initiative and the UK Association of British Clinical Diabetologists (ABCD) COVID-19 audit, two nationwide multicentre studies, and the AMERICADO, a multicentre study conducted in New York area. We assessed the association between risk of all-cause death during hospital stay and the following microvascular complications in patients with diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19: diabetic retinopathy and/or diabetic kidney disease and/or history of diabetic foot ulcer. RESULTS: Among 2951 CORONADO, 3387 ABCD COVID-19 audit and 9327 AMERICADO participants, microvascular diabetic complications status was ascertained for 1314 (44.5%), 1809 (53.4%) and 7367 (79.0%) patients, respectively: 1010, 1059 and 1800, respectively, had ≥1 severe microvascular complication(s) and 304, 750 and 5567, respectively, were free of any complications. The patients with isolated diabetic kidney disease had an increased risk of all-cause death during hospital stay: odds ratio [OR] 2.53 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66-3.83), OR 1.24 (95% CI 1.00-1.56) and OR 1.66 (95% CI 1.40-1.95) in the CORONADO, the ABCD COVID-19 national audit and the AMERICADO studies, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared to those without microvascular complications, patients with microvascular complications had an increased risk of all-cause death during hospital stay in the CORONADO, the ABCD COVID-19 diabetes national audit and the AMERICADO studies: adjusted OR (adj OR) 2.57 (95% CI 1.69-3.92), adj OR 1.22 (95% CI 1.00-1.52) and adj OR 1.33 (95% CI 1.15-1.53), respectively. In meta-analysis of the three studies, compared to patients free of complications, those with microvascular complications had an unadjusted OR for all-cause death during hospital stay of 2.05 (95% CI 1.42-2.97), which decreased to 1.62 (95% CI 1.19-2.119) after adjustment for age and sex, and to 1.50 (1.12-2.02) after hypertension and CVD were further added to the model. CONCLUSION: Microvascular burden is associated with an increased risk of death in patients hospitalized for COVID-19.
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    Mortality associated with metabolic syndrome in people with COPD managed in primary care
    Karsanji, U ; Evans, RA ; Quint, JK ; Khunti, K ; Lawson, CA ; Petherick, E ; Greening, NJ ; Singh, SJ ; Richardson, M ; Steiner, MC (EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD, 2022-10-01)
    Objective: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been reported to be higher in selected populations of people with COPD. The impact of MetS on mortality in COPD is unknown. We used routinely collected healthcare data to estimate the prevalence of MetS in people with COPD managed in primary care and determine its impact on 5-year mortality. Methods: Records from 103 955 patients with COPD from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD-GOLD) between 2009 to 2017 were scrutinised. MetS was defined as the presence of three or more of: obesity, hypertension, lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated triglycerides or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Univariate and multivariable Cox regression models were constructed to determine the prognostic impact of MetS on 5-year mortality. Similar univariate models were constructed for individual components of the definition of MetS. Results: The prevalence of MetS in the COPD cohort was 10.1%. Univariate analyses showed the presence of MetS increased mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 1.19, 95% CI: 1.12-1.27, p<0.001), but this risk was substantially attenuated in the multivariable analysis (HR 1.06, 95% CI: 0.99-1.13, p=0.085). The presence of hypertension (HR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.63-1.77, p<0.001) and T2DM (HR 1.41, 95% CI: 1.34-1.48, p<0.001) increased and obesity (HR 0.74, 95% CI: 0.71-0.78, p<0.001) reduced mortality risk. Conclusion: MetS in patients with COPD is associated with higher 5-year mortality, but this impact was minimal when adjusted for indices of COPD disease severity and other comorbidities. Individual components of the MetS definition exerted differential impacts on mortality suggesting limitation to the use of MetS as a multicomponent condition in predicting outcome in COPD.