General Practice - Research Publications

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    Diabetes and Oral Health (DiabOH): The Perspectives of Primary Healthcare Providers in the Management of Diabetes and Periodontitis in China and Comparison with Those in Australia
    Yun, A ; Luo, Y ; Calache, H ; Wang, Y ; Darby, I ; Lau, P (MDPI, 2022-06-01)
    Diabetes and periodontal disease are highly prevalent conditions around the world with a bilateral causative relationship. Research suggests that interprofessional collaboration can improve care delivery and treatment outcomes. However, there continues to be little interprofessional management of these diseases. DiabOH research aims to develop an interprofessional diabetes and oral health care model for primary health care that would be globally applicable. Community medical practitioners (CMPs), community health nurses (CNs), and dentists in Shanghai were recruited to participate in online quantitative surveys. Response data of 76 CMPs, CNs, and dentists was analysed for descriptive statistics and compared with Australian data. Health professionals in China reported that, while screening for diabetes and periodontitis, increasing patient referral and improving interprofessional collaboration would be feasible, these were not within their scope of practice. Oral health screening was rarely conducted by CMPs or CNs, while dentists were not comfortable discussing diabetes with patients. Most participants believed that better collaboration would benefit patients. Chinese professionals concurred that interprofessional collaboration is vital for the improved management of diabetes and periodontitis. These views were similar in Melbourne, except that Shanghai health professionals held increased confidence in managing patients with diabetes and were more welcoming to increased oral health training.
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    MOSAIC (MOthers' AdvocateS In the Community) for pregnant women and mothers of children under 5 with experience of intimate partner violence: A pilot randomized trial study protocol.
    Hailemariam, M ; Zlotnick, C ; Taft, A ; Johnson, JE ; Janin, K (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2022)
    BACKGROUND: Pregnancy and motherhood increase the risk for long-term exposure to physical, psychological and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV; sexual or physical violence by current or former partners). Pregnant women and mothers with children under 5 who have experienced IPV exhibit poor physical and mental health and obstetric outcomes. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are the two most common mental health consequences of IPV. There is good evidence that women with good social support have better mental health and IPV outcomes. METHODS: This study will develop MOthers' AdvocateS In the Community (MOSAIC) Plus intervention for pregnant women and mothers with children under the age of 5. MOSAIC uses trained mentor mothers and has been found to reduce subsequent IPV. This study will blend the original MOSAIC intervention with principles of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) to address symptoms of depression, PTSD, and prevent subsequent risk of IPV. We will conduct a pilot randomized trial of the MOSAIC Plus intervention compared to the traditional MOSAIC intervention to determine its feasibility and acceptability. Study samples include focus groups (n = 36), open trial (n = 15), and a randomized pilot trial including 40 pregnant women and mothers with children under 5 who report current/recent of IPV and elevated symptoms of maternal depression and/or PTSD. The study's primary outcome will be changes in maternal depressive and PTSD symptoms. Secondary outcomes will include reduction in subsequent IPV, improvement in functioning, changes in social support and effectiveness in obtaining resources. DISCUSSION: This is a formative study evaluating the feasibility and acceptability of a mentor mother intervention for pregnant women and mothers with children under 5. Promising results of this study will be used for a larger, fully-powered randomized trial evaluating the effectiveness of a mentor mother intervention in preventing subsequent IPV and reducing depressive and PTSD symptoms in this population.
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    'Low-value' clinical care in general practice: associations of low value care in GP trainees' practice, including formative and summative examination performance - protocol for cross-sectional and retrospective cohort study analyses using the QUestionable In Training Clinical Activities (QUIT-CA) index.
    Magin, P ; Ralston, A ; Tapley, A ; Holliday, E ; Ball, J ; van Driel, ML ; Davey, A ; Klein, L ; FitzGerald, K ; Spike, N ; Fielding, A (BMJ, 2022-05-11)
    INTRODUCTION: 'Low value' clinical care and overuse of medical services are 'questionable' clinical activities that entail provision of medical services that are more likely to cause harm than good or whose benefit is disproportionately low compared with its cost. This study will seek to establish clinical practice associations of a non-observed work-based assessment of general practitioner (GP) trainees' (registrars') questionable practice (the QUestionable In Training Clinical Activities (QUIT-CA) index). We will also explore association of the QUIT-CA index with a formative observed work-based assessment, and will establish if registrars' QUIT-CA indexes are associated with summative examination performance. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct three analyses, all using data from the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT) study. ReCEnT is an ongoing (from 2010) cohort study in which Australian GP registrars record details of their in-consultation clinical and educational practice. The QUIT-CA index is compiled from ReCEnT consultation data. A cross-sectional analysis, using negative binomial regression, will establish clinical practice associations of the QUIT-CA index. A cross-sectional analysis using linear regression will be used to establish associations of QUIT-CA index with formative observed in-practice assessment (the General Practice Registrar-Competency Assessment Grid). A retrospective cohort study analysis using linear regression will be used to establish associations of the QUIT-CA index with summative examination performance (Royal Australian College of General Practice fellowship examinations results). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has ethical approval from the University of Newcastle HREC(H-2009-0323). Findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journal articles and conference presentations.
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    Economic evaluation of the Target-D platform to match depression management to severity prognosis in primary care: A within-trial cost-utility analysis
    Lee, YY ; Mihalopoulos, C ; Chatterton, ML ; Fletcher, S ; Chondros, P ; Densley, KL ; Murray, EK ; Dowrick, C ; Coe, AJ ; Hegarty, KM ; Davidson, S ; Wachtler, C ; Palmer, V ; Gunn, J ; Durand-Zaleski, I (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2022-01-01)
    BACKGROUND: Target-D, a new person-centred e-health platform matching depression care to symptom severity prognosis (minimal/mild, moderate or severe) has demonstrated greater improvement in depressive symptoms than usual care plus attention control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Target-D compared to usual care from a health sector and partial societal perspective across 3-month and 12-month follow-up. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cost-utility analysis was conducted alongside the Target-D randomised controlled trial; which involved 1,868 participants attending 14 general practices in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Data on costs were collected using a resource use questionnaire administered concurrently with all other outcome measures at baseline, 3-month and 12-month follow-up. Intervention costs were assessed using financial records compiled during the trial. All costs were expressed in Australian dollars (A$) for the 2018-19 financial year. QALY outcomes were derived using the Assessment of Quality of Life-8D (AQoL-8D) questionnaire. On a per person basis, the Target-D intervention cost between $14 (minimal/mild prognostic group) and $676 (severe group). Health sector and societal costs were not significantly different between trial arms at both 3 and 12 months. Relative to a A$50,000 per QALY willingness-to-pay threshold, the probability of Target-D being cost-effective under a health sector perspective was 81% at 3 months and 96% at 12 months. From a societal perspective, the probability of cost-effectiveness was 30% at 3 months and 80% at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Target-D is likely to represent good value for money for health care decision makers. Further evaluation of QALY outcomes should accompany any routine roll-out to assess comparability of results to those observed in the trial. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12616000537459).
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    The Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation on Depression in Adults with Cardiometabolic Disease: A Systematic Review of Randomised Control Trials
    Arsenyadis, F ; Ahmad, E ; Redman, E ; Yates, T ; Davies, M ; Khunti, K (MDPI, 2022-05-01)
    BACKGROUND: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids' concurrent benefits for cardiometabolic and mental health are equivocal. Despite lack of evidence, up to a third of adults consume Omega-3 supplements. No review has yet been published to report effect on depression in this cardiometabolic population. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of double-blinded, controlled randomised trials to investigate the safety and effect of Omega-3 supplementation on depression scores in people with cardiometabolic diseases. Primary outcome was change in depression scores versus placebo. Secondary outcomes were side-effects, concurrent medication and adherence. RESULTS: Seven trials reporting on 2575 (672 female) adults aged 39-73 were included. Omega-3 dosages ranged from 1-3 g with an intervention duration of 10-48 weeks. Six out of seven trials found no statistically or clinically significant change to depression scores compared to placebo. One trial favoured intervention (Relative Risk Reduction: 47.93%, 95% CI: 24.89-63.98%, p < 0.001). Sub-analyses showed clinically meaningful reductions in depression scores for those on antidepressants (Intervention: 20.9 (SD: 7.1), Placebo: 24.9 (SD: 8.5) p < 0.05) or with severe depression (-1.74; 95% CI -3.04 to -0.05, p < 0.05) in two separate trials. Side effects were comparable between treatment arms. CONCLUSIONS: Omega-3 supplementation is safe to use but not superior to placebo for depression in adults with concurrent cardiometabolic disease.
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    Prevalence of co-morbidities and their association with mortality in patients withCOVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Singh, AK ; Gillies, CL ; Singh, R ; Singh, A ; Chudasama, Y ; Coles, B ; Seidu, S ; Zaccardi, F ; Davies, MJ ; Khunti, K (WILEY, 2020-07-16)
    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of both cardiometabolic and other co-morbidities in patients with COVID-19, and to estimate the increased risk of severity of disease and mortality in people with co-morbidities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medline, Scopus and the World Health Organization website were searched for global research on COVID-19 conducted from January 2019 up to 23 April 2020. Study inclusion was restricted to English language publications, original articles that reported the prevalence of co-morbidities in individuals with COVID-19, and case series including more than 10 patients. Eighteen studies were selected for inclusion. Data were analysed using random effects meta-analysis models. RESULTS: Eighteen studies with a total of 14 558 individuals were identified. The pooled prevalence for co-morbidities in patients with COVID-19 disease was 22.9% (95% CI: 15.8 to 29.9) for hypertension, 11.5% (9.7 to 13.4) for diabetes, and 9.7% (6.8 to 12.6) for cardiovascular disease (CVD). For chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), cerebrovascular disease and cancer, the pooled prevalences were all less than 4%. With the exception of cerebrovascular disease, all the other co-morbidities presented a significantly increased risk for having severe COVID-19. In addition, the risk of mortality was significantly increased in individuals with CVD, COPD, CKD, cerebrovascular disease and cancer. CONCLUSIONS: In individuals with COVID-19, the presence of co-morbidities (both cardiometabolic and other) is associated with a higher risk of severe COVID-19 and mortality. These findings have important implications for public health with regard to risk stratification and future planning.
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    Effectiveness of a Pragmatic Education Program Designed to Promote Walking Activity in Individuals With Impaired Glucose Tolerance A randomized controlled trial
    Yates, T ; Davies, M ; Gorely, T ; Bull, F ; Khunti, K (AMER DIABETES ASSOC, 2009-08-01)
    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether a pragmatic structured education program with and without pedometer use is effective for promoting physical activity and improving glucose tolerance in those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Overweight and obese individuals with IGT were recruited from ongoing screening studies at the University Hospitals of Leicester, U.K. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Group 1 received a 3-h group-based structured education program designed to promote walking activity using personalized steps-per-day goals and pedometers. Group 2 received a 3-h group-based structured education program designed to promote walking activity using generic time-based goals. Group 3 received a brief information leaflet (control condition). Outcomes included an oral glucose tolerance test, standard anthropometric measures, ambulatory activity, and psychological variables. Follow-up was conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months. RESULTS A total of 87 individuals (66% male, mean age 65 years) were included in this study. At 12 months, significant decreases in 2-h postchallenge glucose and fasting glucose of -1.31 mmol/l (95% CI -2.20 to -0.43) and -0.32 mmol/l (-0.59 to -0.03), respectively, were seen in the pedometer group compared with the control group. No significant improvements in glucose control were seen in those given the standard education program. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that a pragmatic structured education program that incorporates pedometer use is effective for improving glucose tolerance in those with IGT. This result is likely to have important implications for future primary care-based diabetes prevention initiatives.
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    Use of electronic medical records to monitor the safe and effective prescribing of medicinal cannabis: is it feasible?
    Hallinan, CM ; Gunn, JM ; Bonomo, YA (CSIRO Publishing, 2022)
    General practitioners are well positioned to contribute to the pharmacovigilance of medical cannabis via the general practice electronic medical record (EMR). The aim of this research is to interrogate de-identified patient data from the Patron primary care data repository for reports of medicinal cannabis to ascertain the feasibility of using EMRs to monitor medicinal cannabis prescribing in Australia. Methods. EMR rule-based digital phenotyping of 1 164 846 active patients from 109 practices was undertaken to investigate reports of medicinal cannabis use from September 2017 to September 2020. Results. Eighty patients with 170 prescriptions of medicinal cannabis were identified in the Patron repository. Reasons for prescription included anxiety, multiple sclerosis, cancer, nausea, and Crohn’s disease. Nine patients showed symptoms of a possible adverse event, including depression, motor vehicle accident, gastrointestinal symptoms, and anxiety. Conclusions. The recording of medicinal cannabis effects in the patient EMR provides potential for medicinal cannabis monitoring in the community. This is especially feasible if monitoring were to be embedded into general practitioner workflow.
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    "He'd Tell Me I was Frigid and Ugly and Force me to Have Sex with Him Anyway": Women's Experiences of Co-Occurring Sexual Violence and Psychological Abuse in Heterosexual Relationships
    Tarzia, L ; Hegarty, K (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2022-04-20)
    Intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) is a common yet hidden form of violence. It is primarily perpetrated against women by their male partners and is associated with a range of serious mental and physical health outcomes. Despite these harms, it is chronically under-researched. In particular, the overlaps between IPSV and psychological abuse in relationships are poorly understood. Extant literature has focused primarily on the relationship between IPSV and physical violence, neglecting the fact that IPSV often involves verbal or emotional coercion, threats or blackmail rather than the use of 'force'. In this paper, we draw on reflexive thematic analysis of qualitative interviews with n = 38 victim/survivors of IPSV to explore how they understood the relationship between sexual and psychological abuse in their heterosexual relationships. Four themes were developed from this analysis: 1. I felt like I couldn't say Nno'; 2. I felt degraded and worthless; 3. Letting me know who's boss; and 4. Making me feel crazy. These themes broadly correspond to four distinct patterns or interactions between IPSV and psychological abuse. Our findings strongly suggest that the relationship between sexual and psychological abuse in relationships is far more complex than previous research would indicate. Psychological abuse is not simply a tool to obtain sex and sexual violence is not only used as a mechanism of psychological control. Instead, the two forms of abuse interact in ways that can be unidirectional, bi-directional or simultaneous to develop and maintain an environment of fear and control and erode women's self-worth.
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    Prescribing of long-acting reversible contraception by general practice registrars across different rural regions of australia: A cross-sectional analysis of the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training Study data
    Turner, R ; Tapley, A ; Sweeney, S ; Davey, A ; Driel, M ; Morgan, S ; Spike, N ; FitzGerald, K ; Magin, P (WILEY, 2021-06-20)
    OBJECTIVE: To describe the pattern of prescribing long-acting reversible contraception by Australian general practitioner registrars across different classifications of rurality/urbanicity. METHODS: A study nested within the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training ongoing cohort study of Australian general practitioner registrars' in-consultation experience. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis of Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training data collected 2010-2017. Type of contraception prescribed by general practitioner registrars to women aged 12-55 for contraception-related indications was documented. Chi-square statistical analysis was performed to assess association of specific long-acting reversible contraception methods with rurality/urbanicity. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: General practitioner registrars enrolled in the Australian General Practice Training program in regional training providers/organisations participating in Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Long-acting reversible contraception was defined as etonogestrel implant, copper intrauterine device, levonorgestrel intrauterine device and medroxyprogesterone injection. RESULTS: In all 1737 registrars recorded 4073 registrar rounds of data from 2010 to 2017 (response rate 96%). Type of long-acting reversible contraception prescribed differed significantly across Australian Statistical Geography Standards classification of rurality (Pearson's χ2  = 17, P = .002). Women living in outer regional/remote/very remote regions are prescribed proportionately more medroxyprogesterone injection and less levonorgestrel intrauterine device compared to major cities/inner regional areas. CONCLUSIONS: Long-acting reversible contraception methods prescribed differ across different classifications of rurality. Women living in more rural/remote regions might have access difficulties for the levonorgestrel intrauterine device.