General Practice - Research Publications

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    Cardiac procedures in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction-the influence of age, geography and Aboriginality
    Taylor, LK ; Nelson, MA ; Gale, M ; Trevena, J ; Brieger, DB ; Winch, S ; Cretikos, MA ; Newman, LA ; Phung, HN ; Faddy, SC ; Kelly, PM ; Chant, K (BMC, 2020-05-14)
    BACKGROUND: Timely restoration of bloodflow acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) reduces myocardial damage and improves prognosis. The objective of this study was describe the association of demographic factors with hospitalisation rates for STEMI and time to angiography, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) and Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) in New South Wales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), Australia. METHODS: This was an observational cohort study using linked population health data. We used linked records of NSW and the ACT hospitalisations and the Australian Government Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) for persons aged 35 and over hospitalised with STEMI in the period 1 July 2010 to 30 June 2014. Survival analysis was used to determine the time between STEMI admission and angiography, PCI and CABG, with a competing risk of death without cardiac procedure. RESULTS: Of 13,117 STEMI hospitalisations, 71% were among males; 55% were 65-plus years; 64% lived in major cities, and 2.6% were Aboriginal people. STEMI hospitalisation occurred at a younger age in males than females. Angiography and PCI rates decreased with age: angiography 69% vs 42% and PCI 60% vs 34% on day 0 for ages 35-44 and 75-plus respectively. Lower angiography and PCI rates and higher CABG rates were observed outside major cities. Aboriginal people with STEMI were younger and more likely to live outside a major city. Angiography, PCI and CABG rates were similar for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people of the same age and remoteness area. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to improve access to definitive revascularisation for STEMI among appropriately selected older patients and in regional areas. Aboriginal people with STEMI, as a population, are disproportionately affected by access to definitive revascularisation outside major cities. Improving access to timely definitive revascularisation in regional areas may assist in closing the gap in cardiovascular outcomes between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people.
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    Place-based approaches to improve health and development outcomes in young children: A scoping review
    Burgemeister, FC ; Crawford, SB ; Hackworth, NJ ; Hokke, S ; Nicholson, JM ; Metwally, AM (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2021-12-23)
    This scoping review examines the strength of evidence for the effectiveness of public policy-led place-based initiatives designed to improve outcomes for disadvantaged children, their families and the communities in which they live. Study designs and methods for evaluating such place-based initiatives were assessed, along with the contexts in which initiatives were implemented and evaluated. Thirty-two reports relating to 12 initiatives were included. Eleven initiatives used a quasi-experimental evaluation to assess impact, although there were considerable design variations within this. The remaining initiative used a pre- and post- evaluation design. Place-based initiatives by definition aim to improve multiple and interrelated outcomes. We examined initiatives to determine what outcomes were measured and coded them within the five domains of pregnancy and birth, child, parent, family and community. Across the 83 outcomes reported in the 11 studies with a comparison group, 30 (36.4%) demonstrated a positive outcome, and all but one initiative demonstrated a positive outcome in at least one outcome measure. Of the six studies that examined outcomes more than once post baseline, 10 from 38 outcomes (26.3%) demonstrated positive sustained results. Many initiatives were affected by external factors such as policy and funding changes, with unknown impact on their effectiveness. Despite the growth of place-based initiatives to improve outcomes for disadvantaged children, the evidence for their effectiveness remains inconclusive.
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    Detecting ovarian cancer in primary care: can we do better?
    Funston, G ; Crosbie, EJ ; Hamilton, W ; Walter, FM (ROYAL COLL GENERAL PRACTITIONERS, 2020-07-01)
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    Understanding the Methodological Issues and Solutions in the Research Design of Stroke Caregiving Technology
    Lobo, EH ; Frolich, A ; Rasmussen, LJ ; Livingston, PM ; Grundy, J ; Abdelrazek, M ; Kensing, F (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2021-04-16)
    The rise in the number of cases of stroke has resulted in a significant burden on the healthcare system. As a result, the majority of care for the person living with stroke occurs within the community, resulting in caregivers being a central and challenged agent in care. To better support caregivers during the recovery trajectory poststroke, we investigated the role of health technologies to promote education and offer various kinds of support. However, the introduction of any new technology comes with challenges due to the growing need for more user-centric systems. The integration of user-centric systems in stroke caregiving has the potential to ensure long-term acceptance, success, and engagement with the technology, thereby ensuring better care for the person living with stroke. We first briefly characterize the affordances of available technologies for stroke caregiving. We then discuss key methodological issues related to the acceptance to such technologies. Finally, we suggest user-centered design strategies for mitigating such challenges.
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    Caregiver Engagement in Stroke Care: Opportunities and Challenges in Australia and Denmark
    Lobo, EH ; Abdelrazek, M ; Grundy, J ; Kensing, F ; Livingston, PM ; Rasmussen, LJ ; Islam, SMS ; Frolich, A (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2021-11-26)
    Globally, there is a rise in incident cases of stroke, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, due to obesity-related and lifestyle risk factors, including health issues such as high cholesterol, diabetes and hypertension. Since the early 20th century, stroke mortality has declined due to proper management of the risk factors and improved treatment practices. However, despite the decline in mortality, there is an increase in the levels of disability that requires long-term support. In countries such as Australia and Denmark, where most care is provided within the community; family members, generally spouses, assume the role of caregiver, with little to no preparation that affects the quality of care provided to the person living with stroke. While past research has highlighted aspects to improve caregiver preparedness of stroke and its impact on care; health planning, recovery, and public health policies rarely consider these factors, reducing engagement and increasing uncertainty. Hence, there is a need to focus on improving strategies during recovery to promote caregiver engagement. In this study, we, therefore, try to understand the needs of the caregiver in stroke that limit engagement, and processes employed in countries such as Australia and Denmark to provide care for the person with stroke. Based on our understanding of these factors, we highlight the potential opportunities and challenges to promote caregiving engagement in these countries.
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    Prevalence of co-morbidities and their association with mortality in patients withCOVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Singh, AK ; Gillies, CL ; Singh, R ; Singh, A ; Chudasama, Y ; Coles, B ; Seidu, S ; Zaccardi, F ; Davies, MJ ; Khunti, K (WILEY, 2020-07-16)
    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of both cardiometabolic and other co-morbidities in patients with COVID-19, and to estimate the increased risk of severity of disease and mortality in people with co-morbidities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medline, Scopus and the World Health Organization website were searched for global research on COVID-19 conducted from January 2019 up to 23 April 2020. Study inclusion was restricted to English language publications, original articles that reported the prevalence of co-morbidities in individuals with COVID-19, and case series including more than 10 patients. Eighteen studies were selected for inclusion. Data were analysed using random effects meta-analysis models. RESULTS: Eighteen studies with a total of 14 558 individuals were identified. The pooled prevalence for co-morbidities in patients with COVID-19 disease was 22.9% (95% CI: 15.8 to 29.9) for hypertension, 11.5% (9.7 to 13.4) for diabetes, and 9.7% (6.8 to 12.6) for cardiovascular disease (CVD). For chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), cerebrovascular disease and cancer, the pooled prevalences were all less than 4%. With the exception of cerebrovascular disease, all the other co-morbidities presented a significantly increased risk for having severe COVID-19. In addition, the risk of mortality was significantly increased in individuals with CVD, COPD, CKD, cerebrovascular disease and cancer. CONCLUSIONS: In individuals with COVID-19, the presence of co-morbidities (both cardiometabolic and other) is associated with a higher risk of severe COVID-19 and mortality. These findings have important implications for public health with regard to risk stratification and future planning.
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    Learning to recognise what good practice looks like: how general practice trainees develop evaluative judgement
    Bearman, M ; Dracup, M ; Garth, B ; Johnson, C ; Wearne, E (SPRINGER, 2021-12-02)
    The nature of healthcare means doctors must continually calibrate the quality of their work within constantly changing standards of practice. As trainees move into working as fully qualified professionals, they can struggle to know how well they are practising in the absence of formal oversight. They therefore need to build their evaluative judgement: their capability to interpret cues and messages from the clinical environment, allowing them to judge quality of practice. This paper explores how Australian general practice (GP) trainees develop their evaluative judgement. We interviewed 16 GPs, who had recently completed certification requirements, asking them how they managed complex learning challenges across their training trajectory. A thematic analysis was sensitised by conceptualisations of evaluative judgement and feedback for future practice. Findings are reported via three themes: sources of performance relevant information; sense-making about progress within complex learning challenges; and changing practice as evaluative judgement develops. Trainees actively sought to understand what quality practice looked like within complex and ambiguous circumstances but often found it difficult to calibrate their performance. While reflective practice was key to developing evaluative judgment, feedback conversations could provide significant opportunities for trainees and supervisors to co-construct meaning. A 'feedback community' was available for frequent instances where supervisors were absent or not regarded as entirely credible, although feedback conversations in themselves did not necessarily assist trainees to develop evaluative judgement. There is room for a more active role for supervisors in assisting trainees to consider how to independently make sense of learning cues.
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    Prescribing of long-acting reversible contraception by general practice registrars across different rural regions of australia: A cross-sectional analysis of the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training Study data
    Turner, R ; Tapley, A ; Sweeney, S ; Davey, A ; Driel, M ; Morgan, S ; Spike, N ; FitzGerald, K ; Magin, P (WILEY, 2021-06-20)
    OBJECTIVE: To describe the pattern of prescribing long-acting reversible contraception by Australian general practitioner registrars across different classifications of rurality/urbanicity. METHODS: A study nested within the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training ongoing cohort study of Australian general practitioner registrars' in-consultation experience. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis of Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training data collected 2010-2017. Type of contraception prescribed by general practitioner registrars to women aged 12-55 for contraception-related indications was documented. Chi-square statistical analysis was performed to assess association of specific long-acting reversible contraception methods with rurality/urbanicity. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: General practitioner registrars enrolled in the Australian General Practice Training program in regional training providers/organisations participating in Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Long-acting reversible contraception was defined as etonogestrel implant, copper intrauterine device, levonorgestrel intrauterine device and medroxyprogesterone injection. RESULTS: In all 1737 registrars recorded 4073 registrar rounds of data from 2010 to 2017 (response rate 96%). Type of long-acting reversible contraception prescribed differed significantly across Australian Statistical Geography Standards classification of rurality (Pearson's χ2  = 17, P = .002). Women living in outer regional/remote/very remote regions are prescribed proportionately more medroxyprogesterone injection and less levonorgestrel intrauterine device compared to major cities/inner regional areas. CONCLUSIONS: Long-acting reversible contraception methods prescribed differ across different classifications of rurality. Women living in more rural/remote regions might have access difficulties for the levonorgestrel intrauterine device.
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    Does drinking modify the relationship between men's gender-inequitable attitudes and their perpetration of intimate partner violence? A meta-analysis of surveys of men from seven countries in the Asia Pacific region
    Laslett, A-M ; Graham, K ; Wilson, IM ; Kuntsche, S ; Fulu, E ; Jewkes, R ; Taft, A (WILEY, 2021-04-28)
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although men's alcohol misuse and less gender-equitable attitudes have been identified as risks for perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV), less is known about how men's gender-equitable attitudes and drinking act together to increase risk of IPV. This study aimed to assess the independent relationships of lower gender-equitable attitudes and drinking to perpetration of IPV and their interaction among men in seven countries. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the United Nations Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence (UNMCS) and Nabilan Study databases consisting of (1) unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression to measure the association of perpetration of IPV with gender-equitable men (GEM) scale score and regular heavy episodic drinking (RHED) and (2) meta-analyses of prevalence and effect estimates adjusted for country-level sites and countries. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 9148 ever-partnered 18-49-year-old men surveyed in 2011-15 from 18 sites in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka and Timor Leste. MEASUREMENTS: The outcome variable is reported perpetration of physical or sexual IPV in the previous year. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: GEM scale scores; RHED, defined as six or more drinks in one session at least monthly (compared with other drinkers and abstainers). FINDINGS: Pooled past-year prevalence of perpetration of IPV was 13% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 9-16%]. GEM scores and RHED were independently associated with perpetration of IPV overall and in most sites. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) for perpetration of IPV with less equitable GEM scores were 1.07 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.09) and with RHED were 3.42 (95% CI = 2.43, 4.81). A significant interaction between GEM score and RHED (P = 0.001) indicated that RHED increased the relationship of less gender-equitable attitudes and perpetration of IPV. CONCLUSION: Both gender-inequitable attitudes and drinking appear to be associated with perpetration of intimate partner violence by men, with regular heavy episodic drinking increasing the likelihood of intimate partner violence among men with less equitable gender attitudes.
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    The impact of COVID-19 restrictions on accelerometer-assessed physical activity and sleep in individuals with type 2 diabetes
    Rowlands, AV ; Henson, JJ ; Coull, NA ; Edwardson, CL ; Brady, E ; Hall, A ; Khunti, K ; Davies, M ; Yates, T (WILEY, 2021-03-23)
    AIMS: Restrictions during the COVID-19 crisis will have impacted on opportunities to be active. We aimed to (a) quantify the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on accelerometer-assessed physical activity and sleep in people with type 2 diabetes and (b) identify predictors of physical activity during COVID-19 restrictions. METHODS: Participants were from the UK Chronotype of Patients with type 2 diabetes and Effect on Glycaemic Control (CODEC) observational study. Participants wore an accelerometer on their wrist for 8 days before and during COVID-19 restrictions. Accelerometer outcomes included the following: overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), time spent inactive, days/week with ≥30-minute continuous MVPA and sleep. Predictors of change in physical activity taken pre-COVID included the following: age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), socio-economic status and medical history. RESULTS: In all, 165 participants (age (mean±S.D = 64.2 ± 8.3 years, BMI=31.4 ± 5.4 kg/m2 , 45% women) were included. During restrictions, overall physical activity was lower by 1.7 mg (~800 steps/day) and inactive time 21.9 minutes/day higher, but time in MVPA and sleep did not statistically significantly change. In contrast, the percentage of people with ≥1 day/week with ≥30-minute continuous MVPA was higher (34% cf. 24%). Consistent predictors of lower physical activity and/or higher inactive time were higher BMI and/or being a woman. Being older and/or from ethnic minorities groups was associated with higher inactive time. CONCLUSIONS: Overall physical activity, but not MVPA, was lower in adults with type 2 diabetes during COVID-19 restrictions. Women and individuals who were heavier, older, inactive and/or from ethnic minority groups were most at risk of lower physical activity during restrictions.