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    The duration and body position during tongue-kissing among heterosexual men and women
    Tran, J ; Fairley, CKK ; Ong, JJJ ; Bradshaw, CSS ; Aung, ETT ; Maddaford, K ; Chen, MYY ; Hocking, JSS ; Chow, EPF (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2022-12-22)
    BACKGROUND: Emerging data suggest tongue-kissing may transmit gonorrhea. We aim to examine the duration or body position of heterosexual men and women during tongue-kissing (henceforth, known as kissing). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey among heterosexual men and women attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in Australia between May 2019 and March 2020 collected data on the duration and body position (i.e., on top of or lying down underneath) of their most recent kissing partner in the past 3 months. Univariable and multivariable linear regressions were performed to examine the association between gender and kissing duration. RESULTS: Of 2,866 individuals, 93.6% (n = 2,683) had at least one kissing partner in the past 3 months, which included 1,342 (50.1%) men and 1,341 (49.9%) women, and 87.2% (n = 2,339) had sex with their opposite-gender kissing partner. The adjusted mean duration of kissing with the most recent opposite-gender kissing partner did not differ between men and women (12.2 vs. 11.5 min, p = 0.170). More men were on top of their most recent opposite-gender kissing partner compared to women (87.9 vs. 82.9%, p < 0.001). Men reported a longer kissing duration than women when they were on top of the opposite-gender kissing partner (8.3 vs. 7.4 min, p = 0.006). More women had same-gender kissing partners than men (9.6 vs. 2.8%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Men spending longer than women on top of their opposite-gender kissing partner suggests a potential alternative explanation for oropharyngeal gonorrhea being seen more commonly in women. Further research should investigate whether body positioning and duration of kissing influence the risk of gonorrhea transmission.
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    Towards patient-centred communication in the management of older patients' medications across transitions of care: A focused ethnographic study
    Ozavci, G ; Bucknall, T ; Woodward-Kron, R ; Hughes, C ; Jorm, C ; Manias, E (WILEY, 2022-11-01)
    BACKGROUND: Communication about managing medications during transitions of care can be a challenging process for older patients since they often have complex medication regimens. Previous studies highlighted that links between communication breakdowns and medication incidents in older patients occur mainly at discharge or in the post-discharge period. Little attention has been paid to exploring communication strategies facilitating patient-centred medication communication at transitions of care from a discourse-analytic perspective. OBJECTIVES: To explore, through a discursive lens, strategies that enable patient-centred medication communication at transitions of care. DESIGN: A focused ethnographic study was employed for this study. The study was reported according to the COREQ checklist. METHODS: Interviews, observations and focus groups were analysed utilising Critical Discourse Analysis and the Medication Communication Model following thematic analysis. Data collection was undertaken in eight wards across two metropolitan hospitals in Australia. RESULTS: Patient preferences and beliefs about medications were identified as important characteristics of patient-centred communication. Strategies included empathetic talk prioritising patients' medication needs and preferences for medications; informative talk clarifying patients' concerns; and encouraging talk for enhancing shared decision-making with older patients. Challenges relating to the use of these strategies included patients' hearing, speech or cognitive impairments, language barriers and absence of interpreters or family members during care transitions. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: To enhance medication communication, nurses, doctors and pharmacists should incorporate older patients' preferences, previous experiences and beliefs, and consider the challenges faced by patients across transitions. Strategies encouraging patients' contribution to decision-making processes are crucial to patient-centeredness in medication communication. Nurses need to engage in informative talk more frequently when administering the medications to ensure older patients' understanding of medications prescribed or altered in hospital settings.
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    More than a fleeting conversation: managing medication communication across transitions of care
    Manias, E ; Hughes, C ; Woodward-Kron, RE ; Jorm, CM ; Ozavci, G ; Bucknall, TK (WILEY, 2022-07-31)
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    Environmental risk factors associated with the presence of Mycobacterium ulcerans in Victoria, Australia
    Blasdell, KR ; McNamara, B ; O'Brien, DP ; Tachedjian, M ; Boyd, V ; Dunn, M ; Mee, PT ; Clayton, S ; Gaburro, J ; Smith, I ; Gibney, KB ; Tay, EL ; Hobbs, EC ; Waidyatillake, N ; Lynch, SE ; Stinear, TP ; Athan, E ; Becker, D (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2022-09-13)
    In recent years reported cases of Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, have increased substantially in Victoria, Australia, with the epidemic also expanding geographically. To develop an understanding of how M. ulcerans circulates in the environment and transmits to humans we analyzed environmental samples collected from 115 properties of recent Buruli ulcer cases and from 115 postcode-matched control properties, for the presence of M. ulcerans. Environmental factors associated with increased odds of M. ulcerans presence at a property included certain native plant species and native vegetation in general, more alkaline soil, lower altitude, the presence of common ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus peregrinus) and overhead powerlines. However, only overhead powerlines and the absence of the native plant Melaleuca lanceolata were associated with Buruli ulcer case properties. Samples positive for M. ulcerans were more likely to be found at case properties and were associated with detections of M. ulcerans in ringtail possum feces, supporting the hypothesis that M. ulcerans is zoonotic, with ringtail possums the strongest reservoir host candidate. However, the disparity in environmental risk factors associated with M. ulcerans positive properties versus case properties indicates the involvement of human behavior or the influence of other environmental factors in disease acquisition that requires further study.
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    Creating opportunities for patient participation in managing medications across transitions of care through formal and informal modes of communication
    Ozavci, G ; Bucknall, T ; Woodward-Kron, R ; Hughes, C ; Jorm, C ; Manias, E (WILEY, 2022-05-27)
    BACKGROUND: Communicating about medications across transitions of care is important in older patients who frequently move between health care settings. While there is increasing interest in understanding patient communication across transitions of care, little is known about older patients' involvement in formal and informal modes of communication regarding managing medications. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to explore how older patients participated in managing their medications across transitions of care through formal and informal modes of communication. METHODS: The study was conducted across two metropolitan hospitals: an acute hospital and a geriatric rehabilitation hospital in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. A focused ethnographic design was used involving semi-structured interviews (n = 50), observations (203 h) and individual interviews or focus groups (n = 25). Following thematic analysis, data were analysed using Fairclough's Critical Discourse Analysis. RESULTS: Data analysis revealed two major discursive practices, which comprised of an interplay between formal and informal communication and environmental influences on formal and informal communication. Self-created patient notes were used by older patients to initiate informal discussion with health professionals about medication decisions, which challenged traditional unequal power relations between health professionals and patients. Formal prompts on electronic medication administration records facilitated the continuous information discourse about patients' medications across transitions of care and encouraged health professionals to seek out older patients' preferences through informal bedside interactions. Environmental influences on communication comprised health professionals' physical movements across private and public spaces in the ward, their distance from older patients at the bedside and utilization of the computer systems during patient encounters. CONCLUSION: Older patients' self-created medication notes enabled them to take on a more active role in formal and informal medication communication across transitions of care. Older patients and family members did not have continuous access to information about medication changes during their hospital stay and systems often failed to address older patients' key concerns about their medications, which hindered their active involvement in formal and informal communication. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Older adults, family members and health professionals volunteered to be interviewed and observed.
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    Immune and genomic biomarkers of immunotherapy response in cancer of unknown primary
    Posner, A ; Sivakumaran, T ; Pattison, A ; Etemadmoghadam, D ; Thio, N ; Wood, C ; Fisher, K ; Webb, S ; DeFazio, A ; Wilcken, N ; Gao, B ; Karapetis, CS ; Singh, M ; Collins, IM ; Richardson, G ; Steer, C ; Warren, M ; Karanth, N ; Fellowes, A ; Fox, SB ; Hicks, RJ ; Schofield, P ; Bowtell, D ; Prall, OWJ ; Tothill, RW ; Mileshkin, L (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2023-01-01)
    BACKGROUND: Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is a heterogeneous group of metastatic cancers where a primary tissue of origin (TOO) is uncertain. Most patients with CUP have limited treatment options and poor survival outcomes. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) can be efficacious in some patients with CUP, but the optimal predictive biomarkers are unknown. We therefore assessed immune and genomic biomarkers as well as predicted TOO in patients with CUP, including a subset treated with ICIs. METHODS: Patients with CUP were subject to gene-expression profiling (GEP) and DNA panel sequencing. Immune and stromal-related gene expression was explored by NanoString, including genes associated with immunotherapy response (IR) in other solid malignancies. ICI responsive cancer types were assigned based on Food and Drug Administration-approved indications, and either detection of a latent primary tumor or the TOO was suspected based on genomics informed pathology review. Tumor mutation burden (TMB) and gene mutations were also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 219 patients with CUP were included, 215 assessed for TOO in a previous study, with the majority (163) receiving both RNA and DNA tests. Of GEP profiled cases, 33% (59/175) had a high IR gene-expression score. Of the DNA sequenced cases, 16% (32/203) had high TMB (>10 mutations/Mb), including two with mismatch repair deficiency. Low correlation was observed between TMB and an IR score (R=0.26, p<0.001). Among 110 CUPs with a latent primary or suspected TOO, 47% (52/110) belonged to ICI-responsive cancer types. More than half of the CUPs had at least one feature that may predict ICI response (high IR score, high TMB, ICI-responsive cancer type). Among patients with CUP treated with ICIs, 8/28 (29%) responded (2 complete responses and 6 partial responses). Among non-responders, 9 had stable and 11 had progressive disease. All responders had a high IR score (7/8) and/or high TMB (3/8), while most (5/8) belonged to ICI-responsive cancer types. These features were detected at a lower frequency in non-responders and mostly in patients with stable disease. CONCLUSIONS: A significant fraction of CUP tumors had genomic features previously associated with ICI response. High IR score was the most sensitive predictive feature of ICI response, warranting evaluation in a larger patient series.
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    Recently Acquired Blood-borne Virus Infections in Australian Deceased Organ Donors: Estimation of the Residual Risk of Unexpected Transmission.
    Dutch, MJ ; Seed, CR ; Cheng, A ; Kiely, P ; Patrick, CJ ; Opdam, HI ; Knott, JC (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2023-03)
    UNLABELLED: Unexpected donor-derived infections of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and HIV are rare but important potential complications of deceased organ transplantation. The prevalence of recently acquired (yield) infections has not been previously described in a national cohort of Australian deceased organ donors. Donor yield infections are of particularly significance, as they can be used to gain insights in the incidence of disease in the donor pool and in turn, estimate the risk of unexpected disease transmission to recipients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients who commenced workup for donation in Australia between 2014 and 2020. Yield cases were defined by having both unreactive serological screening for current or previous infection and reactive nucleic acid testing screening on initial and repeat testing. Incidence was calculated using a yield window estimate and residual risk using the incidence/window period model. RESULTS: The review identified only a single yield infection of HBV in 3724 persons who commenced donation workup. There were no yield cases of HIV or HCV. There were no yield infections in donors with increased viral risk behaviors. The prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV was 0.06% (0.01-0.22), 0.00% (0-0.11), and 0.00% (0-0.11), respectively. The residual risk of HBV was estimated to be 0.021% (0.001-0.119). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of recently acquired HBV, HCV, and HIV in Australians who commence workup for deceased donation is low. This novel application of yield-case-methodology has produced estimates of unexpected disease transmission which are modest, particularly when contrasted with local average waitlist mortality. Supplemental Visual Abstract; http://links.lww.com/TXD/A503.
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    Integrating interprofessional electronic medical record teaching in preregistration healthcare degrees: A case study
    Lokmic-Tomkins, Z ; Gray, K ; Cheshire, L ; Parolini, A ; Sharp, M ; Tarrant, B ; Hill, N ; Rose, D ; Webster, M ; Virtue, D ; Brignell, A ; Waring, R ; Broussard, F ; Tsirgialos, A ; Cham, KM (ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2023-01-01)
    BACKGROUND: Electronic medical record (EMR) adoption across healthcare necessitates a purposeful curriculum design to prepare graduates for the delivery of safe and effective patient care in digitally-enabled environments. OBJECTIVE: To describe the design and development of an Interprofessional Electronic Medical Record (iEMR) subject that introduces healthcare students to its utility in clinical settings. METHODS: A six-stage design-based educational research framework (Focus, Formulation, Contextualisation, Definition, Implementation, Evaluation) was used to instigate the iEMR design and development in nursing and five allied health graduate entry to practice (preregistration) degrees at an Australian university. RESULTS: In the Focus process, the concept and interdisciplinary partnerships were developed. The Formulation process secured grant support for subject design and development, including a rapid literature review to accommodate various course and curriculum structures. Discipline-specific subject themes were created through the Contextualisation process. During the Definition process, learning objectives and content resources were built. The Implementation process describes the pilot implementation in the nursing program, where assessment tasks were refined, and interdisciplinary clinical case studies originated. DISCUSSION: The design and development of an iEMR subject is underpinned by internal support for educational innovation and in alignment with digital health strategies in employer organisations. Identified barriers include faculty-level changes in strategic support for teaching innovation, managerial expectations of workload, the scope of work required by academics and learning designers, and the gap between the technology platform required to support online learning and the infrastructure needed to support simulated EMR use. A key discovery was the difficulty of finding EMR software, whether designed for teaching purposes or for clinical use, that could be adapted to meet the needs of this project. CONCLUSION: The lessons learned are relevant to educators and learning designers attempting a similar process. Issues remain surrounding the sustainability of the iEMR subject and maintaining academic responsibility for ongoing curriculum management.
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    Flexibility in primary medical programs: A scoping review
    Barrett, A ; Woodward-Kron, R ; Cheshire, L (AUSTRALIAN NZ ASSOC HEALTH PROFESSIONAL EDUCATORS-ANZAHPE, 2022-01-01)
    Introduction: Students and universities increasingly seek flexibility in learning options, however terms such as flexible are not consistently defined in the medical education literature. This review aimed to 1) propose a definition for flexibility in medical education and 2) create a typology of contemporary examples of how flexibility has been operationalised in medical education. Method: A systematic scoping review of papers published in English since 2009 was undertaken. The focus was on papers reporting initiatives to create flexibility in primary medical programs. Results: Based on review of 1,641 search returns and 140 full-text articles, two interconnected concepts were identified: flexibility and individualisation. Flexibility describes mechanisms that allow students choice in how they allocate time and resources to meet the requirements of their course, including time-variable progression, acceleration, deceleration, articulated degree entry and exit options, and pedagogical approaches that reduce time required in classrooms. Individualisation describes options that enable student-driven direction, extension or expansion of medical education into special interest areas, including dual degrees, breadth subjects, curriculum tracks, elective service-learning pathways, electives and selectives. Conclusions: Though not always clearly defined as such, international medical education literature describes a rich variety of flexibility and individualisation initiatives. While the constructs of flexibility and individualisation are interconnected, they can assist curriculum designers to differentiate between the mechanisms that enable flexibility in how students meet course requirements and the mechanisms that enable individual choice in what students study. Flexibility and individualisation initiatives target different needs, including both students’ needs and medical workforce needs; they also suggest different institutional and financial implications. Consensus on and consistent use of common terminology about flexibility and individualisation initiatives will improve the “searchability” and synthesis of research on such initiatives and their impacts and enablers, as well as encourage further research, publication and synthesis of outcomes of such initiatives.
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