Psychiatry - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 49
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Cortico-cognition coupling in treatment resistant schizophrenia
    Syeda, WT ; Wannan, CMJ ; Merritt, AH ; Raghava, JM ; Jayaram, M ; Velakoulis, D ; Kristensen, TD ; Soldatos, RF ; Tonissen, S ; Thomas, N ; Ambrosen, KS ; Sorensen, ME ; Fagerlund, B ; Rostrup, E ; Glenthoj, BY ; Skafidas, E ; Bousman, CA ; Johnston, LA ; Everall, I ; Ebdrup, BH ; Pantelis, C (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2022-06-08)
    BACKGROUND: Brain structural alterations and cognitive dysfunction are independent predictors for poor clinical outcome in schizophrenia, and the associations between these domains remains unclear. We employed a novel, multiblock partial least squares correlation (MB-PLS-C) technique and investigated multivariate cortico-cognitive patterns in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) and matched healthy controls (HC). METHOD: Forty-one TRS patients (age 38.5 ± 9.1, 30 males (M)), and 45 HC (age 40.2 ± 10.6, 29 M) underwent 3T structural MRI. Volumes of 68 brain regions and seven variables from CANTAB covering memory and executive domains were included. Univariate group differences were assessed, followed by the MB-PLS-C analyses to identify group-specific multivariate patterns of cortico-cognitive coupling. Supplementary three-group analyses, which included 23 non-affected first-degree relatives (NAR), were also conducted. RESULTS: Univariate tests demonstrated that TRS patients showed impairments in all seven cognitive tasks and volume reductions in 12 cortical regions following Bonferroni correction. The MB-PLS-C analyses revealed two significant latent variables (LVs) explaining > 90% of the sum-of-squares variance. LV1 explained 78.86% of the sum-of-squares variance, describing a shared, widespread structure-cognitive pattern relevant to both TRS patients and HCs. In contrast, LV2 (13.47% of sum-of-squares variance explained) appeared specific to TRS and comprised a differential cortico-cognitive pattern including frontal and temporal lobes as well as paired associates learning (PAL) and intra-extra dimensional set shifting (IED). Three-group analyses also identified two significant LVs, with NARs more closely resembling healthy controls than TRS patients. CONCLUSIONS: MB-PLS-C analyses identified multivariate brain structural-cognitive patterns in the latent space that may provide a TRS signature.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) augmentation in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: A phase III, 20-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
    Sarris, J ; Byrne, G ; Castle, D ; Bousman, C ; Oliver, G ; Cribb, L ; Blair-West, S ; Brakoulias, V ; Camfield, D ; Ee, C ; Chamoli, S ; Boschen, M ; Dean, OM ; Dowling, N ; Menon, R ; Murphy, J ; Metri, N-J ; Nguyen, TP ; Wong, A ; Jordan, R ; Karamacoska, D ; Rossell, SL ; Berk, M ; Ng, CH (Elsevier BV, 2022-07-13)
    OBJECTIVE: Preliminary evidence has suggested that adjunctive N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant precursor to glutathione, may reduce symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We conducted a 20-week, multi-site, randomized controlled trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of the adjunctive use of NAC in OCD. METHODS: The study was a phase III, 20-week, double-blind, randomized controlled trial across multiple sites in Australia investigating 2 g to 4 g per day of NAC (titrated according to response) in 98 participants with DSM-5 diagnosed OCD. Data were analysed using linear mixed effects models for the 89 participants who attended at least one follow-up visit. RESULTS: A modified intention-to-treat analysis of the primary outcome found no evidence that NAC reduced symptoms of OCD measured on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, relative to placebo (mean difference at week 20 = 0.53, 95% compatibility interval = -2.18, 3.23; p = 0.70; favouring placebo). There was also no evidence that NAC, compared to placebo, improved outcomes on the secondary measures including anxiety, depression, quality of life, functioning, or clinician/participant impression. NAC was well-tolerated with only mild gastrointestinal adverse events associated with the treatment. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence supporting the efficacy of the adjunctive use of NAC in OCD.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Treatment of refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder with nutraceuticals (TRON): a 20-week, open label pilot study
    Sarris, J ; Byrne, GJ ; Oliver, G ; Cribb, L ; Blair-West, S ; Castle, D ; Dean, OM ; Camfield, DA ; Brakoulias, V ; Bousman, C ; Dowling, N ; Ee, C ; Murphy, J ; Menon, R ; Berk, M ; Chamoli, S ; Boschen, M ; Ng, CH (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2021-06-21)
    BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often challenging to treat and resistant to psychological interventions and prescribed medications. The adjunctive use of nutraceuticals with potential neuromodulatory effects on underpinning pathways such as the glutamatergic and serotonergic systems is one novel approach. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness and safety of a purpose-formulated combination of nutraceuticals in treating OCD: N-acetyl cysteine, L-theanine, zinc, magnesium, pyridoxal-5' phosphate, and selenium. METHODS: A 20-week open label proof-of-concept study was undertaken involving 28 participants with treatment-resistant DSM-5-diagnosed OCD, during 2017 to 2020. The primary outcome measure was the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), administered every 4 weeks. RESULTS: An intention-to-treat analysis revealed an estimated mean reduction across time (baseline to week-20) on the YBOCS total score of -7.13 (95% confidence interval = -9.24, -5.01), with a mean reduction of -1.21 points per post-baseline visit (P ≤ .001). At 20-weeks, 23% of the participants were considered "responders" (YBOCS ≥35% reduction and "very much" or "much improved" on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale). Statistically significant improvements were also revealed on all secondary outcomes (eg, mood, anxiety, and quality of life). Notably, treatment response on OCD outcome scales (eg, YBOCS) was greatest in those with lower baseline symptom levels, while response was limited in those with relatively more severe OCD. CONCLUSIONS: While this pilot study lacks placebo-control, the significant time effect in this treatment-resistant OCD population is encouraging and suggests potential utility especially for those with lower symptom levels. Our findings need to be confirmed or refuted via a follow-up placebo-controlled study.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Dispensing patterns of mental health medications before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Alberta, Canada: An interrupted time series analysis
    Ying, LTL ; Yarema, MC ; Bousman, CA (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2022-05-03)
    BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the general population in all aspects of life. Estimates of mental health medication dispensing in Alberta were investigated to elucidate areas of need within mental health and pharmacy practice during the pandemic. METHODS: We employed an interrupted time series analysis using linear regression models to estimate community and outpatient medication dispensing trends of 46 medications used to treat mental health disorders. Three parameters were examined. The first was the medication dispensing slope before COVID-19. The second was the immediate effect of COVID-19 on dispensing (i.e., the difference in dispensing rate between the month before and after the first case of COVID-19) and the third was the medication dispensing slope during COVID-19. RESULTS: Dispensing rates of 61% (n = 34) of the examined medications remained similar before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, eight medications (i.e., amitriptyline, escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, bupropion, desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine, and oxazepam) showed an immediate and significant increase in dispensing rate following the onset of the pandemic that was sustained over the first 13-months of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Initial increases in dispensing patterns of antidepressants may be attributed to a "stockpiling phenomenon" but the sustained higher levels of dispensing suggest an unfavorable shift in the population's mental health. Monitoring of medication dispensing patterns during COVID-19 may serve as a useful indicator of the population's mental health during the current pandemic and better prepare community pharmacists in future pandemic planning, medication dispensing strategies, and care of chronic medical conditions.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Genome-wide association analyses of symptom severity among clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders
    Okhuijsen-Pfeifer, C ; van der Horst, MZ ; Bousman, CA ; Lin, B ; van Eijk, KR ; Ripke, S ; Ayhan, Y ; Babaoglu, MO ; Bak, M ; Alink, W ; van Beek, H ; Beld, E ; Bouhuis, A ; Edlinger, M ; Erdogan, IM ; Ertugrul, A ; Yoca, G ; Everall, P ; Goerlitz, T ; Grootens, KP ; Gutwinski, S ; Hallikainen, T ; Jeger-Land, E ; de Koning, M ; Lahteenvuo, M ; Legge, SE ; Leucht, S ; Morgenroth, C ; Muderrisoglu, A ; Narang, A ; Pantelis, C ; Pardinas, AF ; Oviedo-Salcedo, T ; Schneider-Thoma, J ; Schreiter, S ; Repo-Tiihonen, E ; Tuppurainen, H ; Veereschild, M ; Veerman, S ; de Vos, M ; Wagner, E ; Cohen, D ; Bogers, JPAM ; Walters, JTR ; Yagcioglu, EA ; Tiihonen, J ; Hasan, A ; Luykx, JJ (SPRINGERNATURE, 2022-04-07)
    Clozapine is the most effective antipsychotic for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, response is highly variable and possible genetic underpinnings of this variability remain unknown. Here, we performed polygenic risk score (PRS) analyses to estimate the amount of variance in symptom severity among clozapine-treated patients explained by PRSs (R2) and examined the association between symptom severity and genotype-predicted CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP2C19 enzyme activity. Genome-wide association (GWA) analyses were performed to explore loci associated with symptom severity. A multicenter cohort of 804 patients (after quality control N = 684) with schizophrenia spectrum disorder treated with clozapine were cross-sectionally assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and/or the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scale. GWA and PRS regression analyses were conducted. Genotype-predicted CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP2C19 enzyme activities were calculated. Schizophrenia-PRS was most significantly and positively associated with low symptom severity (p = 1.03 × 10-3; R2 = 1.85). Cross-disorder-PRS was also positively associated with lower CGI-S score (p = 0.01; R2 = 0.81). Compared to the lowest tertile, patients in the highest schizophrenia-PRS tertile had 1.94 times (p = 6.84×10-4) increased probability of low symptom severity. Higher genotype-predicted CYP2C19 enzyme activity was independently associated with lower symptom severity (p = 8.44×10-3). While no locus surpassed the genome-wide significance threshold, rs1923778 within NFIB showed a suggestive association (p = 3.78×10-7) with symptom severity. We show that high schizophrenia-PRS and genotype-predicted CYP2C19 enzyme activity are independently associated with lower symptom severity among individuals treated with clozapine. Our findings open avenues for future pharmacogenomic projects investigating the potential of PRS and genotype-predicted CYP-activity in schizophrenia.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Editorial: Pharmacogenomics: From Bench to Bedside and Back Again.
    Shaman, JA ; Bousman, CA ; Mitropoulou, C ; Padmanabhan, S (Frontiers Media SA, 2022)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Serotonin Transporter Genetic Variation and Antidepressant Response and Tolerability: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    Stein, K ; Maruf, AA ; Müller, DJ ; Bishop, JR ; Bousman, CA (MDPI AG, 2021-12-09)
    Antidepressants are used to treat several psychiatric disorders; however, a large proportion of patients do not respond to their first antidepressant therapy and often experience adverse drug reactions (ADR). A common insertion-deletion polymorphism in the promoter region (5-HTTLPR) of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) gene has been frequently investigated for its association with antidepressant outcomes. Here, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess 5-HTTLPR associations with antidepressants: (1) response in psychiatric disorders other than major depressive disorder (MDD) and (2) tolerability across all psychiatric disorders. Literature searches were performed up to January 2021, yielding 82 studies that met inclusion criteria, and 16 of these studies were included in the meta-analyses. Carriers of the 5-HTTLPR LL or LS genotypes were more likely to respond to antidepressant therapy, compared to the SS carriers in the total and European ancestry-only study populations. Long (L) allele carriers taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) reported fewer ADRs relative to short/short (SS) carriers. European L carriers taking SSRIs had lower ADR rates than S carriers. These results suggest the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism may serve as a marker for antidepressant outcomes in psychiatric disorders and may be particularly relevant to SSRI treatment among individuals of European descent.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Sequence2Script: A Web-Based Tool for Translation of Pharmacogenetic Data Into Evidence-Based Prescribing Recommendations.
    Bousman, CA ; Wu, P ; Aitchison, KJ ; Cheng, T (Frontiers Media SA, 2021)
    Pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing has emerged as an effective strategy for informing drug selection and dosing. This has led to an increase in the use of PGx testing in the clinic and has catalyzed the emergence of a burgeoning commercial PGx testing industry. However, not all PGx tests are equivalent in their approach to translating testing results into prescribing recommendations, due to an absence of regulatory standards. As such, those generating and using PGx data require tools for ensuring the prescribing recommendations they are provided align with current peer-reviewed PGx-based prescribing guidelines developed by expert groups or approved product labels. Herein, we present Sequence2Script (sequence2script.com), a simple, free, and transparent web-based tool to assist in the efficient translation of PGx testing results into evidence-based prescribing recommendations. The tool was designed with a wide-range of user groups (e.g., healthcare providers, laboratory staff, researchers) in mind. The tool supports 97 gene-drug pairs with evidence-based prescribing guidelines, allows users to adjust recommendations for concomitant inhibitors and inducers, and generates a clinical report summarizing the patient's genotype, inferred phenotype, phenoconverted phenotype (if applicable), and corresponding prescribing recommendations. In this paper, we describe each of the tool's features, provide use case examples, and discuss limitations of and future development plans for the tool. Although we recognize that Sequecnce2Script may not meet the needs of every user, the hope is that this novel tool will facilitate more standardized use of PGx testing results and reduce barriers to implementing these results into practice.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Encountering Pharmacogenetic Test Results in the Psychiatric Clinic
    Bousman, CA ; Mukerjee, G ; Men, X ; Dorfman, R ; Muller, DJ ; Thomas, RE (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2021-11-16)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    FRONTOSTRIATAL CONNECTIVITY IN TREATMENT-RESISTANT SCHIZOPHRENIA: RELATIONSHIP TO POSITIVE SYMPTOMS AND COGNITIVE FLEXIBILITY
    Cropley, V ; Ganella, E ; Wannan, C ; Zalesky, A ; Van Rheenen, T ; Bousman, C ; Everall, I ; Fornito, A ; Pantelis, C (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018-04-01)