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    Brain Correlates of Suicide Attempt in 18,925 Participants Across 18 International Cohorts
    Campos, A ; Thompson, PM ; Veltman, DJ ; Pozzi, E ; van Veltzen, LS ; Jahanshad, N ; Adams, MJ ; Baune, BT ; Berger, K ; Brosch, K ; Bulow, R ; Connolly, CG ; Dannlowski, U ; Davey, CG ; de Zubicaray, G ; Dima, D ; Erwin-Grabner, T ; Evans, JW ; Fu, CHY ; Gotlib, IH ; Goya-Maldonado, R ; Grabe, HJ ; Grotegerd, D ; Harris, MA ; Harrison, BJ ; Hatton, SN ; Hermesdorf, M ; Hickie, IB ; Ho, TC ; Kircher, T ; Krug, A ; Lagopoulos, J ; Lemke, H ; McMahon, K ; MacMaster, FP ; Martin, NG ; McIntosh, AM ; Medland, SE ; Meinert, S ; Meller, T ; Nenadic, I ; Opel, N ; Redlich, R ; Reneman, L ; Repple, J ; Sacchet, MD ; Schmitt, S ; Schrantee, A ; Sim, K ; Singh, A ; Stein, F ; Strike, LT ; van Der Wee, NJA ; van Der Werff, SJA ; Volzke, H ; Waltemate, L ; Whalley, HC ; Wittfeld, K ; Wright, MJ ; Yang, TT ; Zarate, CA ; Schmaal, L ; Renteria, ME (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2021-07-26)
    BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies of suicidal behavior have so far been conducted in small samples, prone to biases and false-positive associations, yielding inconsistent results. The ENIGMA-MDD Working Group aims to address the issues of poor replicability and comparability by coordinating harmonized analyses across neuroimaging studies of major depressive disorder and related phenotypes, including suicidal behavior. METHODS: Here, we pooled data from 18 international cohorts with neuroimaging and clinical measurements in 18,925 participants (12,477 healthy control subjects and 6448 people with depression, of whom 694 had attempted suicide). We compared regional cortical thickness and surface area and measures of subcortical, lateral ventricular, and intracranial volumes between suicide attempters, clinical control subjects (nonattempters with depression), and healthy control subjects. RESULTS: We identified 25 regions of interest with statistically significant (false discovery rate < .05) differences between groups. Post hoc examinations identified neuroimaging markers associated with suicide attempt including smaller volumes of the left and right thalamus and the right pallidum and lower surface area of the left inferior parietal lobe. CONCLUSIONS: This study addresses the lack of replicability and consistency in several previously published neuroimaging studies of suicide attempt and further demonstrates the need for well-powered samples and collaborative efforts. Our results highlight the potential involvement of the thalamus, a structure viewed historically as a passive gateway in the brain, and the pallidum, a region linked to reward response and positive affect. Future functional and connectivity studies of suicidal behaviors may focus on understanding how these regions relate to the neurobiological mechanisms of suicide attempt risk.
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    Reproducibility in the absence of selective reporting: An illustration from large-scale brain asymmetry research
    Kong, X-Z ; Francks, C (WILEY, 2020-08-25)
    The problem of poor reproducibility of scientific findings has received much attention over recent years, in a variety of fields including psychology and neuroscience. The problem has been partly attributed to publication bias and unwanted practices such as p-hacking. Low statistical power in individual studies is also understood to be an important factor. In a recent multisite collaborative study, we mapped brain anatomical left-right asymmetries for regional measures of surface area and cortical thickness, in 99 MRI datasets from around the world, for a total of over 17,000 participants. In the present study, we revisited these hemispheric effects from the perspective of reproducibility. Within each dataset, we considered that an effect had been reproduced when it matched the meta-analytic effect from the 98 other datasets, in terms of effect direction and significance threshold. In this sense, the results within each dataset were viewed as coming from separate studies in an "ideal publishing environment," that is, free from selective reporting and p hacking. We found an average reproducibility rate of 63.2% (SD = 22.9%, min = 22.2%, max = 97.0%). As expected, reproducibility was higher for larger effects and in larger datasets. Reproducibility was not obviously related to the age of participants, scanner field strength, FreeSurfer software version, cortical regional measurement reliability, or regional size. These findings constitute an empirical illustration of reproducibility in the absence of publication bias or p hacking, when assessing realistic biological effects in heterogeneous neuroscience data, and given typically-used sample sizes.
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    Machine Learning for Large-Scale Quality Control of 3D Shape Models in Neuroimaging
    Petrov, D ; Gutman, BA ; Yu, S-HJ ; Alpert, K ; Zavaliangos-Petropulu, A ; Isaev, D ; Turner, JA ; van Erp, TGM ; Wang, L ; Schmaal, L ; Veltman, D ; Thompson, PM ; Wang, Q ; Shi, Y ; Suk, HI ; Suzuki, K (SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, 2017-01-01)
    As very large studies of complex neuroimaging phenotypes become more common, human quality assessment of MRI-derived data remains one of the last major bottlenecks. Few attempts have so far been made to address this issue with machine learning. In this work, we optimize predictive models of quality for meshes representing deep brain structure shapes. We use standard vertex-wise and global shape features computed homologously across 19 cohorts and over 7500 human-rated subjects, training kernelized Support Vector Machine and Gradient Boosted Decision Trees classifiers to detect meshes of failing quality. Our models generalize across datasets and diseases, reducing human workload by 30-70%, or equivalently hundreds of human rater hours for datasets of comparable size, with recall rates approaching inter-rater reliability.
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    Childhood adversity impacts on brain subcortical structures relevant to depression
    Frodl, T ; Janowitz, D ; Schmaal, L ; Tozzi, L ; Dobrowolny, H ; Stein, DJ ; Veltman, DJ ; Wittfeld, K ; van Erp, TGM ; Jahanshad, N ; Block, A ; Hegenscheid, K ; Voelzke, H ; Lagopoulos, J ; Hatton, SN ; Hickie, IB ; Frey, EM ; Carballedo, A ; Brooks, SJ ; Vuletic, D ; Uhlmann, A ; Veer, IM ; Walter, H ; Schnell, K ; Grotegerd, D ; Arolt, V ; Kugel, H ; Schramm, E ; Konrad, C ; Zurowski, B ; Baune, BT ; van der Wee, NJA ; van Tol, M-J ; Penninx, BWJH ; Thompson, PM ; Hibar, DP ; Dannlowski, U ; Grabe, HJ (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2017-03-01)
    Childhood adversity plays an important role for development of major depressive disorder (MDD). There are differences in subcortical brain structures between patients with MDD and healthy controls, but the specific impact of childhood adversity on such structures in MDD remains unclear. Thus, aim of the present study was to investigate whether childhood adversity is associated with subcortical volumes and how it interacts with a diagnosis of MDD and sex. Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, nine university partner sites, which assessed childhood adversity and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with MDD and controls, took part in the current joint mega-analysis. In this largest effort world-wide to identify subcortical brain structure differences related to childhood adversity, 3036 participants were analyzed for subcortical brain volumes using FreeSurfer. A significant interaction was evident between childhood adversity, MDD diagnosis, sex, and region. Increased exposure to childhood adversity was associated with smaller caudate volumes in females independent of MDD. All subcategories of childhood adversity were negatively associated with caudate volumes in females - in particular emotional neglect and physical neglect (independently from age, ICV, imaging site and MDD diagnosis). There was no interaction effect between childhood adversity and MDD diagnosis on subcortical brain volumes. Childhood adversity is one of the contributors to brain structural abnormalities. It is associated with subcortical brain abnormalities that are relevant to psychiatric disorders such as depression.
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    Brain structural abnormalities in obesity: relation to age, genetic risk, and common psychiatric disorders Evidence through univariate and multivariate mega-analysis including 6420 participants from the ENIGMA MDD working group
    Opel, N ; Thalamuthu, A ; Milaneschi, Y ; Grotegerd, D ; Flint, C ; Leenings, R ; Goltermann, J ; Richter, M ; Hahn, T ; Woditsch, G ; Berger, K ; Hermesdorf, M ; McIntosh, A ; Whalley, HC ; Harris, MA ; MacMaster, FP ; Walter, H ; Veer, IM ; Frodl, T ; Carballedo, A ; Krug, A ; Nenadic, I ; Kircher, T ; Aleman, A ; Groenewold, NA ; Stein, DJ ; Soares, JC ; Zunta-Soares, GB ; Mwangi, B ; Wu, M-J ; Walter, M ; Li, M ; Harrison, BJ ; Davey, CG ; Cullen, KR ; Klimes-Dougan, B ; Mueller, BA ; Saemann, PG ; Penninx, B ; Nawijn, L ; Veltman, DJ ; Aftanas, L ; Brak, I ; Filimonova, EA ; Osipov, EA ; Reneman, L ; Schrantee, A ; Grabe, HJ ; Van der Auwera, S ; Wittfeld, K ; Hosten, N ; Voelzke, H ; Sim, K ; Gotlib, IH ; Sacchet, MD ; Lagopoulos, J ; Hatton, SN ; Hickie, I ; Pozzi, E ; Thompson, PM ; Jahanshad, N ; Schmaal, L ; Baune, BT ; Dannlowski, U (SPRINGERNATURE, 2020-05-28)
    Emerging evidence suggests that obesity impacts brain physiology at multiple levels. Here we aimed to clarify the relationship between obesity and brain structure using structural MRI (n = 6420) and genetic data (n = 3907) from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) working group. Obesity (BMI > 30) was significantly associated with cortical and subcortical abnormalities in both mass-univariate and multivariate pattern recognition analyses independent of MDD diagnosis. The most pronounced effects were found for associations between obesity and lower temporo-frontal cortical thickness (maximum Cohen´s d (left fusiform gyrus) = -0.33). The observed regional distribution and effect size of cortical thickness reductions in obesity revealed considerable similarities with corresponding patterns of lower cortical thickness in previously published studies of neuropsychiatric disorders. A higher polygenic risk score for obesity significantly correlated with lower occipital surface area. In addition, a significant age-by-obesity interaction on cortical thickness emerged driven by lower thickness in older participants. Our findings suggest a neurobiological interaction between obesity and brain structure under physiological and pathological brain conditions.
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    Brain structural abnormalities in obesity: relation to age, genetic risk, and common psychiatric disorders (May, 2020, 10.1038/s41380-020-0774-9)
    Opel, N ; Thalamuthu, A ; Milaneschi, Y ; Grotegerd, D ; Flint, C ; Leenings, R ; Goltermann, J ; Richter, M ; Hahn, T ; Woditsch, G ; Berger, K ; Hermesdorf, M ; McIntosh, A ; Whalley, HC ; Harris, MA ; MacMaster, FP ; Walter, H ; Veer, IM ; Frodl, T ; Carballedo, A ; Krug, A ; Nenadic, I ; Kircher, T ; Aleman, A ; Groenewold, NA ; Stein, DJ ; Soares, JC ; Zunta-Soares, GB ; Mwangi, B ; Wu, M-J ; Walter, M ; Li, M ; Harrison, BJ ; Davey, CG ; Cullen, KR ; Klimes-Dougan, B ; Mueller, BA ; Samann, PG ; Penninx, B ; Nawijn, L ; Veltman, DJ ; Aftanas, L ; Brak, IV ; Filimonova, EA ; Osipov, EA ; Reneman, L ; Schrantee, A ; Grabe, HJ ; van der Auwera, S ; Wittfeld, K ; Hosten, N ; Volzke, H ; Sim, K ; Gotlib, IH ; Sacchet, MD ; Lagopoulos, J ; Hatton, SN ; Hickie, I ; Pozzi, E ; Thompson, PM ; Jahanshad, N ; Schmaal, L ; Baune, BT ; Dannlowski, U (SPRINGERNATURE, 2021-06-22)
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    Brain structural correlates of insomnia severity in 1053 individuals with major depressive disorder: results from the ENIGMA MDD working group
    Leerssen, J ; Blanken, TF ; Pozzi, E ; Jahanshad, N ; Aftanas, L ; Andreassen, OA ; Baune, BT ; Ching, CRK ; Dannlowski, U ; Frodl, T ; Godlewska, BR ; Gotlib, IH ; Grotegerd, D ; Gruber, O ; Hatton, SN ; Hickie, IB ; Jaworska, N ; Kircher, T ; Krug, A ; Lagopoulos, J ; Li, M ; MacMaster, FP ; McIntosh, AM ; Mwangi, B ; Osipov, E ; Portella, MJ ; Sacchet, MD ; Samann, PG ; Simulionyte, E ; Soares, JC ; Walter, M ; Whalley, HC ; Veltman, DJ ; Thompson, PM ; Schmaal, L ; Van Someren, EJW (WILEY, 2020-09-01)
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    Virtual Histology of Cortical Thickness and Shared Neurobiology in 6 Psychiatric Disorders
    Patel, Y ; Parker, N ; Shin, J ; Howard, D ; French, L ; Thomopoulos, SI ; Pozzi, E ; Abe, Y ; Abe, C ; Anticevic, A ; Alda, M ; Aleman, A ; Alloza, C ; Alonso-Lana, S ; Ameis, SH ; Anagnostou, E ; McIntosh, AA ; Arango, C ; Arnold, PD ; Asherson, P ; Assogna, F ; Auzias, G ; Ayesa-Arriola, R ; Bakker, G ; Banaj, N ; Banaschewski, T ; Bandeira, CE ; Baranov, A ; Bargallo, N ; Bau, CHD ; Baumeister, S ; Baune, BT ; Bellgrove, MA ; Benedetti, F ; Bertolino, A ; Boedhoe, PSW ; Boks, M ; Bollettini, I ; del Mar Bonnin, C ; Borgers, T ; Borgwardt, S ; Brandeis, D ; Brennan, BP ; Bruggemann, JM ; Bulow, R ; Busatto, GF ; Calderoni, S ; Calhoun, VD ; Calvo, R ; Canales-Rodriguez, EJ ; Cannon, DM ; Carr, VJ ; Cascella, N ; Cercignani, M ; Chaim-Avancini, TM ; Christakou, A ; Coghill, D ; Conzelmann, A ; Crespo-Facorro, B ; Cubillo, AI ; Cullen, KR ; Cupertino, RB ; Daly, E ; Dannlowski, U ; Davey, CG ; Denys, D ; Deruelle, C ; Di Giorgio, A ; Dickie, EW ; Dima, D ; Dohm, K ; Ehrlich, S ; Ely, BA ; Erwin-Grabner, T ; Ethofer, T ; Fair, DA ; Fallgatter, AJ ; Faraone, SV ; Fatjo-Vilas, M ; Fedor, JM ; Fitzgerald, KD ; Ford, JM ; Frodl, T ; Fu, CHY ; Fullerton, JM ; Gabel, MC ; Glahn, DC ; Roberts, G ; Gogberashvili, T ; Goikolea, JM ; Gotlib, IH ; Goya-Maldonado, R ; Grabe, HJ ; Green, MJ ; Grevet, EH ; Groenewold, NA ; Grotegerd, D ; Gruber, O ; Gruner, P ; Guerrero-Pedraza, A ; Gur, RE ; Gur, RC ; Haar, S ; Haarman, BCM ; Haavik, J ; Hahn, T ; Hajek, T ; Harrison, BJ ; Harrison, NA ; Hartman, CA ; Whalley, HC ; Heslenfeld, DJ ; Hibar, DP ; Hilland, E ; Hirano, Y ; Ho, TC ; Hoekstra, PJ ; Hoekstra, L ; Hohmann, S ; Hong, LE ; Hoschl, C ; Hovik, MF ; Howells, FM ; Nenadic, I ; Jalbrzikowski, M ; James, AC ; Janssen, J ; Jaspers-Fayer, F ; Xu, J ; Jonassen, R ; Karkashadze, G ; King, JA ; Kircher, T ; Kirschner, M ; Koch, K ; Kochunov, P ; Kohls, G ; Konrad, K ; Kramer, B ; Krug, A ; Kuntsi, J ; Kwon, JS ; Landen, M ; Landro, NI ; Lazaro, L ; Lebedeva, IS ; Leehr, EJ ; Lera-Miguel, S ; Lesch, K-P ; Lochner, C ; Louza, MR ; Luna, B ; Lundervold, AJ ; MacMaster, FP ; Maglanoc, LA ; Malpas, CB ; Portella, MJ ; Marsh, R ; Martyn, FM ; Mataix-Cols, D ; Mathalon, DH ; McCarthy, H ; McDonald, C ; McPhilemy, G ; Meinert, S ; Menchon, JM ; Minuzzi, L ; Mitchell, PB ; Moreno, C ; Morgado, P ; Muratori, F ; Murphy, CM ; Murphy, D ; Mwangi, B ; Nabulsi, L ; Nakagawa, A ; Nakamae, T ; Namazova, L ; Narayanaswamy, J ; Jahanshad, N ; Nguyen, DD ; Nicolau, R ; O'Gorman Tuura, RL ; O'Hearn, K ; Oosterlaan, J ; Opel, N ; Ophoff, RA ; Oranje, B ; Garcia de la Foz, VO ; Overs, BJ ; Paloyelis, Y ; Pantelis, C ; Parellada, M ; Pauli, P ; Pico-Perez, M ; Picon, FA ; Piras, F ; Piras, F ; Plessen, KJ ; Pomarol-Clotet, E ; Preda, A ; Puig, O ; Quide, Y ; Radua, J ; Ramos-Quiroga, JA ; Rasser, PE ; Rauer, L ; Reddy, J ; Redlich, R ; Reif, A ; Reneman, L ; Repple, J ; Retico, A ; Richarte, V ; Richter, A ; Rosa, PGP ; Rubia, KK ; Hashimoto, R ; Sacchet, MD ; Salvador, R ; Santonja, J ; Sarink, K ; Sarro, S ; Satterthwaite, TD ; Sawa, A ; Schall, U ; Schofield, PR ; Schrantee, A ; Seitz, J ; Serpa, MH ; Setien-Suero, E ; Shaw, P ; Shook, D ; Silk, TJ ; Sim, K ; Simon, S ; Simpson, HB ; Singh, A ; Skoch, A ; Skokauskas, N ; Soares, JC ; Soreni, N ; Soriano-Mas, C ; Spalletta, G ; Spaniel, F ; Lawrie, SM ; Stern, ER ; Stewart, SE ; Takayanagi, Y ; Temmingh, HS ; Tolin, DF ; Tomecek, D ; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, D ; Tosetti, M ; Uhlmann, A ; van Amelsvoort, T ; van der Wee, NJA ; van der Werff, SJA ; van Haren, NEM ; van Wingen, GA ; Vance, A ; Vazquez-Bourgon, J ; Vecchio, D ; Venkatasubramanian, G ; Vieta, E ; Vilarroya, O ; Vives-Gilabert, Y ; Voineskos, AN ; Volzke, H ; von Polier, GG ; Walton, E ; Weickert, TW ; Weickert, CS ; Weideman, AS ; Wittfeld, K ; Wolf, DH ; Wu, M-J ; Yang, TT ; Yang, K ; Yoncheva, Y ; Yun, J-Y ; Cheng, Y ; Zanetti, MV ; Ziegler, GC ; Franke, B ; Hoogman, M ; Buitelaar, JK ; van Rooij, D ; Andreassen, OA ; Ching, CRK ; Veltman, DJ ; Schmaal, L ; Stein, DJ ; van den Heuvel, OA ; Turner, JA ; van Erp, TGM ; Pausova, Z ; Thompson, PM ; Paus, T (AMER MEDICAL ASSOC, 2021-01-01)
    IMPORTANCE: Large-scale neuroimaging studies have revealed group differences in cortical thickness across many psychiatric disorders. The underlying neurobiology behind these differences is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine neurobiologic correlates of group differences in cortical thickness between cases and controls in 6 disorders: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Profiles of group differences in cortical thickness between cases and controls were generated using T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Similarity between interregional profiles of cell-specific gene expression and those in the group differences in cortical thickness were investigated in each disorder. Next, principal component analysis was used to reveal a shared profile of group difference in thickness across the disorders. Analysis for gene coexpression, clustering, and enrichment for genes associated with these disorders were conducted. Data analysis was conducted between June and December 2019. The analysis included 145 cohorts across 6 psychiatric disorders drawn from the ENIGMA consortium. The numbers of cases and controls in each of the 6 disorders were as follows: ADHD: 1814 and 1602; ASD: 1748 and 1770; BD: 1547 and 3405; MDD: 2658 and 3572; OCD: 2266 and 2007; and schizophrenia: 2688 and 3244. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Interregional profiles of group difference in cortical thickness between cases and controls. RESULTS: A total of 12 721 cases and 15 600 controls, ranging from ages 2 to 89 years, were included in this study. Interregional profiles of group differences in cortical thickness for each of the 6 psychiatric disorders were associated with profiles of gene expression specific to pyramidal (CA1) cells, astrocytes (except for BD), and microglia (except for OCD); collectively, gene-expression profiles of the 3 cell types explain between 25% and 54% of variance in interregional profiles of group differences in cortical thickness. Principal component analysis revealed a shared profile of difference in cortical thickness across the 6 disorders (48% variance explained); interregional profile of this principal component 1 was associated with that of the pyramidal-cell gene expression (explaining 56% of interregional variation). Coexpression analyses of these genes revealed 2 clusters: (1) a prenatal cluster enriched with genes involved in neurodevelopmental (axon guidance) processes and (2) a postnatal cluster enriched with genes involved in synaptic activity and plasticity-related processes. These clusters were enriched with genes associated with all 6 psychiatric disorders. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this study, shared neurobiologic processes were associated with differences in cortical thickness across multiple psychiatric disorders. These processes implicate a common role of prenatal development and postnatal functioning of the cerebral cortex in these disorders.
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    Brain structural correlates of insomnia severity in 1053 individuals with major depressive disorder: results from the ENIGMA MDD Working Group
    Leerssen, J ; Blanken, TF ; Pozzi, E ; Jahanshad, N ; Aftanas, L ; Andreassen, OA ; Baune, BT ; Brack, I ; Carballedo, A ; Ching, CRK ; Dannlowski, U ; Dohm, K ; Enneking, V ; Filimonova, E ; Fingas, SM ; Frodl, T ; Godlewska, BR ; Goltermann, J ; Gotlib, IH ; Grotegerd, D ; Gruber, O ; Harris, MA ; Hatton, SN ; Hawkins, E ; Hickie, IB ; Jaworska, N ; Kircher, T ; Krug, A ; Lagopoulos, J ; Lemke, H ; Li, M ; MacMaster, FP ; McIntosh, AM ; McLellan, Q ; Meinert, S ; Mwangi, B ; Nenadic, I ; Osipov, E ; Portella, MJ ; Redlich, R ; Repple, J ; Sacchet, MD ; Saemann, PG ; Simulionyte, E ; Soares, JC ; Walter, M ; Watanabe, N ; Whalley, HC ; Yueksel, D ; Veltman, DJ ; Thompson, PM ; Schmaal, L ; Van Someren, EJW (SPRINGERNATURE, 2020-12-08)
    It has been difficult to find robust brain structural correlates of the overall severity of major depressive disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that specific symptoms may better reveal correlates and investigated this for the severity of insomnia, both a key symptom and a modifiable major risk factor of MDD. Cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volumes were assessed from T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 1053 MDD patients (age range 13-79 years) from 15 cohorts within the ENIGMA MDD Working Group. Insomnia severity was measured by summing the insomnia items of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Symptom specificity was evaluated with correlates of overall depression severity. Disease specificity was evaluated in two independent samples comprising 2108 healthy controls, and in 260 clinical controls with bipolar disorder. Results showed that MDD patients with more severe insomnia had a smaller cortical surface area, mostly driven by the right insula, left inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis, left frontal pole, right superior parietal cortex, right medial orbitofrontal cortex, and right supramarginal gyrus. Associations were specific for insomnia severity, and were not found for overall depression severity. Associations were also specific to MDD; healthy controls and clinical controls showed differential insomnia severity association profiles. The findings indicate that MDD patients with more severe insomnia show smaller surfaces in several frontoparietal cortical areas. While explained variance remains small, symptom-specific associations could bring us closer to clues on underlying biological phenomena of MDD.
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    Cortical abnormalities in adults and adolescents with major depression based on brain scans from 20 cohorts worldwide in the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder Working Group
    Schmaal, L ; Hibar, DP ; Saemann, PG ; Hall, GB ; Baune, BT ; Jahanshad, N ; Cheung, JW ; van Erp, TGM ; Bos, D ; Ikram, MA ; Vernooij, MW ; Niessen, WJ ; Tiemeier, H ; Hofman, A ; Wittfeld, K ; Grabe, HJ ; Janowitz, D ; Buelow, R ; Selonke, M ; Voelzke, H ; Grotegerd, D ; Dannlowski, U ; Arolt, V ; Opel, N ; Heindel, W ; Kugel, H ; Hoehn, D ; Czisch, M ; Couvy-Duchesne, B ; Renteria, ME ; Strike, LT ; Wright, MJ ; Mills, NT ; de Zubicaray, GI ; McMahon, KL ; Medland, SE ; Martin, NG ; Gillespie, NA ; Goya-Maldonado, R ; Gruber, O ; Kraemer, B ; Hatton, SN ; Lagopoulos, J ; Hickie, IB ; Frodl, T ; Carballedo, A ; Frey, EM ; van Velzen, LS ; Penninx, BWJH ; van Tol, M-J ; van der Wee, NJ ; Davey, CG ; Harrison, BJ ; Mwangi, B ; Cao, B ; Soares, JC ; Veer, IM ; Walter, H ; Schoepf, D ; Zurowski, B ; Konrad, C ; Schramm, E ; Normann, C ; Schnell, K ; Sacchet, MD ; Gotlib, IH ; MacQueen, GM ; Godlewska, BR ; Nickson, T ; McIntosh, AM ; Papmeyer, M ; Whalley, HC ; Hall, J ; Sussmann, JE ; Li, M ; Walter, M ; Aftanas, L ; Brack, I ; Bokhan, NA ; Thompson, PM ; Veltman, DJ (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017-06-01)
    The neuro-anatomical substrates of major depressive disorder (MDD) are still not well understood, despite many neuroimaging studies over the past few decades. Here we present the largest ever worldwide study by the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Major Depressive Disorder Working Group on cortical structural alterations in MDD. Structural T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 2148 MDD patients and 7957 healthy controls were analysed with harmonized protocols at 20 sites around the world. To detect consistent effects of MDD and its modulators on cortical thickness and surface area estimates derived from MRI, statistical effects from sites were meta-analysed separately for adults and adolescents. Adults with MDD had thinner cortical gray matter than controls in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior and posterior cingulate, insula and temporal lobes (Cohen's d effect sizes: -0.10 to -0.14). These effects were most pronounced in first episode and adult-onset patients (>21 years). Compared to matched controls, adolescents with MDD had lower total surface area (but no differences in cortical thickness) and regional reductions in frontal regions (medial OFC and superior frontal gyrus) and primary and higher-order visual, somatosensory and motor areas (d: -0.26 to -0.57). The strongest effects were found in recurrent adolescent patients. This highly powered global effort to identify consistent brain abnormalities showed widespread cortical alterations in MDD patients as compared to controls and suggests that MDD may impact brain structure in a highly dynamic way, with different patterns of alterations at different stages of life.