Psychiatry - Research Publications

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    The Relationship Between Grey Matter Volume and Clinical and Functional Outcomes in People at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis.
    Tognin, S ; Richter, A ; Kempton, MJ ; Modinos, G ; Antoniades, M ; Azis, M ; Allen, P ; Bossong, MG ; Perez, J ; Pantelis, C ; Nelson, B ; Amminger, P ; Riecher-Rössler, A ; Barrantes-Vidal, N ; Krebs, M-O ; Glenthøj, B ; Ruhrmann, S ; Sachs, G ; Rutten, BPF ; de Haan, L ; van der Gaag, M ; EU-GEI High Risk Study Group, ; Valmaggia, LR ; McGuire, P (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2022-01)
    Objective: To examine the association between baseline alterations in grey matter volume (GMV) and clinical and functional outcomes in people at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. Methods: 265 CHR individuals and 92 healthy controls were recruited as part of a prospective multi-center study. After a baseline assessment using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), participants were followed for at least two years to determine clinical and functional outcomes, including transition to psychosis (according to the Comprehensive Assessment of an At Risk Mental State, CAARMS), level of functioning (according to the Global Assessment of Functioning), and symptomatic remission (according to the CAARMS). GMV was measured in selected cortical and subcortical regions of interest (ROI) based on previous studies (ie orbitofrontal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, gyrus rectus, inferior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, striatum, and hippocampus). Using voxel-based morphometry, we analysed the relationship between GMV and clinical and functional outcomes. Results: Within the CHR sample, a poor functional outcome (GAF < 65) was associated with relatively lower GMV in the right striatum at baseline (P < .047 after Family Wise Error correction). There were no significant associations between baseline GMV and either subsequent remission or transition to psychosis. Conclusions: In CHR individuals, lower striatal GMV was associated with a poor level of overall functioning at follow-up. This finding was not related to effects of antipsychotic or antidepressant medication. The failure to replicate previous associations between GMV and later psychosis onset, despite studying a relatively large sample, is consistent with the findings of recent large-scale multi-center studies.
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    Different Frequency of Heschl's Gyrus Duplication Patterns in Neuropsychiatric Disorders: An MRI Study in Bipolar and Major Depressive Disorders
    Takahashi, T ; Sasabayashi, D ; Yucel, M ; Whittle, S ; Lorenzetti, V ; Walterfang, M ; Suzuki, M ; Pantelis, C ; Malhi, GS ; Allen, NB (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2022-06-13)
    An increased prevalence of duplicated Heschl's gyrus (HG) has been repeatedly demonstrated in various stages of schizophrenia as a potential neurodevelopmental marker, but it remains unknown whether other neuropsychiatric disorders also exhibit this macroscopic brain feature. The present magnetic resonance imaging study aimed to examine the disease specificity of the established finding of altered HG patterns in schizophrenia by examining independent cohorts of bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Twenty-six BD patients had a significantly higher prevalence of HG duplication bilaterally compared to 24 age- and sex-matched controls, while their clinical characteristics (e.g., onset age, number of episodes, and medication) did not relate to HG patterns. No significant difference was found for the HG patterns between 56 MDD patients and 33 age- and sex-matched controls, but the patients with a single HG were characterized by more severe depressive/anxiety symptoms compared to those with a duplicated HG. Thus, in keeping with previous findings, the present study suggests that neurodevelopmental pathology associated with gyral formation of the HG during the late gestation period partly overlaps between schizophrenia and BD, but that HG patterns may make a somewhat distinct contribution to the phenomenology of MDD.
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    Add-On MEmaNtine to Dopamine Antagonism to Improve Negative Symptoms at First Psychosis- the AMEND Trial Protocol
    Sandstrom, KO ; Baltzersen, OB ; Marsman, A ; Lemvigh, CK ; Boer, VO ; Bojesen, KB ; Nielsen, MO ; Lundell, H ; Sulaiman, DK ; Sorensen, ME ; Fagerlund, B ; Lahti, AC ; Syeda, WT ; Pantelis, C ; Petersen, ET ; Glenthoj, BY ; Siebner, HR ; Ebdrup, BH (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2022-05-20)
    Background: Antipsychotic drugs are primarily efficacious in treating positive symptoms by blocking the dopamine D2 receptor, but they fail to substantially improve negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. The limited efficacy may be attributed to the fact that the pathophysiology of psychosis involves multiple neurotransmitter systems. In patients with chronic schizophrenia, memantine, a non-competitive glutamatergic NMDA receptor antagonist, shows promise for ameliorating negative symptoms and improving cognition. Yet, it is unknown how memantine modulates glutamate levels, and memantine has not been investigated in patients with first-episode psychosis. Aims: This investigator-initiated double-blinded randomized controlled trial is designed to (1) test the clinical effects on negative symptoms of add-on memantine to antipsychotic medication, and (2) neurobiologically characterize the responders to add-on memantine. Materials and Equipment: Antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode psychosis will be randomized to 12 weeks treatment with [amisulpride + memantine] or [amisulpride + placebo]. We aim for a minimum of 18 patients in each treatment arm to complete the trial. Brain mapping will be performed before and after 12 weeks focusing on glutamate and neuromelanin in predefined regions. Regional glutamate levels will be probed with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), while neuromelanin signal will be mapped with neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We will also perform structural and diffusion weighted, whole-brain MRI. MRS and MRI will be performed at an ultra-high field strength (7 Tesla). Alongside, participants undergo clinical and neuropsychological assessments. Twenty matched healthy controls will undergo similar baseline- and 12-week examinations, but without receiving treatment. Outcome Measures: The primary endpoint is negative symptom severity. Secondary outcomes comprise: (i) clinical endpoints related to cognition, psychotic symptoms, side effects, and (ii) neurobiological endpoints related to regional glutamate- and neuromelanin levels, and structural brain changes. Anticipated Results: We hypothesize that add-on memantine to amisulpride will be superior to amisulpride monotherapy in reducing negative symptoms, and that this effect will correlate with thalamic glutamate levels. Moreover, we anticipate that add-on memantine will restore regional white matter integrity and improve cognitive functioning. Perspectives: By combining two licensed, off-patent drugs, AMEND aims to optimize treatment of psychosis while investigating the memantine response. Alongside, AMEND will provide neurobiological insights to effects of dual receptor modulation, which may enable future stratification of patients with first-episode psychosis before initial antipsychotic treatment. Clinical Trial Registration: [ClinicalTrials.gov], identifier [NCT04789915].
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    Cortico-cognition coupling in treatment resistant schizophrenia
    Syeda, WT ; Wannan, CMJ ; Merritt, AH ; Raghava, JM ; Jayaram, M ; Velakoulis, D ; Kristensen, TD ; Soldatos, RF ; Tonissen, S ; Thomas, N ; Ambrosen, KS ; Sorensen, ME ; Fagerlund, B ; Rostrup, E ; Glenthoj, BY ; Skafidas, E ; Bousman, CA ; Johnston, LA ; Everall, I ; Ebdrup, BH ; Pantelis, C (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2022-01-01)
    BACKGROUND: Brain structural alterations and cognitive dysfunction are independent predictors for poor clinical outcome in schizophrenia, and the associations between these domains remains unclear. We employed a novel, multiblock partial least squares correlation (MB-PLS-C) technique and investigated multivariate cortico-cognitive patterns in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) and matched healthy controls (HC). METHOD: Forty-one TRS patients (age 38.5 ± 9.1, 30 males (M)), and 45 HC (age 40.2 ± 10.6, 29 M) underwent 3T structural MRI. Volumes of 68 brain regions and seven variables from CANTAB covering memory and executive domains were included. Univariate group differences were assessed, followed by the MB-PLS-C analyses to identify group-specific multivariate patterns of cortico-cognitive coupling. Supplementary three-group analyses, which included 23 non-affected first-degree relatives (NAR), were also conducted. RESULTS: Univariate tests demonstrated that TRS patients showed impairments in all seven cognitive tasks and volume reductions in 12 cortical regions following Bonferroni correction. The MB-PLS-C analyses revealed two significant latent variables (LVs) explaining > 90% of the sum-of-squares variance. LV1 explained 78.86% of the sum-of-squares variance, describing a shared, widespread structure-cognitive pattern relevant to both TRS patients and HCs. In contrast, LV2 (13.47% of sum-of-squares variance explained) appeared specific to TRS and comprised a differential cortico-cognitive pattern including frontal and temporal lobes as well as paired associates learning (PAL) and intra-extra dimensional set shifting (IED). Three-group analyses also identified two significant LVs, with NARs more closely resembling healthy controls than TRS patients. CONCLUSIONS: MB-PLS-C analyses identified multivariate brain structural-cognitive patterns in the latent space that may provide a TRS signature.
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    Genome-wide association study of more than 40,000 bipolar disorder cases provides new insights into the underlying biology
    Mullins, N ; Forstner, AJ ; O'Connell, KS ; Coombes, B ; Coleman, JR ; Qiao, Z ; Als, TD ; Bigdeli, TB ; Borte, S ; Bryois, J ; Charney, AW ; Drange, OK ; Gandal, MJ ; Hagenaars, SP ; Ikeda, M ; Kamitaki, N ; Kim, M ; Krebs, K ; Panagiotaropoulou, G ; Schilder, BM ; Sloofman, LG ; Steinberg, S ; Trubetskoy, V ; Winsvold, BS ; Won, H-H ; Abramova, L ; Adorjan, K ; Agerbo, E ; Al Eissa, M ; Albani, D ; Alliey-Rodriguez, N ; Anjorin, A ; Antilla, V ; Antoniou, A ; Awasthi, S ; Baek, JH ; Baekvad-Hansen, M ; Bass, N ; Bauer, M ; Beins, EC ; Bergen, SE ; Birner, A ; Pedersen, CB ; Boen, E ; Boks, MP ; Bosch, R ; Brum, M ; Brumpton, BM ; Brunkhorst-Kanaan, N ; Budde, M ; Bybjerg-Grauholm, J ; Byerley, W ; Cairns, M ; Casas, M ; Cervantes, P ; Clarke, T-K ; Cruceanu, C ; Cuellar-Barboza, A ; Cunningham, J ; Curtis, D ; Czerski, PM ; Dale, AM ; Dalkner, N ; David, FS ; Degenhardt, F ; Djurovic, S ; Dobbyn, AL ; Douzenis, A ; Elvsashagen, T ; Escott-Price, V ; Ferrier, IN ; Fiorentino, A ; Foroud, TM ; Forty, L ; Frank, J ; Frei, O ; Freimer, NB ; Frisen, L ; Gade, K ; Garnham, J ; Gelernter, J ; Pedersen, MG ; Gizer, IR ; Gordon, SD ; Gordon-Smith, K ; Greenwood, TA ; Grove, J ; Guzman-Parra, J ; Ha, K ; Haraldsson, M ; Hautzinger, M ; Heilbronner, U ; Hellgren, D ; Herms, S ; Hoffmann, P ; Holmans, PA ; Huckins, L ; Jamain, S ; Johnson, JS ; Kalman, JL ; Kamatani, Y ; Kennedy, JL ; Kittel-Schneider, S ; Knowles, JA ; Kogevinas, M ; Koromina, M ; Kranz, TM ; Kranzler, HR ; Kubo, M ; Kupka, R ; Kushner, SA ; Lavebratt, C ; Lawrence, J ; Leber, M ; Lee, H-J ; Lee, PH ; Levy, SE ; Lewis, C ; Liao, C ; Lucae, S ; Lundberg, M ; MacIntyre, DJ ; Maier, W ; Maihofer, A ; Malaspina, D ; Maratou, E ; Martinsson, L ; Mattheisen, M ; McCarroll, SA ; McGregor, NW ; McGuffin, P ; McKay, JD ; Medeiros, H ; Medland, SE ; Millischer, V ; Montgomery, GW ; Moran, JL ; Morris, DW ; Muhleisen, TW ; O'Brien, N ; O'Donovan, C ; Loohuis, LMO ; Oruc, L ; Papiol, S ; Pardinas, AF ; Perry, A ; Pfennig, A ; Porichi, E ; Potash, JB ; Quested, D ; Raj, T ; Rapaport, MH ; DePaulo, JR ; Regeer, EJ ; Rice, JP ; Rivas, F ; Rivera, M ; Roth, J ; Roussos, P ; Ruderfer, DM ; Sanchez-Mora, C ; Schulte, EC ; Senner, F ; Sharp, S ; Shilling, PD ; Sigurdsson, E ; Sirignano, L ; Slaney, C ; Smeland, OB ; Sobell, JL ; Hansen, CS ; Artigas, MS ; Spijker, AT ; Stein, DJ ; Strauss, JS ; Swiatkowska, B ; Terao, C ; Thorgeirsson, TE ; Toma, C ; Tooney, P ; Tsermpini, E-E ; Vawter, MP ; Vedder, H ; Walters, JTR ; Witt, SH ; Xi, S ; Xu, W ; Yang, JMK ; Young, AH ; Young, H ; Zandi, PP ; Zhou, H ; Zillich, L ; Adolfsson, R ; Agartz, I ; Alda, M ; Alfredsson, L ; Babadjanova, G ; Backlund, L ; Baune, BT ; Bellivier, F ; Bengesser, S ; Berrettini, WH ; Blackwood, DHR ; Boehnke, M ; Borglum, AD ; Breen, G ; Carr, VJ ; Catts, S ; Corvin, A ; Craddock, N ; Dannlowski, U ; Dikeos, D ; Esko, T ; Etain, B ; Ferentinos, P ; Frye, M ; Fullerton, JM ; Gawlik, M ; Gershon, ES ; Goes, F ; Green, MJ ; Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, M ; Hauser, J ; Henskens, F ; Hillert, J ; Hong, KS ; Hougaard, DM ; Hultman, CM ; Hveem, K ; Iwata, N ; Jablensky, A ; Jones, I ; Jones, LA ; Kahn, RS ; Kelsoe, JR ; Kirov, G ; Landen, M ; Leboyer, M ; Lewis, CM ; Li, QS ; Lissowska, J ; Lochner, C ; Loughland, C ; Martin, NG ; Mathews, CA ; Mayoral, F ; McElroy, SL ; McIntosh, AM ; McMahon, FJ ; Melle, I ; Michie, P ; Milani, L ; Mitchell, PB ; Morken, G ; Mors, O ; Mortensen, PB ; Mowry, B ; Muller-Myhsok, B ; Myers, RM ; Neale, BM ; Nievergelt, CM ; Nordentoft, M ; Nothen, MM ; ODonovan, MC ; Oedegaard, KJ ; Olsson, T ; Owen, MJ ; Paciga, SA ; Pantelis, C ; Pato, C ; Pato, MT ; Patrinos, GP ; Perlis, RH ; Posthuma, D ; Ramos-Quiroga, JA ; Reif, A ; Reininghaus, EZ ; Ribases, M ; Rietschel, M ; Ripke, S ; Rouleau, GA ; Saito, T ; Schall, U ; Schalling, M ; Schofield, PR ; Schulze, TG ; Scott, LJ ; Scott, RJ ; Serretti, A ; Weickert, CS ; Smoller, JW ; Stefansson, H ; Stefansson, K ; Stordal, E ; Streit, F ; Sullivan, PF ; Turecki, G ; Vaaler, AE ; Vieta, E ; Vincent, JB ; Waldman, ID ; Weickert, TW ; Werge, T ; Wray, NR ; Zwart, J ; Biernacka, JM ; Nurnberger, J ; Cichon, S ; Edenberg, HJ ; Stahl, EA ; McQuillin, A ; Di Florio, A ; Ophoff, RA ; Andreassen, OA (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2021-05-17)
    Bipolar disorder is a heritable mental illness with complex etiology. We performed a genome-wide association study of 41,917 bipolar disorder cases and 371,549 controls of European ancestry, which identified 64 associated genomic loci. Bipolar disorder risk alleles were enriched in genes in synaptic signaling pathways and brain-expressed genes, particularly those with high specificity of expression in neurons of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant signal enrichment was found in genes encoding targets of antipsychotics, calcium channel blockers, antiepileptics and anesthetics. Integrating expression quantitative trait locus data implicated 15 genes robustly linked to bipolar disorder via gene expression, encoding druggable targets such as HTR6, MCHR1, DCLK3 and FURIN. Analyses of bipolar disorder subtypes indicated high but imperfect genetic correlation between bipolar disorder type I and II and identified additional associated loci. Together, these results advance our understanding of the biological etiology of bipolar disorder, identify novel therapeutic leads and prioritize genes for functional follow-up studies.
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    Cortical and Subcortical Neuroanatomical Signatures of Schizotypy in 2,952 Individuals Assessed in a Worldwide ENIGMA Study
    Kirschner, M ; Hodzic-Santor, B ; Antoniades, M ; Nenadic, I ; Kircher, T ; Krug, A ; Fornito, A ; Arnatkeviciute, A ; Dannlowski, U ; DeRosse, P ; Baune, BT ; Green, M ; Quide, Y ; Pantelis, C ; Chan, R ; Ettinger, U ; Debbane, M ; Derome, M ; Gaser, C ; Besteher, B ; Diederen, K ; Spencer, TJ ; Fletcher, P ; Roessler, W ; Kumari, V ; Park, H ; Lemmers-Jansen, I ; Gilleen, J ; Allen, P ; Marsman, J-B ; Lebedeva, I ; Kaiser, S ; Fett, A-K ; Sommer, I ; Lariviere, S ; Bernhardt, BC ; Dagher, A ; van Erp, TGM ; Turner, JA ; Thompson, PM ; Aleman, A (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2021-05-01)
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    Heterogeneity and Classification of Recent Onset Psychosis and Depression: A Multimodal Machine Learning Approach
    Lalousis, PA ; Wood, SJ ; Schmaal, L ; Chisholm, K ; Griffiths, S ; Reniers, R ; Bertolino, A ; Borgwardt, S ; Brambilla, P ; Kambeitz, J ; Lencer, R ; Pantelis, C ; Ruhrmann, S ; Salokangas, RKR ; Schultze-Lutter, F ; Bonivento, C ; Dwyer, DB ; Ferro, A ; Haidl, T ; Rosen, M ; Schmidt, A ; Meisenzahl, E ; Koutsouleris, N ; Upthegrove, R (Elsevier BV, 2021-05)
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    Association of Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measures With Psychosis Onset in Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Developing Psychosis An ENIGMA Working Group Mega-analysis
    Jalbrzikowski, M ; Hayes, RA ; Wood, SJ ; Nordholm, D ; Zhou, JH ; Fusar-Poli, P ; Uhlhaas, PJ ; Takahashi, T ; Sugranyes, G ; Kwak, YB ; Mathalon, DH ; Katagiri, N ; Hooker, CI ; Smigielski, L ; Colibazzi, T ; Via, E ; Tang, J ; Koike, S ; Rasser, PE ; Michel, C ; Lebedeva, I ; Hegelstad, WTV ; de la Fuente-Sandoval, C ; Waltz, JA ; Mizrahi, R ; Corcoran, CM ; Resch, F ; Tamnes, CK ; Haas, SS ; Lemmers-Jansen, ILJ ; Agartz, I ; Allen, P ; Amminger, GP ; Andreassen, OA ; Atkinson, K ; Bachman, P ; Baeza, I ; Baldwin, H ; Bartholomeusz, CF ; Borgwardt, S ; Catalano, S ; Chee, MWL ; Chen, X ; Cho, KIK ; Cooper, RE ; Cropley, VL ; Dolz, M ; Ebdrup, BH ; Fortea, A ; Glenthoj, LB ; Glenthoj, BY ; de Haan, L ; Hamilton, HK ; Harris, MA ; Haut, KM ; He, Y ; Heekeren, K ; Heinz, A ; Hubl, D ; Hwang, WJ ; Kaess, M ; Kasai, K ; Kim, M ; Kindler, J ; Klaunig, MJ ; Koppel, A ; Kristensen, TD ; Kwon, JS ; Lawrie, SM ; Lee, J ; Leon-Ortiz, P ; Lin, A ; Loewy, RL ; Ma, X ; McGorry, P ; McGuire, P ; Mizuno, M ; Moller, P ; Moncada-Habib, T ; Munoz-Samons, D ; Nelson, B ; Nemoto, T ; Nordentoft, M ; Omelchenko, MA ; Oppedal, K ; Ouyang, L ; Pantelis, C ; Pariente, JC ; Raghava, JM ; Reyes-Madrigal, F ; Roach, BJ ; Rossberg, JI ; Rossler, W ; Salisbury, DF ; Sasabayashi, D ; Schall, U ; Schiffman, J ; Schlagenhauf, F ; Schmidt, A ; Sorensen, ME ; Suzuki, M ; Theodoridou, A ; Tomyshev, AS ; Tor, J ; Vaernes, TG ; Velakoulis, D ; Venegoni, GD ; Vinogradov, S ; Wenneberg, C ; Westlye, LT ; Yamasue, H ; Yuan, L ; Yung, AR ; van Amelsvoort, TAMJ ; Turner, JA ; van Erp, TGM ; Thompson, PM ; Hernaus, D (AMER MEDICAL ASSOC, 2021-05-05)
    Importance: The ENIGMA clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis initiative, the largest pooled neuroimaging sample of individuals at CHR to date, aims to discover robust neurobiological markers of psychosis risk. Objective: To investigate baseline structural neuroimaging differences between individuals at CHR and healthy controls as well as between participants at CHR who later developed a psychotic disorder (CHR-PS+) and those who did not (CHR-PS-). Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case-control study, baseline T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were pooled from 31 international sites participating in the ENIGMA Clinical High Risk for Psychosis Working Group. CHR status was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States or Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. MRI scans were processed using harmonized protocols and analyzed within a mega-analysis and meta-analysis framework from January to October 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Measures of regional cortical thickness (CT), surface area, and subcortical volumes were extracted from T1-weighted MRI scans. Independent variables were group (CHR group vs control group) and conversion status (CHR-PS+ group vs CHR-PS- group vs control group). Results: Of the 3169 included participants, 1428 (45.1%) were female, and the mean (SD; range) age was 21.1 (4.9; 9.5-39.9) years. This study included 1792 individuals at CHR and 1377 healthy controls. Using longitudinal clinical information, 253 in the CHR-PS+ group, 1234 in the CHR-PS- group, and 305 at CHR without follow-up data were identified. Compared with healthy controls, individuals at CHR exhibited widespread lower CT measures (mean [range] Cohen d = -0.13 [-0.17 to -0.09]), but not surface area or subcortical volume. Lower CT measures in the fusiform, superior temporal, and paracentral regions were associated with psychosis conversion (mean Cohen d = -0.22; 95% CI, -0.35 to 0.10). Among healthy controls, compared with those in the CHR-PS+ group, age showed a stronger negative association with left fusiform CT measures (F = 9.8; P < .001; q < .001) and left paracentral CT measures (F = 5.9; P = .005; q = .02). Effect sizes representing lower CT associated with psychosis conversion resembled patterns of CT differences observed in ENIGMA studies of schizophrenia (ρ = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.55; P = .004) and individuals with 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome and a psychotic disorder diagnosis (ρ = 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.61; P = .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This study provides evidence for widespread subtle, lower CT measures in individuals at CHR. The pattern of CT measure differences in those in the CHR-PS+ group was similar to those reported in other large-scale investigations of psychosis. Additionally, a subset of these regions displayed abnormal age associations. Widespread disruptions in CT coupled with abnormal age associations in those at CHR may point to disruptions in postnatal brain developmental processes.
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    Heterogeneity and Classification of Recent Onset Psychosis and Depression: A Multimodal Machine Learning Approach
    Lalousis, PA ; Wood, SJ ; Schmaal, L ; Chisholm, K ; Griffiths, SL ; Reniers, RLEP ; Bertolino, A ; Borgwardt, S ; Brambilla, P ; Kambeitz, J ; Lencer, R ; Pantelis, C ; Ruhrmann, S ; Salokangas, RKR ; Schultze-Lutter, F ; Bonivento, C ; Dwyer, D ; Ferro, A ; Haidl, T ; Rosen, M ; Schmidt, A ; Meisenzahl, E ; Koutsouleris, N ; Upthegrove, R (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2021-02-05)
    Diagnostic heterogeneity within and across psychotic and affective disorders challenges accurate treatment selection, particularly in the early stages. Delineation of shared and distinct illness features at the phenotypic and brain levels may inform the development of more precise differential diagnostic tools. We aimed to identify prototypes of depression and psychosis to investigate their heterogeneity, with common, comorbid transdiagnostic symptoms. Analyzing clinical/neurocognitive and grey matter volume (GMV) data from the PRONIA database, we generated prototypic models of recent-onset depression (ROD) vs. recent-onset psychosis (ROP) by training support-vector machines to separate patients with ROD from patients with ROP, who were selected for absent comorbid features (pure groups). Then, models were applied to patients with comorbidity, ie, ROP with depressive symptoms (ROP+D) and ROD participants with sub-threshold psychosis-like features (ROD+P), to measure their positions within the affective-psychotic continuum. All models were independently validated in a replication sample. Comorbid patients were positioned between pure groups, with ROP+D patients being more frequently classified as ROD compared to pure ROP patients (clinical/neurocognitive model: χ2 = 14.874; P < .001; GMV model: χ2 = 4.933; P = .026). ROD+P patient classification did not differ from ROD (clinical/neurocognitive model: χ2 = 1.956; P = 0.162; GMV model: χ2 = 0.005; P = .943). Clinical/neurocognitive and neuroanatomical models demonstrated separability of prototypic depression from psychosis. The shift of comorbid patients toward the depression prototype, observed at the clinical and biological levels, suggests that psychosis with affective comorbidity aligns more strongly to depressive rather than psychotic disease processes. Future studies should assess how these quantitative measures of comorbidity predict outcomes and individual responses to stratified therapeutic interventions.
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    Cognitive functioning throughout adulthood and illness stages in individuals with psychotic disorders and their unaffected siblings
    Velthorst, E ; Mollon, J ; Murray, RM ; de Haan, L ; Germeys, IM ; Glahn, DC ; Arango, C ; van der Ven, E ; Di Forti, M ; Bernardo, M ; Guloksuz, S ; Delespaul, P ; Mezquida, G ; Amoretti, S ; Bobes, J ; Saiz, PA ; Garcia-Portilla, MP ; Santos, JL ; Jimenez-Lopez, E ; Sanjuan, J ; Aguilar, EJ ; Arrojo, M ; Carracedo, A ; Lopez, G ; Gonzalez-Penas, J ; Parellada, M ; Atbasoglu, C ; Saka, MC ; Ucok, A ; Alptekin, K ; Akdede, B ; Binbay, T ; Altinyazar, V ; Ulas, H ; Yalincetin, B ; Gumus-Akay, G ; Beyaz, BC ; Soygur, H ; Cankurtaran, ES ; Kaymak, SU ; Maric, NP ; Mihaljevic, MM ; Petrovic, SA ; Mirjanic, T ; Del-Ben, CM ; Ferraro, L ; Gayer-Anderson, C ; Jones, PB ; Jongsma, HE ; Kirkbride, JB ; La Cascia, C ; Lasalvia, A ; Tosato, S ; Llorca, P-M ; Menezes, PR ; Morgan, C ; Quattrone, D ; Menchetti, M ; Selten, J-P ; Szoke, A ; Tarricone, I ; Tortelli, A ; McGuire, P ; Valmaggia, L ; Kempton, MJ ; van der Gaag, M ; Riecher-Rossler, A ; Bressan, RA ; Barrantes-Vidal, N ; Nelson, B ; McGorry, P ; Pantelis, C ; Krebs, M-O ; Ruhrmann, S ; Sachs, G ; Rutten, BPF ; van Os, J ; Alizadeh, BZ ; van Amelsvoort, T ; Bartels-Velthuis, AA ; Bruggeman, R ; van Beveren, NJ ; Luykx, JJ ; Cahn, W ; Simons, CJP ; Kahn, RS ; Schirmbeck, F ; van Winkel, R ; Reichenberg, A (SPRINGERNATURE, 2021-01-07)
    Important questions remain about the profile of cognitive impairment in psychotic disorders across adulthood and illness stages. The age-associated profile of familial impairments also remains unclear, as well as the effect of factors, such as symptoms, functioning, and medication. Using cross-sectional data from the EU-GEI and GROUP studies, comprising 8455 participants aged 18 to 65, we examined cognitive functioning across adulthood in patients with psychotic disorders (n = 2883), and their unaffected siblings (n = 2271), compared to controls (n = 3301). An abbreviated WAIS-III measured verbal knowledge, working memory, visuospatial processing, processing speed, and IQ. Patients showed medium to large deficits across all functions (ES range = -0.45 to -0.73, p < 0.001), while siblings showed small deficits on IQ, verbal knowledge, and working memory (ES = -0.14 to -0.33, p < 0.001). Magnitude of impairment was not associated with participant age, such that the size of impairment in older and younger patients did not significantly differ. However, first-episode patients performed worse than prodromal patients (ES range = -0.88 to -0.60, p < 0.001). Adjusting for cannabis use, symptom severity, and global functioning attenuated impairments in siblings, while deficits in patients remained statistically significant, albeit reduced by half (ES range = -0.13 to -0.38, p < 0.01). Antipsychotic medication also accounted for around half of the impairment in patients (ES range = -0.21 to -0.43, p < 0.01). Deficits in verbal knowledge, and working memory may specifically index familial, i.e., shared genetic and/or shared environmental, liability for psychotic disorders. Nevertheless, potentially modifiable illness-related factors account for a significant portion of the cognitive impairment in psychotic disorders.