Psychiatry - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 29
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Association of Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measures With Psychosis Onset in Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Developing Psychosis An ENIGMA Working Group Mega-analysis
    Jalbrzikowski, M ; Hayes, RA ; Wood, SJ ; Nordholm, D ; Zhou, JH ; Fusar-Poli, P ; Uhlhaas, PJ ; Takahashi, T ; Sugranyes, G ; Kwak, YB ; Mathalon, DH ; Katagiri, N ; Hooker, CI ; Smigielski, L ; Colibazzi, T ; Via, E ; Tang, J ; Koike, S ; Rasser, PE ; Michel, C ; Lebedeva, I ; Hegelstad, WTV ; de la Fuente-Sandoval, C ; Waltz, JA ; Mizrahi, R ; Corcoran, CM ; Resch, F ; Tamnes, CK ; Haas, SS ; Lemmers-Jansen, ILJ ; Agartz, I ; Allen, P ; Amminger, GP ; Andreassen, OA ; Atkinson, K ; Bachman, P ; Baeza, I ; Baldwin, H ; Bartholomeusz, CF ; Borgwardt, S ; Catalano, S ; Chee, MWL ; Chen, X ; Cho, KIK ; Cooper, RE ; Cropley, VL ; Dolz, M ; Ebdrup, BH ; Fortea, A ; Glenthoj, LB ; Glenthoj, BY ; de Haan, L ; Hamilton, HK ; Harris, MA ; Haut, KM ; He, Y ; Heekeren, K ; Heinz, A ; Hubl, D ; Hwang, WJ ; Kaess, M ; Kasai, K ; Kim, M ; Kindler, J ; Klaunig, MJ ; Koppel, A ; Kristensen, TD ; Kwon, JS ; Lawrie, SM ; Lee, J ; Leon-Ortiz, P ; Lin, A ; Loewy, RL ; Ma, X ; McGorry, P ; McGuire, P ; Mizuno, M ; Moller, P ; Moncada-Habib, T ; Munoz-Samons, D ; Nelson, B ; Nemoto, T ; Nordentoft, M ; Omelchenko, MA ; Oppedal, K ; Ouyang, L ; Pantelis, C ; Pariente, JC ; Raghava, JM ; Reyes-Madrigal, F ; Roach, BJ ; Rossberg, JI ; Rossler, W ; Salisbury, DF ; Sasabayashi, D ; Schall, U ; Schiffman, J ; Schlagenhauf, F ; Schmidt, A ; Sorensen, ME ; Suzuki, M ; Theodoridou, A ; Tomyshev, AS ; Tor, J ; Vaernes, TG ; Velakoulis, D ; Venegoni, GD ; Vinogradov, S ; Wenneberg, C ; Westlye, LT ; Yamasue, H ; Yuan, L ; Yung, AR ; van Amelsvoort, TAMJ ; Turner, JA ; van Erp, TGM ; Thompson, PM ; Hernaus, D (AMER MEDICAL ASSOC, 2021-05-05)
    Importance: The ENIGMA clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis initiative, the largest pooled neuroimaging sample of individuals at CHR to date, aims to discover robust neurobiological markers of psychosis risk. Objective: To investigate baseline structural neuroimaging differences between individuals at CHR and healthy controls as well as between participants at CHR who later developed a psychotic disorder (CHR-PS+) and those who did not (CHR-PS-). Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case-control study, baseline T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were pooled from 31 international sites participating in the ENIGMA Clinical High Risk for Psychosis Working Group. CHR status was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States or Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. MRI scans were processed using harmonized protocols and analyzed within a mega-analysis and meta-analysis framework from January to October 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Measures of regional cortical thickness (CT), surface area, and subcortical volumes were extracted from T1-weighted MRI scans. Independent variables were group (CHR group vs control group) and conversion status (CHR-PS+ group vs CHR-PS- group vs control group). Results: Of the 3169 included participants, 1428 (45.1%) were female, and the mean (SD; range) age was 21.1 (4.9; 9.5-39.9) years. This study included 1792 individuals at CHR and 1377 healthy controls. Using longitudinal clinical information, 253 in the CHR-PS+ group, 1234 in the CHR-PS- group, and 305 at CHR without follow-up data were identified. Compared with healthy controls, individuals at CHR exhibited widespread lower CT measures (mean [range] Cohen d = -0.13 [-0.17 to -0.09]), but not surface area or subcortical volume. Lower CT measures in the fusiform, superior temporal, and paracentral regions were associated with psychosis conversion (mean Cohen d = -0.22; 95% CI, -0.35 to 0.10). Among healthy controls, compared with those in the CHR-PS+ group, age showed a stronger negative association with left fusiform CT measures (F = 9.8; P < .001; q < .001) and left paracentral CT measures (F = 5.9; P = .005; q = .02). Effect sizes representing lower CT associated with psychosis conversion resembled patterns of CT differences observed in ENIGMA studies of schizophrenia (ρ = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.55; P = .004) and individuals with 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome and a psychotic disorder diagnosis (ρ = 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.61; P = .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This study provides evidence for widespread subtle, lower CT measures in individuals at CHR. The pattern of CT measure differences in those in the CHR-PS+ group was similar to those reported in other large-scale investigations of psychosis. Additionally, a subset of these regions displayed abnormal age associations. Widespread disruptions in CT coupled with abnormal age associations in those at CHR may point to disruptions in postnatal brain developmental processes.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Correction to: Brain Morphological Characteristics of Cognitive Subgroups of Schizophrenia‑spectrum Disorders and Bipolar Disorder: a Systematic Review with Narrative Synthesis.
    Karantonis, JA ; Carruthers, SP ; Burdick, KE ; Pantelis, C ; Green, M ; Rossell, SL ; Hughes, ME ; Cropley, V ; Van Rheenen, TE (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-03-28)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Brain charts for the human lifespan
    Bethlehem, RAI ; Seidlitz, J ; White, SR ; Vogel, JW ; Anderson, KM ; Adamson, C ; Adler, S ; Alexopoulos, GS ; Anagnostou, E ; Areces-Gonzalez, A ; Astle, DE ; Auyeung, B ; Ayub, M ; Bae, J ; Ball, G ; Baron-Cohen, S ; Beare, R ; Bedford, SA ; Benegal, V ; Beyer, F ; Blangero, J ; Blesa Cabez, M ; Boardman, JP ; Borzage, M ; Bosch-Bayard, JF ; Bourke, N ; Calhoun, VD ; Chakravarty, MM ; Chen, C ; Chertavian, C ; Chetelat, G ; Chong, YS ; Cole, JH ; Corvin, A ; Costantino, M ; Courchesne, E ; Crivello, F ; Cropley, VL ; Crosbie, J ; Crossley, N ; Delarue, M ; Delorme, R ; Desrivieres, S ; Devenyi, GA ; Di Biase, MA ; Dolan, R ; Donald, KA ; Donohoe, G ; Dunlop, K ; Edwards, AD ; Elison, JT ; Ellis, CT ; Elman, JA ; Eyler, L ; Fair, DA ; Feczko, E ; Fletcher, PC ; Fonagy, P ; Franz, CE ; Galan-Garcia, L ; Gholipour, A ; Giedd, J ; Gilmore, JH ; Glahn, DC ; Goodyer, IM ; Grant, PE ; Groenewold, NA ; Gunning, FM ; Gur, RE ; Gur, RC ; Hammill, CF ; Hansson, O ; Hedden, T ; Heinz, A ; Henson, RN ; Heuer, K ; Hoare, J ; Holla, B ; Holmes, AJ ; Holt, R ; Huang, H ; Im, K ; Ipser, J ; Jack, CR ; Jackowski, AP ; Jia, T ; Johnson, KA ; Jones, PB ; Jones, DT ; Kahn, RS ; Karlsson, H ; Karlsson, L ; Kawashima, R ; Kelley, EA ; Kern, S ; Kim, KW ; Kitzbichler, MG ; Kremen, WS ; Lalonde, F ; Landeau, B ; Lee, S ; Lerch, J ; Lewis, JD ; Li, J ; Liao, W ; Liston, C ; Lombardo, MV ; Lv, J ; Lynch, C ; Mallard, TT ; Marcelis, M ; Markello, RD ; Mathias, SR ; Mazoyer, B ; McGuire, P ; Meaney, MJ ; Mechelli, A ; Medic, N ; Misic, B ; Morgan, SE ; Mothersill, D ; Nigg, J ; Ong, MQW ; Ortinau, C ; Ossenkoppele, R ; Ouyang, M ; Palaniyappan, L ; Paly, L ; Pan, PM ; Pantelis, C ; Park, MM ; Paus, T ; Pausova, Z ; Paz-Linares, D ; Pichet Binette, A ; Pierce, K ; Qian, X ; Qiu, J ; Qiu, A ; Raznahan, A ; Rittman, T ; Rodrigue, A ; Rollins, CK ; Romero-Garcia, R ; Ronan, L ; Rosenberg, MD ; Rowitch, DH ; Salum, GA ; Satterthwaite, TD ; Schaare, HL ; Schachar, RJ ; Schultz, AP ; Schumann, G ; Scholl, M ; Sharp, D ; Shinohara, RT ; Skoog, I ; Smyser, CD ; Sperling, RA ; Stein, DJ ; Stolicyn, A ; Suckling, J ; Sullivan, G ; Taki, Y ; Thyreau, B ; Toro, R ; Traut, N ; Tsvetanov, KA ; Turk-Browne, NB ; Tuulari, JJ ; Tzourio, C ; Vachon-Presseau, E ; Valdes-Sosa, MJ ; Valdes-Sosa, PA ; Valk, SL ; van Amelsvoort, T ; Vandekar, SN ; Vasung, L ; Victoria, LW ; Villeneuve, S ; Villringer, A ; Vertes, PE ; Wagstyl, K ; Wang, YS ; Warfield, SK ; Warrier, V ; Westman, E ; Westwater, ML ; Whalley, HC ; Witte, AV ; Yang, N ; Yeo, B ; Yun, H ; Zalesky, A ; Zar, HJ ; Zettergren, A ; Zhou, JH ; Ziauddeen, H ; Zugman, A ; Zuo, XN ; Bullmore, ET ; Alexander-Bloch, AF (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2022-04-06)
    Over the past few decades, neuroimaging has become a ubiquitous tool in basic research and clinical studies of the human brain. However, no reference standards currently exist to quantify individual differences in neuroimaging metrics over time, in contrast to growth charts for anthropometric traits such as height and weight1. Here we assemble an interactive open resource to benchmark brain morphology derived from any current or future sample of MRI data ( http://www.brainchart.io/ ). With the goal of basing these reference charts on the largest and most inclusive dataset available, acknowledging limitations due to known biases of MRI studies relative to the diversity of the global population, we aggregated 123,984 MRI scans, across more than 100 primary studies, from 101,457 human participants between 115 days post-conception to 100 years of age. MRI metrics were quantified by centile scores, relative to non-linear trajectories2 of brain structural changes, and rates of change, over the lifespan. Brain charts identified previously unreported neurodevelopmental milestones3, showed high stability of individuals across longitudinal assessments, and demonstrated robustness to technical and methodological differences between primary studies. Centile scores showed increased heritability compared with non-centiled MRI phenotypes, and provided a standardized measure of atypical brain structure that revealed patterns of neuroanatomical variation across neurological and psychiatric disorders. In summary, brain charts are an essential step towards robust quantification of individual variation benchmarked to normative trajectories in multiple, commonly used neuroimaging phenotypes.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Frontostriatothalamic effective connectivity and dopaminergic function in the psychosis continuum.
    Sabaroedin, K ; Razi, A ; Chopra, S ; Tran, N ; Pozaruk, A ; Chen, Z ; Finlay, A ; Nelson, B ; Allott, K ; Alvarez-Jimenez, M ; Graham, J ; Yuen, HP ; Harrigan, S ; Cropley, V ; Sharma, S ; Saluja, B ; Williams, R ; Pantelis, C ; Wood, SJ ; O'Donoghue, B ; Francey, S ; McGorry, P ; Aquino, K ; Fornito, A (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2022-01-30)
    Dysfunction of fronto-striato-thalamic (FST) circuits is thought to contribute to dopaminergic dysfunction and symptom onset in psychosis, but it remains unclear whether this dysfunction is driven by aberrant bottom-up subcortical signaling or impaired top-down cortical regulation. We used spectral dynamic causal modelling of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to characterize the effective connectivity of dorsal and ventral FST circuits in a sample of 46 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode psychosis patients and 23 controls and an independent sample of 36 patients with established schizophrenia patients and 100 controls. We also investigated the association between FST effective connectivity and striatal [18F]DOPA uptake in an independent healthy cohort of 33 individuals who underwent concurrent fMRI and positron emission tomography. Using a posterior probability threshold of 0.95, we found that midbrain and thalamic connectivity were implicated as dysfunctional across both patient groups. Dysconnectivity in first-episode psychosis patients was mainly restricted to the subcortex, with positive symptom severity being associated with midbrain connectivity. Dysconnectivity between the cortex and subcortical systems was only apparent in established schizophrenia patients. In the healthy [18F]DOPA cohort, we found that striatal dopamine synthesis capacity was associated with the effective connectivity of nigrostriatal and striatothalamic pathways, implicating similar circuits to those associated with psychotic symptom severity in patients. Overall, our findings indicate that subcortical dysconnectivity is evident in the early stages of psychosis, that cortical dysfunction may emerge later in the illness, and that nigrostriatal and striatothalamic signaling are closely related to striatal dopamine synthesis capacity, which is a robust marker for psychosis.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Impaired olfactory ability associated with larger left hippocampus and rectus volumes at earliest stages of schizophrenia: A sign of neuroinflammation?
    Masaoka, Y ; Velakoulis, D ; Brewer, WJ ; Cropley, VL ; Bartholomeusz, CF ; Yung, AR ; Nelson, B ; Dwyer, D ; Wannan, CMJ ; Izumizaki, M ; McGorry, PD ; Wood, SJ ; Pantelis, C (ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2020-07-01)
    Impaired olfactory identification has been reported as a first sign of schizophrenia during the earliest stages of illness, including before illness onset. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between volumes of these regions (amygdala, hippocampus, gyrus rectus and orbitofrontal cortex) and olfactory ability in three groups of participants: healthy control participants (Ctls), patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FE-Scz) and chronic schizophrenia patients (Scz). Exploratory analyses were performed in a sample of individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis in a co-submission paper (Masaoka et al., 2020). The relationship to brain structural measures was not apparent prior to psychosis onset, but was only evident following illness onset, with a different pattern of relationships apparent across illness stages (FE-Scz vs Scz). Path analysis found that lower olfactory ability was related to larger volumes of the left hippocampus and gyrus rectus in the FE-Scz group. We speculate that larger hippocampus and rectus in early schizophrenia are indicative of swelling, potentially caused by an active neurochemical or immunological process, such as inflammation or neurotoxicity, which is associated with impaired olfactory ability. The volumetric decreases in the chronic stage of Scz may be due to degeneration resulting from an active immune process and its resolution.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Cortical Brain Abnormalities in 4474 Individuals With Schizophrenia and 5098 Control Subjects via the Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics Through Meta Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium
    van Erp, TGM ; Walton, E ; Hibar, DP ; Schmaal, L ; Jiang, W ; Glahn, DC ; Pearlson, GD ; Yao, N ; Fukunaga, M ; Hashimoto, R ; Okada, N ; Yamamori, H ; Bustillo, JR ; Clark, VP ; Agartz, I ; Mueller, BA ; Cahn, W ; de Zwarte, SMC ; Pol, HEH ; Kahn, RS ; Ophoff, RA ; van Haren, NEM ; Andreassen, OA ; Dale, AM ; Nhat, TD ; Gurholt, TP ; Hartberg, CB ; Haukvik, UK ; Jorgensen, KN ; Lagerberg, T ; Melle, I ; Westlye, LT ; Gruber, O ; Kraemer, B ; Richter, A ; Zilles, D ; Calhoun, VD ; Crespo-Facorro, B ; Roiz-Santianez, R ; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, D ; Loughland, C ; Carr, VJ ; Catts, S ; Cropley, VL ; Fullerton, JM ; Green, MJ ; Henskens, FA ; Jablensky, A ; Lenroot, RK ; Mowry, BJ ; Michie, PT ; Pantelis, C ; Quide, Y ; Schall, U ; Scott, RJ ; Cairns, MJ ; Seal, M ; Tooney, PA ; Rasser, PE ; Cooper, G ; Weickert, CS ; Weickert, TW ; Morris, DW ; Hong, E ; Kochunov, P ; Beard, LM ; Gur, RE ; Gur, RC ; Satterthwaite, TD ; Wolf, DH ; Belger, A ; Brown, GG ; Ford, JM ; Macciardi, F ; Mathalon, DH ; O'Leary, DS ; Potkin, SG ; Preda, A ; Voyvodic, J ; Lim, KO ; McEwen, S ; Yang, F ; Tan, Y ; Tan, S ; Wang, Z ; Fan, F ; Chen, J ; Xiang, H ; Tang, S ; Guo, H ; Wan, P ; Wei, D ; Bockholt, HJ ; Ehrlich, S ; Wolthusen, RPF ; King, MD ; Shoemaker, JM ; Sponheim, SR ; De Haan, L ; Koenders, L ; Machielsen, MW ; van Amelsvoort, T ; Veltman, DJ ; Assogna, F ; Banaj, N ; de Rossi, P ; Iorio, M ; Piras, F ; Spalletta, G ; McKenna, PJ ; Pomarol-Clotet, E ; Salvador, R ; Corvin, A ; Donohoe, G ; Kelly, S ; Whelan, CD ; Dickie, EW ; Rotenberg, D ; Voineskos, AN ; Ciufolini, S ; Radua, J ; Dazzan, P ; Murray, R ; Marques, TR ; Simmons, A ; Borgwardt, S ; Egloff, L ; Harrisberger, F ; Riecher-Roessler, A ; Smieskova, R ; Alpert, K ; Wang, L ; Jonsson, EG ; Koops, S ; Sommer, IEC ; Bertolino, A ; Bonvino, A ; Di Giorgio, A ; Neilson, E ; Mayer, AR ; Stephen, JM ; Kwon, JS ; Yun, J-Y ; Cannon, DM ; McDonald, C ; Lebedeva, I ; Tomyshev, AS ; Akhadov, T ; Kaleda, V ; Fatouros-Bergman, H ; Flyckt, L ; Busatto, GF ; Rosa, PGP ; Serpa, MH ; Zanetti, M ; Hoschl, C ; Skoch, A ; Spaniel, F ; Tomecek, D ; Hagenaars, SP ; McIntosh, AM ; Whalley, HC ; Lawrie, SM ; Knoechel, C ; Oertel-Knoechel, V ; Staeblein, M ; Howells, FM ; Stein, DJ ; Temmingh, HS ; Uhlmann, A ; Lopez-Jaramillo, C ; Dima, D ; McMahon, A ; Faskowitz, J ; Gutman, BA ; Jahanshad, N ; Thompson, PM ; Turner, JA (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2018-11-01)
    BACKGROUND: The profile of cortical neuroanatomical abnormalities in schizophrenia is not fully understood, despite hundreds of published structural brain imaging studies. This study presents the first meta-analysis of cortical thickness and surface area abnormalities in schizophrenia conducted by the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta Analysis) Schizophrenia Working Group. METHODS: The study included data from 4474 individuals with schizophrenia (mean age, 32.3 years; range, 11-78 years; 66% male) and 5098 healthy volunteers (mean age, 32.8 years; range, 10-87 years; 53% male) assessed with standardized methods at 39 centers worldwide. RESULTS: Compared with healthy volunteers, individuals with schizophrenia have widespread thinner cortex (left/right hemisphere: Cohen's d = -0.530/-0.516) and smaller surface area (left/right hemisphere: Cohen's d = -0.251/-0.254), with the largest effect sizes for both in frontal and temporal lobe regions. Regional group differences in cortical thickness remained significant when statistically controlling for global cortical thickness, suggesting regional specificity. In contrast, effects for cortical surface area appear global. Case-control, negative, cortical thickness effect sizes were two to three times larger in individuals receiving antipsychotic medication relative to unmedicated individuals. Negative correlations between age and bilateral temporal pole thickness were stronger in individuals with schizophrenia than in healthy volunteers. Regional cortical thickness showed significant negative correlations with normalized medication dose, symptom severity, and duration of illness and positive correlations with age at onset. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that the ENIGMA meta-analysis approach can achieve robust findings in clinical neuroscience studies; also, medication effects should be taken into account in future genetic association studies of cortical thickness in schizophrenia.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    FRONTOSTRIATAL CONNECTIVITY IN TREATMENT-RESISTANT SCHIZOPHRENIA: RELATIONSHIP TO POSITIVE SYMPTOMS AND COGNITIVE FLEXIBILITY
    Cropley, V ; Ganella, E ; Wannan, C ; Zalesky, A ; Van Rheenen, T ; Bousman, C ; Everall, I ; Fornito, A ; Pantelis, C (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018-04-01)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    White Matter Alterations Between Brain Network Hubs Underlie Processing Speed Impairment in Patients With Schizophrenia.
    Klauser, P ; Cropley, VL ; Baumann, PS ; Lv, J ; Steullet, P ; Dwir, D ; Alemán-Gómez, Y ; Bach Cuadra, M ; Cuenod, M ; Do, KQ ; Conus, P ; Pantelis, C ; Fornito, A ; Van Rheenen, TE ; Zalesky, A (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-01)
    Processing speed (PS) impairment is one of the most severe and common cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Previous studies have reported correlations between PS and white matter diffusion properties, including fractional anisotropy (FA), in several fiber bundles in schizophrenia, suggesting that white matter alterations could underpin decreased PS. In schizophrenia, white matter alterations are most prevalent within inter-hub connections of the rich club. However, the spatial and topological characteristics of this association between PS and FA have not been investigated in patients. In this context, we tested whether structural connections comprising the rich club network would underlie PS impairment in 298 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 190 healthy controls from the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank. PS, measured using the digit symbol coding task, was largely (Cohen's d = 1.33) and significantly (P < .001) reduced in the patient group when compared with healthy controls. Significant associations between PS and FA were widespread in the patient group, involving all cerebral lobes. FA was not associated with other cognitive measures of phonological fluency and verbal working memory in patients, suggesting specificity to PS. A topological analysis revealed that despite being spatially widespread, associations between PS and FA were over-represented among connections forming the rich club network. These findings highlight the need to consider brain network topology when investigating high-order cognitive functions that may be spatially distributed among several brain regions. They also reinforce the evidence that brain hubs and their interconnections may be particularly vulnerable parts of the brain in schizophrenia.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Functional Connectivity in Antipsychotic-Treated and Antipsychotic-Naive Patients With First-Episode Psychosis and Low Risk of Self-harm or Aggression A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial
    Chopra, S ; Francey, SM ; O'Donoghue, B ; Sabaroedin, K ; Arnatkeviciute, A ; Cropley, V ; Nelson, B ; Graham, J ; Baldwin, L ; Tahtalian, S ; Yuen, HP ; Allott, K ; Alvarez-Jimenez, M ; Harrigan, S ; Pantelis, C ; Wood, SJ ; McGorry, P ; Fornito, A (AMER MEDICAL ASSOC, 2021-06-23)
    Importance: Altered functional connectivity (FC) is a common finding in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies of people with psychosis, yet how FC disturbances evolve in the early stages of illness, and how antipsychotic treatment influences these disturbances, remains unknown. Objective: To investigate longitudinal FC changes in antipsychotic-naive and antipsychotic-treated patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis of a triple-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted over a 5-year recruitment period between April 2008 and December 2016 with 59 antipsychotic-naive patients with FEP receiving either a second-generation antipsychotic or a placebo pill over a treatment period of 6 months. Participants were required to have low suicidality and aggression, to have a duration of untreated psychosis of less than 6 months, and to be living in stable accommodations with social support. Both FEP groups received intensive psychosocial therapy. A healthy control group was also recruited. Participants completed rs-fMRI scans at baseline, 3 months, and 12 months. Data were analyzed from May 2019 to August 2020. Interventions: Resting-state functional MRI was used to probe brain FC. Patients received either a second-generation antipsychotic or a matched placebo tablet. Both patient groups received a manualized psychosocial intervention. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes of this analysis were to investigate (1) FC differences between patients and controls at baseline; (2) FC changes in medicated and unmedicated patients between baseline and 3 months; and (3) associations between longitudinal FC changes and clinical outcomes. An additional aim was to investigate long-term FC changes at 12 months after baseline. These outcomes were not preregistered. Results: Data were analyzed for 59 patients (antipsychotic medication plus psychosocial treatment: 28 [47.5%]; mean [SD] age, 19.5 [3.0] years; 15 men [53.6%]; placebo plus psychosocial treatment: 31 [52.5%]; mean [SD] age, 18.8 [2.7]; 16 men [51.6%]) and 27 control individuals (mean [SD] age, 21.9 [1.9] years). At baseline, patients showed widespread functional dysconnectivity compared with controls, with reductions predominantly affecting interactions between the default mode network, limbic systems, and the rest of the brain. From baseline to 3 months, patients receiving placebo showed increased FC principally within the same systems; some of these changes correlated with improved clinical outcomes (canonical correlation analysis R = 0.901; familywise error-corrected P = .005). Antipsychotic exposure was associated with increased FC primarily between the thalamus and the rest of the brain. Conclusions and Relevance: In this secondary analysis of a clinical trial, antipsychotic-naive patients with FEP showed widespread functional dysconnectivity at baseline, followed by an early normalization of default mode network and cortical limbic dysfunction in patients receiving placebo and psychosocial intervention. Antipsychotic exposure was associated with FC changes concentrated on thalamocortical networks. Trial Registration: ACTRN12607000608460.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Differentiating the effect of antipsychotic medication and illness on brain volume reductions in first-episode psychosis: A Longitudinal, Randomised, Triple-blind, Placebo-controlled MRI Study
    Chopra, S ; Fornito, A ; Francey, SM ; O'Donoghue, B ; Cropley, V ; Nelson, B ; Graham, J ; Baldwin, L ; Tahtalian, S ; Yuen, HP ; Allott, K ; Alvarez-Jimenez, M ; Harrigan, S ; Sabaroedin, K ; Pantelis, C ; Wood, SJ ; McGorry, P (SPRINGERNATURE, 2021-02-26)
    Changes in brain volume are a common finding in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies of people with psychosis and numerous longitudinal studies suggest that volume deficits progress with illness duration. However, a major unresolved question concerns whether these changes are driven by the underlying illness or represent iatrogenic effects of antipsychotic medication. In this study, 62 antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) received either a second-generation antipsychotic (risperidone or paliperidone) or a placebo pill over a treatment period of 6 months. Both FEP groups received intensive psychosocial therapy. A healthy control group (n = 27) was also recruited. Structural MRI scans were obtained at baseline, 3 months and 12 months. Our primary aim was to differentiate illness-related brain volume changes from medication-related changes within the first 3 months of treatment. We secondarily investigated long-term effects at the 12-month timepoint. From baseline to 3 months, we observed a significant group x time interaction in the pallidum (p < 0.05 FWE-corrected), such that patients receiving antipsychotic medication showed increased volume, patients on placebo showed decreased volume, and healthy controls showed no change. Across the entire patient sample, a greater increase in pallidal grey matter volume over 3 months was associated with a greater reduction in symptom severity. Our findings indicate that psychotic illness and antipsychotic exposure exert distinct and spatially distributed effects on brain volume. Our results align with prior work in suggesting that the therapeutic efficacy of antipsychotic medications may be primarily mediated through their effects on the basal ganglia.