Psychiatry - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 21
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Neuroanatomical heterogeneity and homogeneity in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis
    Baldwin, H ; Radua, J ; Antoniades, M ; Haas, SS ; Frangou, S ; Agartz, I ; Allen, P ; Andreassen, OA ; Atkinson, K ; Bachman, P ; Baeza, I ; Bartholomeusz, CF ; Chee, MWL ; Colibazzi, T ; Cooper, RE ; Corcoran, CM ; Cropley, VL ; Ebdrup, BH ; Fortea, A ; Glenthoj, LB ; Hamilton, HK ; Haut, KM ; Hayes, RA ; He, Y ; Heekeren, K ; Kaess, M ; Kasai, K ; Katagiri, N ; Kim, M ; Kindler, J ; Klaunig, MJ ; Koike, S ; Koppel, A ; Kristensen, TD ; Bin Kwak, Y ; Kwon, JS ; Lawrie, SM ; Lebedeva, I ; Lee, J ; Lin, A ; Loewy, RL ; Mathalon, DH ; Michel, C ; Mizrahi, R ; Moller, P ; Nelson, B ; Nemoto, T ; Nordholm, D ; Omelchenko, MA ; Pantelis, C ; Raghava, JM ; Rossberg, J ; Roessler, W ; Salisbury, DF ; Sasabayashi, D ; Schall, U ; Smigielski, L ; Sugranyes, G ; Suzuki, M ; Takahashi, T ; Tamnes, CK ; Tang, J ; Theodoridou, A ; Thomopoulos, S ; Tomyshev, AS ; Uhlhaas, PJ ; Vaernes, TG ; van Amelsvoort, TAMJ ; Van Erp, TGM ; Waltz, JA ; Westlye, LT ; Wood, SJ ; Zhou, JH ; McGuire, P ; Thompson, PM ; Jalbrzikowski, M ; Hernaus, D ; Fusar-Poli, P (SPRINGERNATURE, 2022-07-26)
    Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis (CHR-P) demonstrate heterogeneity in clinical profiles and outcome features. However, the extent of neuroanatomical heterogeneity in the CHR-P state is largely undetermined. We aimed to quantify the neuroanatomical heterogeneity in structural magnetic resonance imaging measures of cortical surface area (SA), cortical thickness (CT), subcortical volume (SV), and intracranial volume (ICV) in CHR-P individuals compared with healthy controls (HC), and in relation to subsequent transition to a first episode of psychosis. The ENIGMA CHR-P consortium applied a harmonised analysis to neuroimaging data across 29 international sites, including 1579 CHR-P individuals and 1243 HC, offering the largest pooled CHR-P neuroimaging dataset to date. Regional heterogeneity was indexed with the Variability Ratio (VR) and Coefficient of Variation (CV) ratio applied at the group level. Personalised estimates of heterogeneity of SA, CT and SV brain profiles were indexed with the novel Person-Based Similarity Index (PBSI), with two complementary applications. First, to assess the extent of within-diagnosis similarity or divergence of neuroanatomical profiles between individuals. Second, using a normative modelling approach, to assess the 'normativeness' of neuroanatomical profiles in individuals at CHR-P. CHR-P individuals demonstrated no greater regional heterogeneity after applying FDR corrections. However, PBSI scores indicated significantly greater neuroanatomical divergence in global SA, CT and SV profiles in CHR-P individuals compared with HC. Normative PBSI analysis identified 11 CHR-P individuals (0.70%) with marked deviation (>1.5 SD) in SA, 118 (7.47%) in CT and 161 (10.20%) in SV. Psychosis transition was not significantly associated with any measure of heterogeneity. Overall, our examination of neuroanatomical heterogeneity within the CHR-P state indicated greater divergence in neuroanatomical profiles at an individual level, irrespective of psychosis conversion. Further large-scale investigations are required of those who demonstrate marked deviation.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Association of Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measures With Psychosis Onset in Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Developing Psychosis An ENIGMA Working Group Mega-analysis
    Jalbrzikowski, M ; Hayes, RA ; Wood, SJ ; Nordholm, D ; Zhou, JH ; Fusar-Poli, P ; Uhlhaas, PJ ; Takahashi, T ; Sugranyes, G ; Kwak, YB ; Mathalon, DH ; Katagiri, N ; Hooker, CI ; Smigielski, L ; Colibazzi, T ; Via, E ; Tang, J ; Koike, S ; Rasser, PE ; Michel, C ; Lebedeva, I ; Hegelstad, WTV ; de la Fuente-Sandoval, C ; Waltz, JA ; Mizrahi, R ; Corcoran, CM ; Resch, F ; Tamnes, CK ; Haas, SS ; Lemmers-Jansen, ILJ ; Agartz, I ; Allen, P ; Amminger, GP ; Andreassen, OA ; Atkinson, K ; Bachman, P ; Baeza, I ; Baldwin, H ; Bartholomeusz, CF ; Borgwardt, S ; Catalano, S ; Chee, MWL ; Chen, X ; Cho, KIK ; Cooper, RE ; Cropley, VL ; Dolz, M ; Ebdrup, BH ; Fortea, A ; Glenthoj, LB ; Glenthoj, BY ; de Haan, L ; Hamilton, HK ; Harris, MA ; Haut, KM ; He, Y ; Heekeren, K ; Heinz, A ; Hubl, D ; Hwang, WJ ; Kaess, M ; Kasai, K ; Kim, M ; Kindler, J ; Klaunig, MJ ; Koppel, A ; Kristensen, TD ; Kwon, JS ; Lawrie, SM ; Lee, J ; Leon-Ortiz, P ; Lin, A ; Loewy, RL ; Ma, X ; McGorry, P ; McGuire, P ; Mizuno, M ; Moller, P ; Moncada-Habib, T ; Munoz-Samons, D ; Nelson, B ; Nemoto, T ; Nordentoft, M ; Omelchenko, MA ; Oppedal, K ; Ouyang, L ; Pantelis, C ; Pariente, JC ; Raghava, JM ; Reyes-Madrigal, F ; Roach, BJ ; Rossberg, JI ; Rossler, W ; Salisbury, DF ; Sasabayashi, D ; Schall, U ; Schiffman, J ; Schlagenhauf, F ; Schmidt, A ; Sorensen, ME ; Suzuki, M ; Theodoridou, A ; Tomyshev, AS ; Tor, J ; Vaernes, TG ; Velakoulis, D ; Venegoni, GD ; Vinogradov, S ; Wenneberg, C ; Westlye, LT ; Yamasue, H ; Yuan, L ; Yung, AR ; van Amelsvoort, TAMJ ; Turner, JA ; van Erp, TGM ; Thompson, PM ; Hernaus, D (AMER MEDICAL ASSOC, 2021-05-05)
    IMPORTANCE: The ENIGMA clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis initiative, the largest pooled neuroimaging sample of individuals at CHR to date, aims to discover robust neurobiological markers of psychosis risk. OBJECTIVE: To investigate baseline structural neuroimaging differences between individuals at CHR and healthy controls as well as between participants at CHR who later developed a psychotic disorder (CHR-PS+) and those who did not (CHR-PS-). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this case-control study, baseline T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were pooled from 31 international sites participating in the ENIGMA Clinical High Risk for Psychosis Working Group. CHR status was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States or Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. MRI scans were processed using harmonized protocols and analyzed within a mega-analysis and meta-analysis framework from January to October 2020. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Measures of regional cortical thickness (CT), surface area, and subcortical volumes were extracted from T1-weighted MRI scans. Independent variables were group (CHR group vs control group) and conversion status (CHR-PS+ group vs CHR-PS- group vs control group). RESULTS: Of the 3169 included participants, 1428 (45.1%) were female, and the mean (SD; range) age was 21.1 (4.9; 9.5-39.9) years. This study included 1792 individuals at CHR and 1377 healthy controls. Using longitudinal clinical information, 253 in the CHR-PS+ group, 1234 in the CHR-PS- group, and 305 at CHR without follow-up data were identified. Compared with healthy controls, individuals at CHR exhibited widespread lower CT measures (mean [range] Cohen d = -0.13 [-0.17 to -0.09]), but not surface area or subcortical volume. Lower CT measures in the fusiform, superior temporal, and paracentral regions were associated with psychosis conversion (mean Cohen d = -0.22; 95% CI, -0.35 to 0.10). Among healthy controls, compared with those in the CHR-PS+ group, age showed a stronger negative association with left fusiform CT measures (F = 9.8; P < .001; q < .001) and left paracentral CT measures (F = 5.9; P = .005; q = .02). Effect sizes representing lower CT associated with psychosis conversion resembled patterns of CT differences observed in ENIGMA studies of schizophrenia (ρ = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.55; P = .004) and individuals with 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome and a psychotic disorder diagnosis (ρ = 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.61; P = .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This study provides evidence for widespread subtle, lower CT measures in individuals at CHR. The pattern of CT measure differences in those in the CHR-PS+ group was similar to those reported in other large-scale investigations of psychosis. Additionally, a subset of these regions displayed abnormal age associations. Widespread disruptions in CT coupled with abnormal age associations in those at CHR may point to disruptions in postnatal brain developmental processes.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Frontostriatothalamic effective connectivity and dopaminergic function in the psychosis continuum
    Sabaroedin, K ; Razi, A ; Chopra, S ; Tran, N ; Pozaruk, A ; Chen, Z ; Finlay, A ; Nelson, B ; Allott, K ; Alvarez-Jimenez, M ; Graham, J ; Yuen, HP ; Harrigan, S ; Cropley, V ; Sharma, S ; Saluja, B ; Williams, R ; Pantelis, C ; Wood, SJ ; O'Donoghue, B ; Francey, S ; McGorry, P ; Aquino, K ; Fornito, A (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2022-01-30)
    Dysfunction of fronto-striato-thalamic (FST) circuits is thought to contribute to dopaminergic dysfunction and symptom onset in psychosis, but it remains unclear whether this dysfunction is driven by aberrant bottom-up subcortical signalling or impaired top-down cortical regulation. We used spectral dynamic causal modelling of resting-state functional MRI to characterize the effective connectivity of dorsal and ventral FST circuits in a sample of 46 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode psychosis patients and 23 controls and an independent sample of 36 patients with established schizophrenia and 100 controls. We also investigated the association between FST effective connectivity and striatal 18F-DOPA uptake in an independent healthy cohort of 33 individuals who underwent concurrent functional MRI and PET. Using a posterior probability threshold of 0.95, we found that midbrain and thalamic connectivity were implicated as dysfunctional across both patient groups. Dysconnectivity in first-episode psychosis patients was mainly restricted to the subcortex, with positive symptom severity being associated with midbrain connectivity. Dysconnectivity between the cortex and subcortical systems was only apparent in established schizophrenia patients. In the healthy 18F-DOPA cohort, we found that striatal dopamine synthesis capacity was associated with the effective connectivity of nigrostriatal and striatothalamic pathways, implicating similar circuits to those associated with psychotic symptom severity in patients. Overall, our findings indicate that subcortical dysconnectivity is evident in the early stages of psychosis, that cortical dysfunction may emerge later in the illness, and that nigrostriatal and striatothalamic signalling are closely related to striatal dopamine synthesis capacity, which is a robust marker for psychosis.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Impaired olfactory ability associated with larger left hippocampus and rectus volumes at earliest stages of schizophrenia: A sign of neuroinflammation?
    Masaoka, Y ; Velakoulis, D ; Brewer, WJ ; Cropley, VL ; Bartholomeusz, CF ; Yung, AR ; Nelson, B ; Dwyer, D ; Wannan, CMJ ; Izumizaki, M ; McGorry, PD ; Wood, SJ ; Pantelis, C (ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2020-07-01)
    Impaired olfactory identification has been reported as a first sign of schizophrenia during the earliest stages of illness, including before illness onset. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between volumes of these regions (amygdala, hippocampus, gyrus rectus and orbitofrontal cortex) and olfactory ability in three groups of participants: healthy control participants (Ctls), patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FE-Scz) and chronic schizophrenia patients (Scz). Exploratory analyses were performed in a sample of individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis in a co-submission paper (Masaoka et al., 2020). The relationship to brain structural measures was not apparent prior to psychosis onset, but was only evident following illness onset, with a different pattern of relationships apparent across illness stages (FE-Scz vs Scz). Path analysis found that lower olfactory ability was related to larger volumes of the left hippocampus and gyrus rectus in the FE-Scz group. We speculate that larger hippocampus and rectus in early schizophrenia are indicative of swelling, potentially caused by an active neurochemical or immunological process, such as inflammation or neurotoxicity, which is associated with impaired olfactory ability. The volumetric decreases in the chronic stage of Scz may be due to degeneration resulting from an active immune process and its resolution.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Functional Connectivity in Antipsychotic-Treated and Antipsychotic-Naive Patients With First-Episode Psychosis and Low Risk of Self-harm or Aggression A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial
    Chopra, S ; Francey, SM ; O'Donoghue, B ; Sabaroedin, K ; Arnatkeviciute, A ; Cropley, V ; Nelson, B ; Graham, J ; Baldwin, L ; Tahtalian, S ; Yuen, HP ; Allott, K ; Alvarez-Jimenez, M ; Harrigan, S ; Pantelis, C ; Wood, SJ ; McGorry, P ; Fornito, A (AMER MEDICAL ASSOC, 2021-06-23)
    IMPORTANCE: Altered functional connectivity (FC) is a common finding in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies of people with psychosis, yet how FC disturbances evolve in the early stages of illness, and how antipsychotic treatment influences these disturbances, remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate longitudinal FC changes in antipsychotic-naive and antipsychotic-treated patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This secondary analysis of a triple-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted over a 5-year recruitment period between April 2008 and December 2016 with 59 antipsychotic-naive patients with FEP receiving either a second-generation antipsychotic or a placebo pill over a treatment period of 6 months. Participants were required to have low suicidality and aggression, to have a duration of untreated psychosis of less than 6 months, and to be living in stable accommodations with social support. Both FEP groups received intensive psychosocial therapy. A healthy control group was also recruited. Participants completed rs-fMRI scans at baseline, 3 months, and 12 months. Data were analyzed from May 2019 to August 2020. INTERVENTIONS: Resting-state functional MRI was used to probe brain FC. Patients received either a second-generation antipsychotic or a matched placebo tablet. Both patient groups received a manualized psychosocial intervention. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcomes of this analysis were to investigate (1) FC differences between patients and controls at baseline; (2) FC changes in medicated and unmedicated patients between baseline and 3 months; and (3) associations between longitudinal FC changes and clinical outcomes. An additional aim was to investigate long-term FC changes at 12 months after baseline. These outcomes were not preregistered. RESULTS: Data were analyzed for 59 patients (antipsychotic medication plus psychosocial treatment: 28 [47.5%]; mean [SD] age, 19.5 [3.0] years; 15 men [53.6%]; placebo plus psychosocial treatment: 31 [52.5%]; mean [SD] age, 18.8 [2.7]; 16 men [51.6%]) and 27 control individuals (mean [SD] age, 21.9 [1.9] years). At baseline, patients showed widespread functional dysconnectivity compared with controls, with reductions predominantly affecting interactions between the default mode network, limbic systems, and the rest of the brain. From baseline to 3 months, patients receiving placebo showed increased FC principally within the same systems; some of these changes correlated with improved clinical outcomes (canonical correlation analysis R = 0.901; familywise error-corrected P = .005). Antipsychotic exposure was associated with increased FC primarily between the thalamus and the rest of the brain. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this secondary analysis of a clinical trial, antipsychotic-naive patients with FEP showed widespread functional dysconnectivity at baseline, followed by an early normalization of default mode network and cortical limbic dysfunction in patients receiving placebo and psychosocial intervention. Antipsychotic exposure was associated with FC changes concentrated on thalamocortical networks. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12607000608460.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Differentiating the effect of antipsychotic medication and illness on brain volume reductions in first-episode psychosis: A Longitudinal, Randomised, Triple-blind, Placebo-controlled MRI Study
    Chopra, S ; Fornito, A ; Francey, SM ; O'Donoghue, B ; Cropley, V ; Nelson, B ; Graham, J ; Baldwin, L ; Tahtalian, S ; Yuen, HP ; Allott, K ; Alvarez-Jimenez, M ; Harrigan, S ; Sabaroedin, K ; Pantelis, C ; Wood, SJ ; McGorry, P (SPRINGERNATURE, 2021-02-26)
    Changes in brain volume are a common finding in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies of people with psychosis and numerous longitudinal studies suggest that volume deficits progress with illness duration. However, a major unresolved question concerns whether these changes are driven by the underlying illness or represent iatrogenic effects of antipsychotic medication. In this study, 62 antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) received either a second-generation antipsychotic (risperidone or paliperidone) or a placebo pill over a treatment period of 6 months. Both FEP groups received intensive psychosocial therapy. A healthy control group (n = 27) was also recruited. Structural MRI scans were obtained at baseline, 3 months and 12 months. Our primary aim was to differentiate illness-related brain volume changes from medication-related changes within the first 3 months of treatment. We secondarily investigated long-term effects at the 12-month timepoint. From baseline to 3 months, we observed a significant group x time interaction in the pallidum (p < 0.05 FWE-corrected), such that patients receiving antipsychotic medication showed increased volume, patients on placebo showed decreased volume, and healthy controls showed no change. Across the entire patient sample, a greater increase in pallidal grey matter volume over 3 months was associated with a greater reduction in symptom severity. Our findings indicate that psychotic illness and antipsychotic exposure exert distinct and spatially distributed effects on brain volume. Our results align with prior work in suggesting that the therapeutic efficacy of antipsychotic medications may be primarily mediated through their effects on the basal ganglia.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    S166. EFFECTIVE CONNECTIVITY OF FRONTOSTRIATAL SYSTEMS IN FIRST-EPISODE PSYCHOSIS
    Sabaroedin, K ; Razi, A ; Aquino, K ; Chopra, S ; Finlay, A ; Nelson, B ; Allott, K ; Alvarez-Jimenez, M ; Graham, J ; Baldwin, L ; Tahtalian, S ; Yuen, HP ; Harrigan, S ; Cropley, V ; Pantelis, C ; Wood, S ; O’Donoghue, B ; Francey, S ; McGorry, P ; Fornito, A (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2020-05-18)
    Abstract Background Neuroimaging studies have found dysconnectivity of frontostriatal circuits across a broad spectrum of psychotic symptoms. However, it is unknown whether dysconnectivity within frontostriatal circuits originates from disrupted bottom-up or top-down control signaling within these systems. Here, we used dynamic causal modelling (DCM) to examine the effective connectivity of frontostriatal systems in first-episode psychosis (FEP). Methods A total of 55 FEP patients (26 males; mean [SD] age = 19.24 [2.89]) and 24 healthy controls (15 males; mean [SD] age = 21.83 [1.93]) underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol. Biologically plausible connections between eight left hemisphere regions encompassing the dorsal and ventral frontostriatal systems were modelled using spectral DCM. The regions comprise dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, anterior hippocampus, amygdala, dorsal caudate, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, and the midbrain. Effective connectivity between groups were assessed using a parametric Bayesian model. Associations between effective connectivity parameters and positive symptoms, measured by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale positive subscale, was assessed in the patient group in a separate Bayesian general linear model. Results DCM shows evidence for differences in effective connectivity between patients and healthy controls, namely in the bottom-down connections distributed in the frontostriatal system encompassing the hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, and midbrain. Compared to healthy controls, patients also demonstrated increased disinhibition of the midbrain. In patients, positive symptoms are associated with increased top-down connections to the midbrain. Outgoing connection from the midbrain to the nucleus accumbens is also increased in association with positive symptoms. Discussion Aberrant top-down connectivity in the frontostriatal system in patients is consistent with top-down dysregulation of dopamine function in FEP, as dopaminergic activity in the midbrain is proposed to be under the control of higher brain areas. In patients, increased self-inhibition of the midbrain, as well as symptom associations in both ingoing and outgoing connections of this region, are congruous with hyperactivity of the midbrain as proposed by the dopamine dysregulation hypothesis. Here, we demonstrate that mathematical models of brain imaging signals can be used to identify the key disruptions driving brain circuit dysfunction, identifying new targets for treatment.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Cognitive ability and metabolic physical health in first-episode psychosis
    Whitson, S ; O'Donoghue, B ; Hester, R ; Baldwin, L ; Harrigan, S ; Francey, S ; Graham, J ; Nelson, B ; Ratheesh, A ; Alvarez-Jimenez, M ; Fornito, A ; Pantelis, C ; Yuen, HP ; Thompson, A ; Kerr, M ; Berk, M ; Wood, SJ ; McGorry, P ; Allott, K (ELSEVIER, 2021-02-13)
    Cognitive impairments are a core feature of first-episode psychosis (FEP), arising before illness onset and antipsychotic exposure. Individuals with chronic psychosis experience poorer physical health while taking antipsychotic medication, but health disparities may be evident at FEP onset, prior to antipsychotic exposure. Given the links between cognition and physical health in healthy populations, the aim was to explore whether cognition and physical health are associated in FEP, which could inform early physical health interventions for cognition in FEP. Participants were aged 15 to 25 and included 86 individuals experiencing FEP with limited antipsychotic exposure and duration of untreated psychosis of ≤six months, and 43 age- and sex-matched controls. Individuals with FEP performed significantly poorer than controls in most cognitive domains (Cohen's d = 0.38 to 1.59). Groups were similar in metabolic health measures, excluding a significantly faster heart rate in FEP (d = 0.68). Through hierarchical regression analyses, we found that in the overall sample, BMI was negatively related to current IQ after controlling for education and group (FEP/control). Relationships between BMI and cognition were consistent across the FEP and healthy control groups. In FEP, current IQ and working memory were negatively correlated with lipid profiles. Findings suggest that in FEP, impaired cognition is exhibited earlier than physical health problems, and that compared to controls, similar relationships with cognition are demonstrated. Causal pathways and trajectories of relationships between health and cognition in FEP require investigation, especially as antipsychotic medications are introduced. The findings have implications for cognitive and health interventions.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Effects of NRG1 and DAOA genetic variation on transition to psychosis in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis
    Bousman, CA ; Yung, AR ; Pantelis, C ; Ellis, JA ; Chavez, RA ; Nelson, B ; Lin, A ; Wood, SJ ; Amminger, GP ; Velakoulis, D ; McGorry, PD ; Everall, IP ; Foley, DL (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2013-04-01)
    Prospective studies have suggested genetic variation in the neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and D-amino-acid oxidase activator (DAOA) genes may assist in differentiating high-risk individuals who will or will not transition to psychosis. In a prospective cohort (follow-up=2.4-14.9 years) of 225 individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis, we assessed haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) spanning NRG1 and DAOA for their association with transition to psychosis, using Cox regression analysis. Two NRG1 htSNPs (rs12155594 and rs4281084) predicted transition to psychosis. Carriers of the rs12155594 T/T or T/C genotype had a 2.34 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.37-4.00) times greater risk of transition compared with C/C carriers. For every rs4281084 A-allele the risk of transition increased by 1.55 (95% CI=1.05-2.27). For every additional rs4281084-A and/or rs12155594-T allele carried the risk increased ∼1.5-fold, with 71.4% of those carrying a combination of 3 of these alleles transitioning to psychosis. None of the assessed DAOA htSNPs were associated with transition. Our findings suggest NRG1 genetic variation may improve our ability to identify UHR individuals at risk for transition to psychosis.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Divergent effects of first-generation and second-generation antipsychotics on cortical thickness in first-episode psychosis
    Ansell, BRE ; Dwyer, DB ; Wood, SJ ; Bora, E ; Brewer, WJ ; Proffitt, TM ; Velakoulis, D ; McGorry, PD ; Pantelis, C (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2015-02-01)
    BACKGROUND: Whether there are differential effects of first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) on the brain is currently debated. Although some studies report that FGAs reduce grey matter more than SGAs, others do not, and research to date is limited by a focus on schizophrenia spectrum disorders. To address this limitation, this study investigated the effects of medication in patients being treated for first-episode schizophrenia or affective psychoses. METHOD: Cortical thickness was compared between 52 first-episode psychosis patients separated into diagnostic (i.e. schizophrenia or affective psychosis) and medication (i.e. FGA and SGA) subgroups. Patients in each group were also compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 28). A whole-brain cortical thickness interaction analysis of medication and diagnosis was then performed. Correlations between cortical thickness with antipsychotic dose and psychotic symptoms were examined. RESULTS: The effects of medication and diagnosis did not interact, suggesting independent effects. Compared with controls, diagnostic differences were found in frontal, parietal and temporal regions. Decreased thickness in FGA-treated versus SGA-treated groups was found in a large frontoparietal region (p < 0.001, corrected). Comparisons with healthy controls revealed decreased cortical thickness in the FGA group whereas the SGA group showed increases in addition to decreases. In FGA-treated patients cortical thinning was associated with higher negative symptoms whereas increased cortical thickness in the SGA-treated group was associated with lower positive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that FGA and SGA treatments have divergent effects on cortical thickness during the first episode of psychosis that are independent from changes due to illness.