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ItemNo Preview AvailableNeurological Soft Signs Are Not "Soft" in Brain Structure and Functional Networks: Evidence From ALE Meta-AnalysisZhao, Q ; Li, Z ; Huang, J ; Yan, C ; Dazzan, P ; Pantelis, C ; Cheung, EFC ; Lui, SSY ; Chan, RCK (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2014-05-01)BACKGROUND: Neurological soft signs (NSS) are associated with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. NSS have been conventionally considered as clinical neurological signs without localized brain regions. However, recent brain imaging studies suggest that NSS are partly localizable and may be associated with deficits in specific brain areas. METHOD: We conducted an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis to quantitatively review structural and functional imaging studies that evaluated the brain correlates of NSS in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Six structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and 15 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies were included. RESULTS: The results from meta-analysis of the sMRI studies indicated that NSS were associated with atrophy of the precentral gyrus, the cerebellum, the inferior frontal gyrus, and the thalamus. The results from meta-analysis of the fMRI studies demonstrated that the NSS-related task was significantly associated with altered brain activation in the inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral putamen, the cerebellum, and the superior temporal gyrus. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings from both sMRI and fMRI meta-analyses further support the conceptualization of NSS as a manifestation of the "cerebello-thalamo-prefrontal" brain network model of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders.
ItemNovel implications of Lingo-1 and its signaling partners in schizophreniaFernandez-Enright, F ; Andrews, JL ; Newell, KA ; Pantelis, C ; Huang, XF (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2014-01-01)Myelination and neurite outgrowth both occur during brain development, and their disturbance has been previously been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin domain-containing protein (Lingo-1) is a potent negative regulator of axonal myelination and neurite extension. As co-factors of Lingo-1 signaling (Nogo receptor (NgR), With No Lysine (K) (WNK1) and Myelin transcription factor 1 (Myt1)) have been implicated in the genetics of schizophrenia, we explored for the first time the role of Lingo-1 signaling pathways in this disorder. Lingo-1 protein, together with its co-receptor and co-factor proteins NgR, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor orphan Y (TROY), p75, WNK1 and Myt1, have never been explored in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We examined protein levels of Lingo-1, NgR, TROY, p75, WNK1, Myt1 and myelin basic protein (MBP) (as a marker of myelination) within the post-mortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (37 schizophrenia patients versus 37 matched controls) and hippocampus (Cornu Ammonis, CA1 and CA3) (20 schizophrenia patients versus 20 matched controls from the same cohort). Both of these brain regions are highly disrupted in the schizophrenia pathophysiology. There were significant increases in Lingo-1 (P<0.001) and Myt1 (P=0.023) and a reduction in NgR (P<0.001) in the DLPFC in schizophrenia subjects compared with controls. There were also increases in both TROY (P=0.001) and WNK1 (P=0.011) in the CA1 of schizophrenia subjects and, in contrast to the DLPFC, there was an increase in NgR (P=0.006) in the CA3 of schizophrenia subjects compared with controls. No significant difference was reported for MBP levels (P>0.05) between the schizophrenia and control groups in the three tested regions. This is the first time that a study has shown altered Lingo-1 signaling in the schizophrenia brain. Our novel findings may present a direct application for the use of a Lingo-1 antagonist to complement current and future schizophrenia therapies.