Psychiatry - Research Publications

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    Clinical guidelines for the use of lifestyle-based mental health care in major depressive disorder: World Federation of Societies for Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) and Australasian Society of Lifestyle Medicine (ASLM) taskforce
    Marx, W ; Manger, SH ; Blencowe, M ; Murray, G ; Ho, FY-Y ; Lawn, S ; Blumenthal, JA ; Schuch, F ; Stubbs, B ; Ruusunen, A ; Desyibelew, HD ; Dinan, TG ; Jacka, F ; Ravindran, A ; Berk, M ; O'Neil, A (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2022-09-20)
    OBJECTIVES: The primary objectives of these international guidelines were to provide a global audience of clinicians with (a) a series of evidence-based recommendations for the provision of lifestyle-based mental health care in clinical practice for adults with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and (b) a series of implementation considerations that may be applicable across a range of settings. METHODS: Recommendations and associated evidence-based gradings were based on a series of systematic literature searches of published research as well as the clinical expertise of taskforce members. The focus of the guidelines was eight lifestyle domains: physical activity and exercise, smoking cessation, work-directed interventions, mindfulness-based and stress management therapies, diet, sleep, loneliness and social support, and green space interaction. The following electronic bibliographic databases were searched for articles published prior to June 2020: PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Cochrane Methodology Register), CINAHL, PsycINFO. Evidence grading was based on the level of evidence specific to MDD and risk of bias, in accordance with the World Federation of Societies for Biological Psychiatry criteria. RESULTS: Nine recommendations were formed. The recommendations with the highest ratings to improve MDD were the use of physical activity and exercise, relaxation techniques, work-directed interventions, sleep, and mindfulness-based therapies (Grade 2). Interventions related to diet and green space were recommended, but with a lower strength of evidence (Grade 3). Recommendations regarding smoking cessation and loneliness and social support were based on expert opinion. Key implementation considerations included the need for input from allied health professionals and support networks to implement this type of approach, the importance of partnering such recommendations with behaviour change support, and the need to deliver interventions using a biopsychosocial-cultural framework. CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle-based interventions are recommended as a foundational component of mental health care in clinical practice for adults with Major Depressive Disorder, where other evidence-based therapies can be added or used in combination. The findings and recommendations of these guidelines support the need for further research to address existing gaps in efficacy and implementation research, especially for emerging lifestyle-based approaches (e.g. green space, loneliness and social support interventions) where data are limited. Further work is also needed to develop innovative approaches for delivery and models of care, and to support the training of health professionals regarding lifestyle-based mental health care.
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    Lifetime and current depression in the German National Cohort (NAKO).
    Streit, F ; Zillich, L ; Frank, J ; Kleineidam, L ; Wagner, M ; Baune, BT ; Klinger-König, J ; Grabe, HJ ; Pabst, A ; Riedel-Heller, SG ; Schmiedek, F ; Schmidt, B ; Erhardt, A ; Deckert, J ; NAKO Investigators, ; Rietschel, M ; Berger, K (Informa UK Limited, 2022-02-17)
    OBJECTIVES: The present study introduces the assessment of depression and depressive symptoms in the German National Cohort (NAKO), a population-based mega cohort. Distribution of core measures, and associations with sociodemographic factors are examined. METHODS: The current analysis includes data from the first 101,667 participants (NAKO data freeze 100,000). Depression and depressive symptoms were assessed using a modified version of the depression section of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), self-reported physician's diagnosis of depression, and the depression scale of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). RESULTS: A lifetime physician's diagnosis of depression was reported by 15.0% of participants. Of those, 47.6% reported having received treatment for depression within the last 12 months. Of the subset of 26,342 participants undergoing the full depression section of the modified MINI, 15.9% were classified by the MINI with a lifetime depressive episode. Based on the PHQ-9, 5.8% of the participants were classified as currently having a major or other depression by the diagnostic algorithm, and 7.8% according to the dimensional assessment (score ≥ 10). Increased frequency of depression measures and higher depression scores were observed in women and participants with lower education level or a family history of depression. CONCLUSIONS: The observed distributions of all depression measures and their associations with sociodemographic variables are consistent with the literature on depression. The NAKO represents a valuable epidemiologic resource to investigate depression, and the range of measures for lifetime and current depression allows users to select the most suitable instrument for their specific research question.
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    Clinician guidelines for the treatment of psychiatric disorders with nutraceuticals and phytoceuticals: The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) and Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) Taskforce
    Sarris, J ; Ravindran, A ; Yatham, LN ; Marx, W ; Rucklidge, JJ ; McIntyre, RS ; Akhondzadeh, S ; Benedetti, F ; Caneo, C ; Cramer, H ; Cribb, L ; de Manincor, M ; Dean, O ; Deslandes, AC ; Freeman, MP ; Gangadhar, B ; Harvey, BH ; Kasper, S ; Lake, J ; Lopresti, A ; Lu, L ; Metri, N-J ; Mischoulon, D ; Ng, CH ; Nishi, D ; Rahimi, R ; Seedat, S ; Sinclair, J ; Su, K-P ; Zhang, Z-J ; Berk, M (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2022-03-16)
    OBJECTIVES: The therapeutic use of nutrient-based 'nutraceuticals' and plant-based 'phytoceuticals' for the treatment of mental disorders is common; however, despite recent research progress, there have not been any updated global clinical guidelines since 2015. To address this, the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) and the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Disorders (CANMAT) convened an international taskforce involving 31 leading academics and clinicians from 15 countries, between 2019 and 2021. These guidelines are aimed at providing a definitive evidence-informed approach to assist clinicians in making decisions around the use of such agents for major psychiatric disorders. We also provide detail on safety and tolerability, and clinical advice regarding prescription (e.g. indications, dosage), in addition to consideration for use in specialised populations. METHODS: The methodology was based on the WFSBP guidelines development process. Evidence was assessed based on the WFSBP grading of evidence (and was modified to focus on Grade A level evidence - meta-analysis or two or more RCTs - due to the breadth of data available across all nutraceuticals and phytoceuticals across major psychiatric disorders). The taskforce assessed both the 'level of evidence' (LoE) (i.e. meta-analyses or RCTs) and the assessment of the direction of the evidence, to determine whether the intervention was 'Recommended' (+++), 'Provisionally Recommended' (++), 'Weakly Recommended' (+), 'Not Currently Recommended' (+/-), or 'Not Recommended' (-) for a particular condition. Due to the number of clinical trials now available in the field, we firstly examined the data from our two meta-reviews of meta-analyses (nutraceuticals conducted in 2019, and phytoceuticals in 2020). We then performed a search of additional relevant RCTs and reported on both these data as the primary drivers supporting our clinical recommendations. Lower levels of evidence, including isolated RCTs, open label studies, case studies, preclinical research, and interventions with only traditional or anecdotal use, were not assessed. RESULTS: Amongst nutraceuticals with Grade A evidence, positive directionality and varying levels of support (recommended, provisionally recommended, or weakly recommended) was found for adjunctive omega-3 fatty acids (+++), vitamin D (+), adjunctive probiotics (++), adjunctive zinc (++), methylfolate (+), and adjunctive s-adenosyl methionine (SAMe) (+) in the treatment of unipolar depression. Monotherapy omega-3 (+/-), folic acid (-), vitamin C (-), tryptophan (+/-), creatine (+/-), inositol (-), magnesium (-), and n-acetyl cysteine (NAC) (+/-) and SAMe (+/-) were not supported for this use. In bipolar disorder, omega-3 had weak support for bipolar depression (+), while NAC was not currently recommended (+/-). NAC was weakly recommended (+) in the treatment of OCD-related disorders; however, no other nutraceutical had sufficient evidence in any anxiety-related disorder. Vitamin D (+), NAC (++), methylfolate (++) were recommended to varying degrees in the treatment of the negative symptoms in schizophrenia, while omega-3 fatty acids were not, although evidence suggests a role for prevention of transition to psychosis in high-risk youth, with potential pre-existing fatty acid deficiency. Micronutrients (+) and vitamin D (+) were weakly supported in the treatment of ADHD, while omega-3 (+/-) and omega-9 fatty acids (-), acetyl L carnitine (-), and zinc (+/-) were not supported. Phytoceuticals with supporting Grade A evidence and positive directionality included St John's wort (+++), saffron (++), curcumin (++), and lavender (+) in the treatment of unipolar depression, while rhodiola use was not supported for use in mood disorders. Ashwagandha (++), galphimia (+), and lavender (++) were modestly supported in the treatment of anxiety disorders, while kava (-) and chamomile (+/-) were not recommended for generalised anxiety disorder. Ginkgo was weakly supported in the adjunctive treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia (+), but not supported in the treatment of ADHD (+/-). With respect to safety and tolerability, all interventions were deemed to have varying acceptable levels of safety and tolerability for low-risk over-the-counter use in most circumstances. Quality and standardisation of phytoceuticals was also raised by the taskforce as a key limiting issue for firmer confidence in these agents. Finally, the taskforce noted that such use of nutraceuticals or phytoceuticals be primarily recommended (where supportive evidence exists) adjunctively within a standard medical/health professional care model, especially in cases of more severe mental illness. Some meta-analyses reviewed contained data from heterogenous studies involving poor methodology. Isolated RCTs and other data such as open label or case series were not included, and it is recognised that an absence of data does not imply lack of efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the current data and clinician input, a range of nutraceuticals and phytoceuticals were given either a supportive recommendation or a provisional recommendation across a range of various psychiatric disorders. However several had only a weak endorsement for potential use; for a few it was not possible to reach a clear recommendation direction, largely due to mixed study findings; while some other agents showed no obvious therapeutic benefit and were clearly not recommended for use. It is the intention of these guidelines to inform psychiatric/medical, and health professional practice globally.
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    Older adults' experiences of a computerised cognitive training intervention: a mixed methods study
    Trenorden, K ; Hull, MJ ; Lampit, A ; Greaves, D ; Keage, HAD (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2022-12-31)
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    Neoliberal Hegemonic Masculinity and McMindfulness: The Need for Buddhist Values and Principles in Mindful Masculinity Programs
    Forbes, D (MDPI AG, 2022-06-01)
    This paper explores how certain Buddhist-inspired principles such as impermanence of self and compassion for all (metta) and the practice of mindfulness can contribute to challenging ways in which young men adopt troublesome aspects of systemic patriarchy. It (1) briefly examines the problem of systemic patriarchy in its most dominant forms, neoliberal hegemonic masculinity and right-wing racist authoritarian masculinity; (2) critically discusses examples of mindfulness education and counseling programs for young men that have been severed from their Buddhist origins (McMindfulness) that attempt to challenge young men around patriarchal beliefs and thoughts but end up reproducing neoliberal hegemonic masculinity; (3) briefly considers the problem of McMindfulness and its relation to Buddhism and neoliberal hegemonic and mindful masculinity; and (4) offers Buddhist perspectives as part of a counter-view that may serve within programs as an alternative to current forms of patriarchy while including and renewing the aforementioned Buddhist principles.
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    The Potential Impact of a Public Health Approach to Improving the Physical Health of People Living with Mental Illness
    Roberts, R ; Johnson, C ; Hopwood, M ; Firth, J ; Jackson, K ; Sara, G ; Allan, J ; Calder, R ; Manger, S (MDPI, 2022-09-01)
    With already wide disparities in physical health and life expectancy, COVID-19 presents people with mental illness with additional threats to their health: decreased access to health services, increased social isolation, and increased socio-economic disadvantage. Each of these factors has exacerbated the risk of poor health and early death for people with mental illness post-COVID-19. Unless effective primary care and preventative health responses are implemented, the physical illness epidemic for this group will increase post the COVID-19 pandemic. This perspective paper briefly reviews the literature on the impact of COVID-19 on service access, social isolation, and social disadvantage and their combined impact on physical health, particularly cancer, respiratory diseases, heart disease, smoking, and infectious diseases. The much-overlooked role of poor physical health on suicidality is also discussed. The potential impact of public health interventions is modelled based on Australian incidence data and current research on the percentage of early deaths of people living with mental illnesses that are preventable. Building on the lessons arising from services' response to COVID-19, such as the importance of ensuring access to preventive, screening, and primary care services, priority recommendations for consideration by public health practitioners and policymakers are presented.
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    Service User and Carer Views and Expectations of Mental Health Nurses: A Systematic Review.
    Moyo, N ; Jones, M ; Kushemererwa, D ; Arefadib, N ; Jones, A ; Pantha, S ; Gray, R (MDPI AG, 2022-09-02)
    Service users' views and expectations of mental health nurses in a UK context were previously reviewed in 2008. The aim of this systematic review is to extend previous research by reviewing international research and work published after the original review. Five databases were searched for studies of any design, published since 2008, that addressed service user and carer views and expectations of mental health nurses. Two reviewers independently completed title and abstract, full-text screening and data extraction. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. We included 49 studies. Most included studies (n = 39, 80%) were qualitative. The importance of the therapeutic relationship and service users being supported in their personal recovery by mental health nurses were core themes identified across included studies. Service users frequently expressed concern about the quality of the therapeutic relationship and indicated that nurses lacked time to spend with them. Carers reported that their concerns were not taken seriously and were often excluded from the care of their relatives. Our critical appraisal identified important sources of bias in included studies. The findings of our review are broadly consistent with previous reviews however the importance of adopting a recovery approach has emerged as a new focus.
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    Quality of life in patients with schizophrenia: A 2-year cohort study in primary mental health care in rural China.
    He, X-Y ; Migliorini, C ; Huang, Z-H ; Wang, F ; Zhou, R ; Chen, Z-L ; Xiao, Y-N ; Wang, Q-W ; Wang, S-B ; Harvey, C ; Hou, C-L (Frontiers Media SA, 2022)
    OBJECTIVE: Quality of life (QoL) has been always an important way to evaluate the outcomes of schizophrenia, but there have been few previous longitudinal studies and few in middle-income countries. This study aimed to explore the QoL in Chinese patients with schizophrenia treated in primary mental health care and the risk factors of QoL over time. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia treated in primary mental health care in rural/regional areas in Luoding, Guangdong, PR China, were evaluated with an extended questionnaire including the Chinese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) at baseline and 2-year follow-up. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted including Generalized Estimated Equation analyses (GEE). RESULTS: Four hundred and ninety-one patients with schizophrenia in primary care completed the 2-year follow up evaluation. The QoL physical, environmental, and social relationships domains showed improvement after the 2-year period, but the psychological domain did not. GEE results showed that earlier age of onset, older age, being employed, being unmarried, the thicker waist circumference, less use of clozapine or other SGAs, fewer hospitalizations, more frequent insomnia, more severe depressive and negative symptoms as well as worse treatment insight were independently associated with poor QoL in patients with schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: According to our results, to improve the quality of life of patients with schizophrenia in primary care, we should pay more attention to the treatment of depression, negative and insomnia symptoms of schizophrenia, the choice and dosage of antipsychotic medication and improvement in the treatment compliance. The combined use of educational and behavioral strategies may improve treatment adherence.
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    Patterns of multimorbidity and some psychiatric disorders: A systematic review of the literature
    Castro-de-Araujo, LFS ; Cortes, F ; de Siqueira Filha, NT ; Rodrigues, EDS ; Machado, DB ; Araujo, JAPD ; Lewis, G ; Denaxas, S ; Barreto, ML (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2022-09-16)
    OBJECTIVE: The presence of two or more chronic diseases results in worse clinical outcomes than expected by a simple combination of diseases. This synergistic effect is expected to be higher when combined with some conditions, depending on the number and severity of diseases. Multimorbidity is a relatively new term, with the first fundamental definitions appearing in 2015. Studies usually define it as the presence of at least two chronic medical illnesses. However, little is known regarding the relationship between mental disorders and other non-psychiatric chronic diseases. This review aims at investigating the association between some mental disorders and non-psychiatric diseases, and their pattern of association. METHODS: We performed a systematic approach to selecting papers that studied relationships between chronic conditions that included one mental disorder from 2015 to 2021. These were processed using Covidence, including quality assessment. RESULTS: This resulted in the inclusion of 26 papers in this study. It was found that there are strong associations between depression, psychosis, and multimorbidity, but recent studies that evaluated patterns of association of diseases (usually using clustering methods) had heterogeneous results. Quality assessment of the papers generally revealed low quality among the included studies. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence of an association between depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and psychosis with multimorbidity. Studies that tried to examine the patterns of association between diseases did not find stable results. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42021216101, identifier: CRD42021216101.
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    Self-reported needs of people living with psychotic disorders: Results from the Australian national psychosis survey.
    Migliorini, C ; Fossey, E ; Harvey, C (Frontiers Media SA, 2022)
    Person-centered care is a collaborative approach to health care. To provide effective, person-centered care to people living with severe mental illness, it is necessary to understand how people view their own needs. The Perceived Need for Care Questionnaire (PNCQ) was used in the Australian National Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP) to deepen understanding and evaluate, at a population level, the needs of Australian adults living with psychotic illness. SHIP participants were 1,825 adults, aged 18-65 years, living with psychotic illness and in contact with public specialized mental health services across Australia in 2010. The survey package included demographic and clinical items, and various scales including the PNCQ appraising a comprehensive range of life domains. Logistic regressions measured the impact that various demographic, clinical and psychosocial independent variables (e.g., loneliness, health-related quality of life, disability, accommodation type) had on the likelihood of inadequately met PNCQ domain-related need. Over two-thirds of people living with psychosis reported at least two areas of unmet need for care despite most being in contact with mental health services. Work or using one's time and socializing, counseling, and self-care domains had the largest proportion of inadequately met needs (range between 49 and 57%). Feelings of loneliness and/or social isolation were significantly associated with unmet needs across all PNCQ domains, except for financial needs. Health-related quality of life was significantly associated with unmet needs across all domains, except for housing needs. Disability was significantly associated with unmet social, occupation (work or time use), housing and medication-related needs. Consumers view their needs for care as unmet across many life areas despite being in contact with mental health services. Loneliness, unmet psychosocial needs, and health-related quality of life appear strongly interconnected and warrant greater attention in the delivery of person-centered care for people living with psychosis. Support to address social, work or time use and housing related needs among people living with psychosis appears less well targeted toward those with disability. Results underscore the link between quality of life, recovery and needs. These inter-relationships should be considered in mental health services research and evaluation.