Psychiatry - Research Publications

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    Characteristics of global retractions of schizophrenia-related publications: A bibliometric analysis.
    Chen, P ; Li, X-H ; Su, Z ; Tang, Y-L ; Ma, Y ; Ng, CH ; Xiang, Y-T (Frontiers Media SA, 2022)
    Objectives: The growing rate of retraction of scientific publications has attracted much attention within the academic community, but there is little knowledge about the nature of such retractions in schizophrenia-related research. This study aimed to analyze the characteristics of retractions of schizophrenia-related publications. Materials and methods: The Web of Science was searched for eligible studies. A bibliometric analysis was conducted to describe the characteristics of the retractions using R software and Excel 2019. Content analysis was conducted to examine the essential components of retraction notices. Results: A total of 36 retracted publications with 415 citations were identified from 1997 to 2021, of which, 83.3% occurred in the last decade. The overall retraction rate was 0.19%, with most of them (29; 80.56%) from the United Kingdom. The retractions were published in 33 journals, and the 2020 IFs ranged between 0.17 and 49.96 (Median = 3.93). The retractions involved 21 research areas, particularly in Psychiatry (19; 52.78%), Neurosciences and Neurology (10; 27.78%), and Psychology (7; 19.44%). Data issues (17; 42.22%), administrative errors of the publishers (5; 13.89%), and study design (4; 11.11%) were the top three reasons for retractions. Conclusion: This study provides an insight into retractions of schizophrenia-related publications. Institutional governance should be further strengthened to improve the scrutiny of publications, prevent continuing citations, and erroneous propagation after retraction.
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    Network Analysis of Comorbid Anxiety and Insomnia Among Clinicians with Depressive Symptoms During the Late Stage of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study.
    Cai, H ; Zhao, Y-J ; Xing, X ; Tian, T ; Qian, W ; Liang, S ; Wang, Z ; Cheung, T ; Su, Z ; Tang, Y-L ; Ng, CH ; Sha, S ; Xiang, Y-T (Informa UK Limited, 2022)
    Background: A high proportion of clinicians experienced common anxiety, insomnia and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined the item-level association of comorbid anxiety and insomnia symptoms among clinicians who suffered from depressive symptoms during the late stage of the COVID-19 pandemic using network analysis (NA). Methods: Clinicians with depressive symptoms (with a Patients Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) total score of 5 and above) were included in this study. Anxiety and insomnia symptoms were measured using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale - 7-item (GAD-7) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), respectively. Network analysis was conducted to investigate the network structure, central symptoms, bridge symptoms, and network stability of these disturbances. Expected influence (EI) was used to measure the centrality of index. Results: Altogether, 1729 clinicians were included in this study. The mean age was 37.1 [standard deviation (SD)=8.04 years], while the mean PHQ-9 total score was 8.42 (SD=3.33), mean GAD-7 total score was 6.45 (SD=3.13) and mean ISI total score was 8.23 (SD=5.26). Of these clinicians, the prevalence of comorbid anxiety symptoms (GAD-7≥5) was 76.8% (95% CI 74.82-78.80%), while the prevalence of comorbid insomnia symptoms (ISI≥8) was 43.8% (95% CI: 41.50-46.18%). NA revealed that nodes ISI7 ("Interference with daytime functioning") (EI=1.18), ISI4 ("Sleep dissatisfaction") (EI=1.08) and ISI5 ("Noticeability of sleep problem by others") (EI=1.07) were the most central (influential) symptoms in the network model of comorbid anxiety and insomnia symptoms in clinicians. Bridge symptoms included nodes PHQ3 ("Sleep") (bridge EI=0.55) and PHQ4 ("Fatigue") (bridge EI=0.49). Gender did not significantly influence the network structure, but "having the experience of caring for COVID-19 patients" significantly influenced the network structure. Conclusion: Central symptoms and key bridge symptoms identified in this NA should be targeted in the treatment and preventive measures for clinicians suffering from comorbid anxiety, insomnia and depressive symptoms during the late stage of the COVID-19 pandemic.
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    Gender differences in demographic and clinical characteristics in patients with HBV-related liver diseases in China.
    Liu, M ; Li, L ; Zhao, J ; Ungvari, GS ; Ng, CH ; Duan, Z ; Zheng, S-J ; Xiang, Y-T (PeerJ, 2022)
    Background: The gender differences in demographic and clinical characteristics were examined in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver diseases. Methods: Overall, 634 patients (44.7 ± 13.8 years) were consecutively included. Data of demographic and clinical characteristics were collected during an assessment interview. Comparisons between male and female patients in terms of demographic and clinical data were carried out using univariate analyses. The independent associations between the demographic and clinical variables and gender were examined with either logistic regression or analysis of covariance as appropriate. Results: The study sample consisted of 452 male and 182 female patients. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that being employed (OR = 3.4), personal monthly income <3,000 yuan (OR = 0.3), being current alcohol users (OR = 6.4), Cirrhosis (OR = 5.9), Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) (OR = 8.5) and having less severe insomnia (OR = 0.6) were independently associated with male gender. The analysis of covariance revealed that after controlling for other potential confounding variables, later onset of HBV-related diseases (F = 4.5, p = 0.03) and older age (F = 6.7, p = 0.009) were independently associated with male gender. Conclusions: Given the significant clinical differences in male and female patients with HBV-related liver diseases, more attention should be given to gender-specific treatment and prevention for this population.
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    Mobile Health Applications for Depression in China: A Systematic Review.
    Huang, L ; Li, VW ; Yang, T ; Liu, J ; Murphy, J ; Michalak, EE ; Wang, Z ; Ng, C ; Yatham, L ; Chen, J ; Lam, RW (Cureus, Inc., 2022-07)
    Mobile health (mHealth) applications (apps) have the potential to increase access to mental health care. In China, there is growing interest in mHealth apps for depression. Our objective was to systematically review research on mHealth for depression in China to identify benefits and challenges. A systematic literature search was conducted using Chinese and English databases in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Randomized and nonrandomized clinical studies on mHealth apps and depression in China were included. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria with three randomized trials, two quasi-randomized trials, one clinical trial with an uncertain grouping method, and one study with a single-group design. All studies used the WeChat platform and included activities such as psychoeducation, self-management, supervised group chats, and/or remote contact with a healthcare team, in comparison to usual care. All studies reported significant and large benefits for outcomes, but the risk of bias was high. There are few rigorous evaluations of mHealth apps for depression in China, with all included studies involving WeChat programs and most using WeChat to extend nursing discharge care for inpatients with depression. While these studies showed significant improvement in health outcomes as compared to usual care, the results remain inconclusive because of the high risk of bias. mHealth holds promise for increasing access to mental health care in China, but issues such as efficacy, scalability, patient and clinician acceptability, and data privacy must be addressed.
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    Cognitive Impairment and Its Associated Factors in Older Adults Living in High and Low Altitude Areas: A Comparative Study.
    Liu, S ; Wang, F ; Zhang, C ; Zhang, Q ; Dang, Z-C ; Ng, CH ; Xiang, Y-T (Frontiers Media SA, 2022)
    Background: Cognitive impairment is a major health concern in older adults. Few studies have examined the association between environmental factors and cognitive impairment, especially in high altitude areas. In this study, the prevalence of cognitive impairment in older adults living in high altitude was compared with those living in low altitude areas. Methods: This was a comparative study conducted at Qinghai (high altitude group), and Guangzhou (low altitude group), China. Cognition, depressive symptoms and quality of life (QOL) were assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and WHO Quality of Life brief version-WHOQOL-BREF, respectively. Results: Altogether, 644 older adults (207 in Qinghai and 437 in Guangzhou) completed the assessment. The prevalence rate of cognitive impairment was 94.7% (95% CI: 91.6-97.7%) in older adults living in the high altitude area, while the corresponding figure was 89.2% (95% CI: 86.3-92.1%) in the low altitude area. After controlling for covariates, the high altitude group appeared more likely to have cognitive impairment (OR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.23-6.91, P = 0.015) compared with the low altitude group. Within the high altitude group sample, multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that older age (aged 74 and above) was significantly associated with higher risk of severe cognitive impairment (OR = 3.58, 95%CI: 1.44-8.93, P = 0.006), while higher education level (secondary school and above) was associated with decreased risk of moderate cognitive impairment (OR = 0.43, 95%CI: 0.22-0.85, P = 0.006). Within the high altitude group, QOL did not differ significantly between normal/mild, moderate and severe cognitive impairment subgroups across physical [F (1, 207) = 1.83, P = 0.163], psychological [F (1, 207) = 1.50, P = 0.225], social [F (1,207) = 2.22, P = 0.111] and environmental domains [F (1,207) = 0.49, P = 0.614]. Conclusion: This study found that cognitive impairment was more common among older adults living in the high altitude area. Regular screening and appropriate interventions should be provided to older adults in need.
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    Depressive symptoms and gender differences in older adults in Hong Kong during the COVID-19 pandemic: a network analysis approach.
    Jin, Y ; Sun, H-L ; Lam, SC ; Su, Z ; Hall, BJ ; Cheung, T ; Qin, M-Z ; Ng, CH ; Xiang, Y-T ; International Research Collaboration on COVID-19, (Ivyspring International Publisher, 2022)
    Background: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak had a detrimental impact on the mental health of older adults. This study evaluated the central symptoms and their associations in the network of depressive symptoms and compared the network structure differences between male and female older adults in Hong Kong. Methods: Altogether, 3,946 older adults participated in this study. We evaluated the centrality indicators for network robustness using stability and accuracy tests, and examined the potential differences between the structure and connectivity of depression networks in male and female older adults. Results: The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms was 43.7% (95% CI=40.6-46.7%) in males, and 54.8% (95% CI=53.1-56.5%) in females (P<0.05). Sad Mood, Guilt, Motor problems and Lack of Energy were influential symptoms in the network model. Gender differences were found in the network global strength, especially in the following edges: Sad Mood--Guilt, Concentration--Guilt, Anhedonia--Motor, Lack of Energy--Suicide, Appetite--Suicide and Concentration--Suicide. Conclusions: Central symptoms in the depressive symptom network among male and female older adults may be prioritized in the treatment and prevention of depression during the pandemic.
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    Corrigendum: Implementation of Therapeutic Virtual Reality Into Psychiatric Care: Clinicians' and Service Managers' Perspectives.
    Chung, OS ; Robinson, T ; Johnson, AM ; Dowling, NL ; Ng, CH ; Yücel, M ; Segrave, RA (Frontiers Media SA, 2022)
    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.791123.].
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    Schizophrenia and Inflammation Research: A Bibliometric Analysis.
    Sun, H-L ; Bai, W ; Li, X-H ; Huang, H ; Cui, X-L ; Cheung, T ; Su, Z-H ; Yuan, Z ; Ng, CH ; Xiang, Y-T (Frontiers Media SA, 2022)
    Background: Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe psychiatric disorder that involves inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to explore the field of inflammation-related research in SCZ from a bibliometric perspective. Methods: Regular and review articles on SCZ- and inflammation-related research were obtained from the Web of Science Core Collection (WOSCC) database from its inception to February 19, 2022. R package "bibliometrix" was used to summarize the main findings, count the occurrences of the top keywords, visualize the collaboration network between countries, and generate a three-field plot. VOSviewer software was applied to conduct both co-authorship and co-occurrence analyses. CiteSpace was used to identify the top references and keywords with the strongest citation burst. Results: A total of 3,596 publications on SCZ and inflammation were included. Publications were mainly from the USA, China, and Germany. The highest number of publications was found in a list of relevant journals. Apart from "schizophrenia" and "inflammatory", the terms "bipolar disorder," "brain," and "meta-analysis" were also the most frequently used keywords. Conclusions: This bibliometric study mapped out a fundamental knowledge structure consisting of countries, institutions, authors, journals, and articles in the research field of SCZ and inflammation over the past 30 years. The results provide a comprehensive perspective about the wider landscape of this research area.
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    Mixed Methods Thematic Analysis of a Randomised Controlled Trial of Adjunctive Mitochondrial Agents for Bipolar Depression
    Russell, SE ; Wrobel, AL ; Dean, OM ; Berk, M ; Dodd, S ; Ng, CH ; Malhi, GS ; Cotton, SM ; Sarris, J ; Turner, A (KOREAN COLL NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY, 2022-05-01)
    Objective: There is often a shortfall in recovery following treatment for an episode of bipolar disorder (BD). Exploration of participant's experience provides vital information to enhance statistical outcomes for novel therapy trials. This study used mixed-methods to explore participants' experience of a trial testing N -acetyl cysteine (NAC) and mitochondrially active nutraceuticals for BD depression. Methods: Case: report forms from a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of BD depression (n = 148) were analysed using a pragmatic adaption of grounded theory and thematic analysis. Results: Thematic analysis of 148 study participants indicated numerous changes in participant experience over time. For example, perceived environmental stressors reported by participants decreased over the trial in both treatment groups. Quantitative analysis of the themes revealed more positive theme reports in the combination treatment arm compared to the placebo arm and there were more negative themes identified in the placebo arm, compared to the NAC arm. Conclusion: This approach revealed additional results not elucidated in the primary quantitative analysis. This emphasises the value of mixed-methods research in capturing participants' experiences in RCTs and detecting possible latent benefits and risks. Such methods can detect latent target signals in novel therapy trials conducted in BD and generate novel hypotheses.
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    N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) augmentation in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: A phase III, 20-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
    Sarris, J ; Byrne, G ; Castle, D ; Bousman, C ; Oliver, G ; Cribb, L ; Blair-West, S ; Brakoulias, V ; Camfield, D ; Ee, C ; Chamoli, S ; Boschen, M ; Dean, OM ; Dowling, N ; Menon, R ; Murphy, J ; Metri, N-J ; Nguyen, TP ; Wong, A ; Jordan, R ; Karamacoska, D ; Rossell, SL ; Berk, M ; Ng, CH (Elsevier BV, 2022-07-13)
    OBJECTIVE: Preliminary evidence has suggested that adjunctive N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant precursor to glutathione, may reduce symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We conducted a 20-week, multi-site, randomized controlled trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of the adjunctive use of NAC in OCD. METHODS: The study was a phase III, 20-week, double-blind, randomized controlled trial across multiple sites in Australia investigating 2 g to 4 g per day of NAC (titrated according to response) in 98 participants with DSM-5 diagnosed OCD. Data were analysed using linear mixed effects models for the 89 participants who attended at least one follow-up visit. RESULTS: A modified intention-to-treat analysis of the primary outcome found no evidence that NAC reduced symptoms of OCD measured on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, relative to placebo (mean difference at week 20 = 0.53, 95% compatibility interval = -2.18, 3.23; p = 0.70; favouring placebo). There was also no evidence that NAC, compared to placebo, improved outcomes on the secondary measures including anxiety, depression, quality of life, functioning, or clinician/participant impression. NAC was well-tolerated with only mild gastrointestinal adverse events associated with the treatment. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence supporting the efficacy of the adjunctive use of NAC in OCD.