Psychiatry - Research Publications

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    Brain change trajectories that differentiate the major psychoses
    Liberg, B ; Rahm, C ; Panayiotou, A ; Pantelis, C (WILEY, 2016-07-01)
    BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are highly heritable, often chronic and debilitating psychotic disorders that can be difficult to differentiate clinically. Their brain phenotypes appear to overlap in both cross-sectional and longitudinal structural neuroimaging studies, with some evidence to suggest areas of differentiation with differing trajectories. The aim of this review was to investigate the notion that longitudinal trajectories of alterations in brain structure could differentiate the two disorders. DESIGN: Narrative review. We searched MEDLINE and Web of Science databases in May 2016 for studies that used structural magnetic resonance imaging to investigate longitudinal between-group differences in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Ten studies met inclusion criteria, namely longitudinal structural magnetic resonance studies comparing bipolar disorder (or affective psychosis) and schizophrenia within the same study. RESULTS: Our review of these studies implicates illness-specific trajectories of morphological change in total grey matter volume, and in regions of the frontal, temporal and cingulate cortices. The findings in schizophrenia suggest a trajectory involving progressive grey matter loss confined to fronto-temporal cortical regions. Preliminary findings identify a similar but less severely impacted trajectory in a number of regions in bipolar disorder, however, bipolar disorder is also characterized by differential involvement across cingulate subregions. CONCLUSION: The small number of available studies must be interpreted with caution but provide initial evidence supporting the notion that bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have differential longitudinal trajectories that are influenced by brain maturation.
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    Cortical Brain Abnormalities in 4474 Individuals With Schizophrenia and 5098 Control Subjects via the Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics Through Meta Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium
    van Erp, TGM ; Walton, E ; Hibar, DP ; Schmaal, L ; Jiang, W ; Glahn, DC ; Pearlson, GD ; Yao, N ; Fukunaga, M ; Hashimoto, R ; Okada, N ; Yamamori, H ; Bustillo, JR ; Clark, VP ; Agartz, I ; Mueller, BA ; Cahn, W ; de Zwarte, SMC ; Pol, HEH ; Kahn, RS ; Ophoff, RA ; van Haren, NEM ; Andreassen, OA ; Dale, AM ; Nhat, TD ; Gurholt, TP ; Hartberg, CB ; Haukvik, UK ; Jorgensen, KN ; Lagerberg, T ; Melle, I ; Westlye, LT ; Gruber, O ; Kraemer, B ; Richter, A ; Zilles, D ; Calhoun, VD ; Crespo-Facorro, B ; Roiz-Santianez, R ; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, D ; Loughland, C ; Carr, VJ ; Catts, S ; Cropley, VL ; Fullerton, JM ; Green, MJ ; Henskens, FA ; Jablensky, A ; Lenroot, RK ; Mowry, BJ ; Michie, PT ; Pantelis, C ; Quide, Y ; Schall, U ; Scott, RJ ; Cairns, MJ ; Seal, M ; Tooney, PA ; Rasser, PE ; Cooper, G ; Weickert, CS ; Weickert, TW ; Morris, DW ; Hong, E ; Kochunov, P ; Beard, LM ; Gur, RE ; Gur, RC ; Satterthwaite, TD ; Wolf, DH ; Belger, A ; Brown, GG ; Ford, JM ; Macciardi, F ; Mathalon, DH ; O'Leary, DS ; Potkin, SG ; Preda, A ; Voyvodic, J ; Lim, KO ; McEwen, S ; Yang, F ; Tan, Y ; Tan, S ; Wang, Z ; Fan, F ; Chen, J ; Xiang, H ; Tang, S ; Guo, H ; Wan, P ; Wei, D ; Bockholt, HJ ; Ehrlich, S ; Wolthusen, RPF ; King, MD ; Shoemaker, JM ; Sponheim, SR ; De Haan, L ; Koenders, L ; Machielsen, MW ; van Amelsvoort, T ; Veltman, DJ ; Assogna, F ; Banaj, N ; de Rossi, P ; Iorio, M ; Piras, F ; Spalletta, G ; McKenna, PJ ; Pomarol-Clotet, E ; Salvador, R ; Corvin, A ; Donohoe, G ; Kelly, S ; Whelan, CD ; Dickie, EW ; Rotenberg, D ; Voineskos, AN ; Ciufolini, S ; Radua, J ; Dazzan, P ; Murray, R ; Marques, TR ; Simmons, A ; Borgwardt, S ; Egloff, L ; Harrisberger, F ; Riecher-Roessler, A ; Smieskova, R ; Alpert, K ; Wang, L ; Jonsson, EG ; Koops, S ; Sommer, IEC ; Bertolino, A ; Bonvino, A ; Di Giorgio, A ; Neilson, E ; Mayer, AR ; Stephen, JM ; Kwon, JS ; Yun, J-Y ; Cannon, DM ; McDonald, C ; Lebedeva, I ; Tomyshev, AS ; Akhadov, T ; Kaleda, V ; Fatouros-Bergman, H ; Flyckt, L ; Busatto, GF ; Rosa, PGP ; Serpa, MH ; Zanetti, M ; Hoschl, C ; Skoch, A ; Spaniel, F ; Tomecek, D ; Hagenaars, SP ; McIntosh, AM ; Whalley, HC ; Lawrie, SM ; Knoechel, C ; Oertel-Knoechel, V ; Staeblein, M ; Howells, FM ; Stein, DJ ; Temmingh, HS ; Uhlmann, A ; Lopez-Jaramillo, C ; Dima, D ; McMahon, A ; Faskowitz, J ; Gutman, BA ; Jahanshad, N ; Thompson, PM ; Turner, JA (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2018-11-01)
    BACKGROUND: The profile of cortical neuroanatomical abnormalities in schizophrenia is not fully understood, despite hundreds of published structural brain imaging studies. This study presents the first meta-analysis of cortical thickness and surface area abnormalities in schizophrenia conducted by the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta Analysis) Schizophrenia Working Group. METHODS: The study included data from 4474 individuals with schizophrenia (mean age, 32.3 years; range, 11-78 years; 66% male) and 5098 healthy volunteers (mean age, 32.8 years; range, 10-87 years; 53% male) assessed with standardized methods at 39 centers worldwide. RESULTS: Compared with healthy volunteers, individuals with schizophrenia have widespread thinner cortex (left/right hemisphere: Cohen's d = -0.530/-0.516) and smaller surface area (left/right hemisphere: Cohen's d = -0.251/-0.254), with the largest effect sizes for both in frontal and temporal lobe regions. Regional group differences in cortical thickness remained significant when statistically controlling for global cortical thickness, suggesting regional specificity. In contrast, effects for cortical surface area appear global. Case-control, negative, cortical thickness effect sizes were two to three times larger in individuals receiving antipsychotic medication relative to unmedicated individuals. Negative correlations between age and bilateral temporal pole thickness were stronger in individuals with schizophrenia than in healthy volunteers. Regional cortical thickness showed significant negative correlations with normalized medication dose, symptom severity, and duration of illness and positive correlations with age at onset. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that the ENIGMA meta-analysis approach can achieve robust findings in clinical neuroscience studies; also, medication effects should be taken into account in future genetic association studies of cortical thickness in schizophrenia.
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    Common mechanisms of executive attention underlie executive function and effortful control in children
    Tiego, J ; Bellgrove, MA ; Whittle, S ; Pantelis, C ; Testa, R (WILEY, 2019-11-26)
    Executive Function (EF) and Effortful Control (EC) have traditionally been viewed as distinct constructs related to cognition and temperament during development. More recently, EF and EC have been implicated in top-down self-regulation - the goal-directed control of cognition, emotion, and behavior. We propose that executive attention, a limited-capacity attentional resource subserving goal-directed cognition and behavior, is the common cognitive mechanism underlying the self-regulatory capacities captured by EF and EC. We addressed three related questions: (a) Do behavioral ratings of EF and EC represent the same self-regulation construct? (b) Is this self-regulation construct explained by a common executive attention factor as measured by performance on cognitive tasks? and (c) Does the executive attention factor explain additional variance in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) problems to behavioral ratings of self-regulation? Measures of performance on complex span, general intelligence, and response inhibition tasks were obtained from 136 preadolescent children (M = 11 years, 10 months, SD = 8 months), along with self- and parent-reported EC, and parent-reported EF, and ADHD problems. Results from structural equation modeling demonstrated that behavioral ratings of EF and EC measured the same self-regulation construct. Cognitive tasks measured a common executive attention factor that significantly explained 30% of the variance in behavioral ratings of self-regulation. Executive attention failed to significantly explain additional variance in ADHD problems beyond that explained by behavioral ratings of self-regulation. These findings raise questions about the utility of task-based cognitive measures in research and clinical assessment of self-regulation and psychopathology in developmental samples.
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    Population-based identity-by-descent mapping combined with exome sequencing to detect rare risk variants for schizophrenia
    Harold, D ; Connolly, S ; Riley, BP ; Kendler, KS ; McCarthy, SE ; McCombie, WR ; Richards, A ; Owen, MJ ; O'Donovan, MC ; Walters, J ; Donnelly, P ; Bates, L ; Barroso, I ; Blackwell, JM ; Bramon, E ; Brown, MA ; Casas, JP ; Corvin, A ; Deloukas, P ; Duncanson, A ; Jankowski, J ; Markus, HS ; Mathew, CG ; Palmer, CNA ; Plomin, R ; Rautanen, A ; Sawcer, SJ ; Trembath, RC ; Viswanathan, AC ; Wood, NW ; Spencer, CCA ; Band, G ; Bellenguez, C ; Freeman, C ; Hellenthal, G ; Giannoulatou, E ; Hopkins, L ; Pirinen, M ; Pearson, R ; Strange, A ; Su, Z ; Vukcevic, D ; Langford, C ; Hunt, SE ; Edkins, S ; Gwilliam, R ; Blackburn, H ; Bumpstead, SJ ; Dronov, S ; Gillman, M ; Gray, E ; Hammond, N ; Jayakumar, A ; McCann, OT ; Liddle, J ; Potter, SC ; Ravindrarajah, R ; Ricketts, M ; Waller, M ; Weston, P ; Widaa, S ; Whittaker, P ; Ripke, S ; Neale, BM ; Corvin, A ; Walters, JTR ; Farh, K-H ; Holmans, PA ; Lee, P ; Bulik-Sullivan, B ; Collier, DA ; Huang, H ; Pers, TH ; Agartz, I ; Agerbo, E ; Albus, M ; Alexander, M-L ; Amin, F ; Bacanu, SA ; Begemann, M ; Belliveau, RA ; Bene, J ; Bergen, SE ; Bevilacqua, E ; Bigdeli, TB ; Black, DW ; Bruggeman, R ; Buccola, NG ; Buckner, RL ; Byerley, W ; Cahn, W ; Cai, G ; Campion, D ; Cantor, RM ; Carr, VJ ; Carrera, N ; Catts, SV ; Chambert, KD ; Chan, RCK ; Chan, RYL ; Chen, EYH ; Cheng, W ; Cheung, EFC ; Chong, SA ; Cloninger, CR ; Cohen, D ; Cohen, N ; Cormican, P ; Craddock, N ; Crowley, JJ ; Curtis, D ; Davidson, M ; Davis, KL ; Degenhardt, F ; Del Favero, J ; Demontis, D ; Dikeos, D ; Dinan, T ; Djurovic, S ; Donohoe, G ; Drapeau, E ; Duan, J ; Dudbridge, F ; Durmishi, N ; Eichhammer, P ; Eriksson, J ; Escott-Price, V ; Essioux, L ; Fanous, AH ; Farrell, MS ; Frank, J ; Franke, L ; Freedman, R ; Freimer, NB ; Friedl, M ; Friedman, JI ; Fromer, M ; Genovese, G ; Georgieva, L ; Giegling, I ; Giusti-Rodriguez, P ; Godard, S ; Goldstein, JI ; Golimbet, V ; Gopal, S ; Gratten, J ; de Haan, L ; Hammer, C ; Hamshere, ML ; Hansen, M ; Hansen, T ; Haroutunian, V ; Hartmann, AM ; Henskens, FA ; Herms, S ; Hirschhorn, JN ; Hoffmann, P ; Hofman, A ; Hollegaard, MV ; Hougaard, DM ; Ikeda, M ; Joa, I ; Julia, A ; Kalaydjieva, L ; Karachanak-Yankova, S ; Karjalainen, J ; Kavanagh, D ; Keller, MC ; Kennedy, JL ; Khrunin, A ; Kim, Y ; Klovins, J ; Knowles, JA ; Konte, B ; Kucinskas, V ; Kucinskiene, ZA ; Kuzelova-Ptackova, H ; Kahler, AK ; Laurent, C ; Lee, J ; Lee, SH ; Legge, SE ; Lerer, B ; Li, M ; Li, T ; Liang, K-Y ; Lieberman, J ; Limborska, S ; Loughland, CM ; Lubinski, J ; Lonnqvist, J ; Macek, M ; Magnusson, PKE ; Maher, BS ; Maier, W ; Mallet, J ; Marsal, S ; Mattheisen, M ; Mattingsdal, M ; McCarley, RW ; McDonald, C ; McIntosh, AM ; Meier, S ; Meijer, CJ ; Melegh, B ; Melle, I ; Mesholam-Gately, RI ; Metspalu, A ; Michie, PT ; Milani, L ; Milanova, V ; Mokrab, Y ; Morris, DW ; Mors, O ; Murphy, KC ; Murray, RM ; Myin-Germeys, I ; Muller-Myhsok, B ; Nelis, M ; Nenadic, I ; Nertney, DA ; Nestadt, G ; Nicodemus, KK ; Nikitina-Zake, L ; Nisenbaum, L ; Nordin, A ; O'Callaghan, E ; O'Dushlaine, C ; O'Neill, FA ; Oh, S-Y ; Olincy, A ; Olsen, L ; Van Os, J ; Pantelis, C ; Papadimitriou, GN ; Papiol, S ; Parkhomenko, E ; Pato, MT ; Paunio, T ; Pejovic-Milovancevic, M ; Perkins, DO ; Pietilainen, O ; Pimm, J ; Pocklington, AJ ; Price, A ; Pulver, AE ; Purcell, SM ; Quested, D ; Rasmussen, HB ; Reichenberg, A ; Reimers, MA ; Richards, AL ; Roffman, JL ; Roussos, P ; Ruderfer, DM ; Salomaa, V ; Sanders, AR ; Schall, U ; Schubert, CR ; Schulze, TG ; Schwab, SG ; Scolnick, EM ; Scott, RJ ; Seidman, LJ ; Shi, J ; Sigurdsson, E ; Silagadze, T ; Silverman, JM ; Sim, K ; Slominsky, P ; Smoller, JW ; So, H-C ; Spencer, CCA ; Stahl, EA ; Stefansson, H ; Steinberg, S ; Stogmann, E ; Straub, RE ; Strengman, E ; Strohmaier, J ; Stroup, TS ; Subramaniam, M ; Suvisaari, J ; Svrakic, DM ; Szatkiewicz, JP ; Soderman, E ; Thirumalai, S ; Toncheva, D ; Tosato, S ; Veijola, J ; Waddington, J ; Walsh, D ; Wang, D ; Wang, Q ; Webb, BT ; Weiser, M ; Wildenauer, DB ; Williams, NM ; Williams, S ; Witt, SH ; Wolen, AR ; Wong, EHM ; Wormley, BK ; Xi, HS ; Zai, CC ; Zheng, X ; Zimprich, F ; Wray, NR ; Stefansson, K ; Visscher, PM ; Adolfsson, R ; Andreassen, OA ; Blackwood, DHR ; Bramon, E ; Buxbaum, JD ; Borglum, AD ; Darvasi, A ; Domenici, E ; Ehrenreich, H ; Esko, T ; Gejman, PV ; Gill, M ; Gurling, H ; Hultman, CM ; Iwata, N ; Jablensky, AV ; Jonsson, EG ; Kendler, KS ; Kirov, G ; Knight, J ; Lencz, T ; Levinson, DF ; Li, QS ; Liu, J ; Malhotra, AK ; McCarroll, SA ; McQuillin, A ; Moran, JL ; Mortensen, PB ; Mowry, BJ ; Owen, MJ ; Palotie, A ; Pato, CN ; Petryshen, TL ; Posthuma, D ; Riley, BP ; Rujescu, D ; Sham, PC ; Sklar, P ; St Clair, D ; Weinberger, DR ; Wendland, JR ; Werge, T ; Daly, MJ ; Sullivan, PF ; O'Donovan, MC ; Donohoe, G ; Gill, M ; Corvin, A ; Morris, DW (WILEY, 2019-04-01)
    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) are highly effective at identifying common risk variants for schizophrenia. Rare risk variants are also important contributors to schizophrenia etiology but, with the exception of large copy number variants, are difficult to detect with GWAS. Exome and genome sequencing, which have accelerated the study of rare variants, are expensive so alternative methods are needed to aid detection of rare variants. Here we re-analyze an Irish schizophrenia GWAS dataset (n = 3,473) by performing identity-by-descent (IBD) mapping followed by exome sequencing of individuals identified as sharing risk haplotypes to search for rare risk variants in coding regions. We identified 45 rare haplotypes (>1 cM) that were significantly more common in cases than controls. By exome sequencing 105 haplotype carriers, we investigated these haplotypes for functional coding variants that could be tested for association in independent GWAS samples. We identified one rare missense variant in PCNT but did not find statistical support for an association with schizophrenia in a replication analysis. However, IBD mapping can prioritize both individual samples and genomic regions for follow-up analysis but genome rather than exome sequencing may be more effective at detecting risk variants on rare haplotypes.
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    Aripiprazole compared with placebo for auditory verbal hallucinations in youth with borderline personality disorder: Protocol for the VERBATIM randomized controlled trial
    Chanen, AM ; Betts, J ; Jackson, H ; McGorry, P ; Nelson, B ; Cotton, SM ; Bartholomeusz, C ; Jovev, M ; Ratheesh, A ; Davey, C ; Pantelis, C ; McCutcheon, L ; Francey, S ; Bhaduri, A ; Lowe, D ; Rayner, V ; Thompson, K (WILEY, 2019-12-01)
    AIM: Up to half of patients with borderline personality disorder report auditory verbal hallucinations that are phenomenologically indistinguishable from those in schizophrenia, occur early in the course of the disorder, and are enduring, distressing and disabling. In clinical practice, this symptom is widely assumed to be unresponsive to treatment with antipsychotic medication and early intervention is rarely offered. The Verbal Experiences Response in Borderline personality disorder to Aripiprazole TrIal Medication (VERBATIM) study aims to be the first controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of conventional pharmacotherapy for this symptom in this patient group. METHOD: VERBATIM is a 12-week, triple-blind, single-centre, parallel groups randomised controlled trial, with a 27-week follow-up period. Participants between the ages of 15 and 25 years receive either aripiprazole or placebo daily, commencing at 2 mg and increasing to 10 mg by day 15. Further dose escalations (up to 30 mg) may occur, as clinically indicated. This trial was prospectively registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12616001192471 on 30/08/2016. RESULTS: The primary outcome is severity of auditory verbal hallucinations assessed using the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale. Secondary outcomes include the severity of general psychopathology, borderline personality pathology, social and occupational functioning and change in brain resting state connectivity. The primary endpoint is week 12 and secondary endpoint is week 39. CONCLUSION: The results will inform treatment decisions for individuals with borderline personality disorder who present with auditory verbal hallucinations.
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    Can youth at high risk of illness progression be identified by measures of rumination and sleep-wake disturbance
    Grierson, AB ; Scott, J ; Glozier, N ; Hickie, IB ; Amminger, PG ; Killackey, E ; McGorry, PD ; Pantelis, C ; Phillips, L ; Scott, E ; Yung, AR ; Purcell, R (WILEY, 2019-10-01)
    AIM: Clinical staging models offer a useful framework for understanding illness trajectories, where individuals are located on a continuum of illness progression from stage 0 (at-risk but asymptomatic) to stage 4 (end-stage disease). Importantly, clinical staging allows investigation of risk factors for illness progression with the potential to target trans-diagnostic mechanisms at an early stage, especially in help-seeking youth who often present with sub-threshold syndromes. While depressive symptoms, rumination and sleep-wake disturbances may worsen syndrome outcomes, the role of these related phenomena has yet to be examined as risk factors for trans-diagnostic illness progression in at-risk youth. METHODS: This study is a prospective follow-up of 248 individuals aged 12 to 25 years presenting to headspace services with sub-threshold syndromes (stage 1) classified under the clinical staging model to determine transition to threshold syndromes (stage 2). Factor analysis of depression, rumination and sleep-wake patterns was used to identify key dimensions and any associations between factors and transition to stage 2 at follow-up. RESULTS: At 1 year, 9% of cases met criteria for stage 2 (n = 22). One of three identified factors, namely the factor reflecting the commonalities shared between rumination and sleep-wake disturbance, significantly differentiated cases that transitioned to stage 2 vs those that did not demonstrate transition. Items loading onto this factor, labelled Anergia, included depression severity and aspects of rumination and sleep-wake disturbance that were characterized as introceptive. CONCLUSIONS: Common dimensions between rumination and sleep-wake disturbance present a detectable trans-diagnostic marker of illness progression in youth, and may represent a target for early intervention.
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    Staged treatment and acceptability guidelines in early psychosis study (STAGES): A randomized placebo controlled trial of intensive psychosocial treatment plus or minus antipsychotic medication for first-episode psychosis with low-risk of self-harm or aggression. Study protocol and baseline characteristics of participants
    O'Donoghue, B ; Francey, SM ; Nelson, B ; Ratheesh, A ; Allott, K ; Grahann, J ; Baldwin, L ; Alvarez-Jinnenez, M ; Thonnpson, A ; Fornito, A ; Polari, A ; Berk, M ; Macneil, C ; Crisp, K ; Pantelis, C ; Yuen, HP ; Harrigan, S ; McGorry, P (WILEY, 2019-08-01)
    AIM: It is now necessary to investigate whether recovery in psychosis is possible without the use of antipsychotic medication. This study will determine (1) whether a first-episode psychosis (FEP) group receiving intensive psychosocial interventions alone can achieve symptomatic remission and functional recovery; (2) whether prolonging the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in a sub-group according to randomisation will be associated with a poorer outcome and thereby establish whether the relationship between DUP and outcome is causative; and (3) whether neurobiological changes observed in FEP are associated with the psychotic disorder or antipsychotic medication. Baseline characteristics of participants will be presented. METHODS: This study is a triple-blind randomized placebo-controlled non-inferiority trial. The primary outcome is the level of functioning measured by the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale at 6 months. This study is being conducted at the Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre, Melbourne and includes young people aged 15 to 24 years with a DSM-IV psychotic disorder, a DUP less than 6 months and not high risk for suicide or harm to others. Strict discontinuation criteria are being applied. Participants are also undergoing three 3-Tesla-MRI scans. RESULTS: Ninety participants have been recruited and baseline characteristics are presented. CONCLUSIONS: Staged treatment and acceptability guidelines in early psychosis will determine whether antipsychotic medications are indicated in all young people with a FEP and whether antipsychotic medication can be safely delayed. Furthermore, the relative contribution of psychotic illness and antipsychotic medication in terms of structural brain changes will also be elucidated. The findings will inform clinical practice guidelines.
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    Predictors and consequences of health anxiety symptoms: a novel twin modeling study
    Lopez-Sola, C ; Bui, M ; Hopper, JL ; Fontenelle, LF ; Davey, CG ; Pantelis, C ; Alonso, P ; van den Heuvel, OA ; Harrison, BJ (WILEY, 2018-03-01)
    OBJECTIVE: The question of how to best conceptualize health anxiety (HA) from a diagnostic and etiological perspective remains debated. The aim was to examine the relationship between HA and the symptoms of anxiety and obsessive-compulsive-related disorders in a normative twin population. METHOD: Four hundred and ninety-six monozygotic adult twin pairs from the Australian Twin Registry participated in the study (age, 34.4 ± 7.72 years; 59% females). Validated scales were used to assess each domain. We applied a twin regression methodology-ICE FALCON-to determine whether there was evidence consistent with 'causal' relationships between HA and other symptoms by fitting and comparing model estimates. RESULTS: Estimates were consistent with higher levels of obsessing ('unwanted thoughts') (P = 0.008), social anxiety (P = 0.03), and body dysmorphic symptoms (P = 0.008) causing higher levels of HA symptoms, and with higher levels of HA symptoms causing higher levels of physical/somatic anxiety symptoms (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Obsessional thoughts, body dysmorphic concerns, and social anxiety symptoms may have a causal influence on HA. To report physical/somatic anxiety appears to be a consequence of the underlying presence of HA-related fears. Should our results be confirmed by longitudinal studies, the evaluation and treatment of HA may benefit from the consideration of these identified risk factors.
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    Age at first birth in women is genetically associated with increased risk of schizophrenia
    Ni, G ; Gratten, J ; Wray, NR ; Lee, SH (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018-07-05)
    Previous studies have shown an increased risk for mental health problems in children born to both younger and older parents compared to children of average-aged parents. We previously used a novel design to reveal a latent mechanism of genetic association between schizophrenia and age at first birth in women (AFB). Here, we use independent data from the UK Biobank (N = 38,892) to replicate the finding of an association between predicted genetic risk of schizophrenia and AFB in women, and to estimate the genetic correlation between schizophrenia and AFB in women stratified into younger and older groups. We find evidence for an association between predicted genetic risk of schizophrenia and AFB in women (P-value = 1.12E-05), and we show genetic heterogeneity between younger and older AFB groups (P-value = 3.45E-03). The genetic correlation between schizophrenia and AFB in the younger AFB group is -0.16 (SE = 0.04) while that between schizophrenia and AFB in the older AFB group is 0.14 (SE = 0.08). Our results suggest that early, and perhaps also late, age at first birth in women is associated with increased genetic risk for schizophrenia in the UK Biobank sample. These findings contribute new insights into factors contributing to the complex bio-social risk architecture underpinning the association between parental age and offspring mental health.
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    The impact of schizophrenia and intelligence on the relationship between age and brain volume
    Jensen, MH ; Bak, N ; Rostrup, E ; Nielsen, MO ; Pantelis, C ; Glenthoj, BY ; Ebdrup, BH ; Fagerlund, B (ELSEVIER, 2019-03-01)
    Age has been shown to have an impact on both grey (GM) and white matter (WM) volume, with a steeper slope of age-related decline in schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. In schizophrenia, the relation between age and brain volume is further complicated by factors such as lower intelligence, antipsychotic medication, and cannabis use, all of which have been shown to have independent effects on brain volume. In a study of first-episode, antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients (N = 54) and healthy controls (N = 56), we examined the effects of age on whole brain measures of GM and WM volume, and whether these relationships were moderated by schizophrenia and intelligence (IQ). Secondarily, we examined lifetime cannabis use as a moderator of the relationship between age and brain volume. Schizophrenia patients had lower GM volumes than healthy controls but did not differ on WM volume. We found an age effect on GM indicating that increasing age was associated with lower GM volumes, which did not differ between groups. IQ did not have a direct effect on GM, but showed a trend-level interaction with age, suggesting a greater impact of age with lower IQ. There were no age effects on WM volume, but a direct effect of IQ, with higher IQ showing an association with larger WM volume. Lifetime cannabis use did not alter these findings significantly. This study points to effects of schizophrenia on GM early in the illness, before antipsychotic treatment is initiated, suggesting that WM changes may occur later in the disease process.