Psychiatry - Research Publications

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    Secure attachment primes reduce fear consolidation
    Toumbelekis, M ; Liddell, BJ ; Bryant, RA (WILEY, 2021-05-05)
    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have found that attachment security primes can inhibit fear acquisition. This current study aimed to examine whether a brief imaginal prime of one's attachment figure could impact on fear consolidation. METHODS: A total of 75 participants underwent fear conditioning on Day 1 and fear recall was tested on Day 2. Immediately following conditioning, half the participants were instructed to imagine an attachment figure while the other half imagined a nonattachment positive situation. Fear-potentiated startle and subjective expectancy of shock ratings were used as the measures of fear learning across trials. RESULTS: The attachment group showed significantly lower levels of fear recall on Day 2 at both physiological and subjective levels. Furthermore, this effect was moderated by attachment anxiety, such that it was greatest for individuals who were securely attached. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that attachment relationships are protective during the consolidation of fear memories, and may have implications for how social attachments may impact how anxiety disorders can develop.
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    Investigating neural circuits of emotion regulation to distinguish euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.
    Rai, S ; Griffiths, K ; Breukelaar, IA ; Barreiros, AR ; Chen, W ; Boyce, P ; Hazell, P ; Foster, S ; Malhi, GS ; Bryant, RA ; Harris, AWF ; Korgaonkar, MS (Wiley, 2021-05)
    BACKGROUND: Up to 40% of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) are initially diagnosed as having major depressive disorder (MDD), and emotional lability is a key aspect of both sets of mood disorders. However, it remains unknown whether differences in the regulation of emotions through cognitive reappraisal may serve to distinguish BD and MDD. Therefore, we examined this question in euthymic BD and MDD patients. METHODS: Thirty-eight euthymic BD, 33 euthymic MDD and 37 healthy control (HC) participants, matched for age, gender and depression severity, engaged in an emotion regulation (ER) cognitive reappraisal task during an fMRI scan were examined. Participants either reappraised (Think condition) or passively watched negative (Watch condition) or neutral (Neutral condition) pictures and rated their affect. Activation and connectivity analyses were used to examine group differences in reappraisal (Think vs Watch) and reactivity (Watch vs Neutral) conditions in ER-specific neural circuits. RESULTS: Irrespective of group, participants rated most negatively the images during the Watch condition relative to Think and Neutral conditions, and more negatively to Think relative to Neutral. Notably, BD participants exhibited reduced subgenual anterior cingulate activation (sgACC) relative to MDD during reappraisal, but exhibited greater sgACC activation relative to MDD during reactivity, whereas MDD participants elicited greater activation in right amygdala relative to BD during reactivity. We found no group differences in task-related connectivity. CONCLUSIONS: Euthymic BD and MDD patients engage differential brain regions to process and regulate emotional information. These differences could serve to distinguish the clinical groups and provide novel insights into the underlying pathophysiology of BD.
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    Sex-Dependent Shared and Nonshared Genetic Architecture Across Mood and Psychotic Disorders
    Blokland, GAM ; Grove, J ; Chen, C-Y ; Cotsapas, C ; Tobet, S ; Handa, R ; St Clair, D ; Lencz, T ; Mowry, BJ ; Periyasamy, S ; Cairns, MJ ; Tooney, PA ; Wu, JQ ; Kelly, B ; Kirov, G ; Sullivan, PF ; Corvin, A ; Riley, BP ; Esko, T ; Milani, L ; Jonsson, EG ; Palotie, A ; Ehrenreich, H ; Begemann, M ; Steixner-Kumar, A ; Sham, PC ; Iwata, N ; Weinberger, DR ; Gejman, P ; Sanders, AR ; Buxbaum, JD ; Rujescu, D ; Giegling, I ; Konte, B ; Hartmann, AM ; Bramon, E ; Murray, RM ; Pato, MT ; Lee, J ; Melle, I ; Molden, E ; Ophoff, RA ; McQuillin, A ; Bass, NJ ; Adolfsson, R ; Malhotra, AK ; Martin, NG ; Fullerton, JM ; Mitchell, PB ; Schofield, PR ; Forstner, AJ ; Degenhardt, F ; Schaupp, S ; Comes, AL ; Kogevinas, M ; Guzman-Parra, J ; Reif, A ; Streit, F ; Sirignano, L ; Cichon, S ; Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, M ; Hauser, J ; Lissowska, J ; Mayoral, F ; Muller-Myhsok, B ; Schulze, TG ; Nothen, MM ; Rietschel, M ; Kelsoe, J ; Leboyer, M ; Jamain, S ; Etain, B ; Bellivier, F ; Vincent, JB ; Alda, M ; O'Donovan, C ; Cervantes, P ; Biernacka, JM ; Frye, M ; McElroy, SL ; Scott, LJ ; Stahl, EA ; Landen, M ; Hamshere, ML ; Smeland, OB ; Djurovic, S ; Vaaler, AE ; Andreassen, OA ; Baune, BT ; Air, T ; Preisig, M ; Uher, R ; Levinson, DF ; Weissman, MM ; Potash, JB ; Shi, J ; Knowles, JA ; Perlis, RH ; Lucae, S ; Boomsma, D ; Penninx, BWJH ; Hottenga, J-J ; de Geus, EJC ; Willemsen, G ; Milaneschi, Y ; Tiemeier, H ; Grabe, HJ ; Teumer, A ; Van der Auwera, S ; Volker, U ; Hamilton, SP ; Magnusson, PKE ; Viktorin, A ; Mehta, D ; Mullins, N ; Adams, MJ ; Breen, G ; McIntosh, AM ; Lewis, CM ; Hougaard, DM ; Nordentoft, M ; Mors, O ; Mortensen, PB ; Werge, T ; Als, TD ; Borglum, AD ; Petryshen, TL ; Smoller, JW ; Goldstein, JM (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2021-11-29)
    BACKGROUND: Sex differences in incidence and/or presentation of schizophrenia (SCZ), major depressive disorder (MDD), and bipolar disorder (BIP) are pervasive. Previous evidence for shared genetic risk and sex differences in brain abnormalities across disorders suggest possible shared sex-dependent genetic risk. METHODS: We conducted the largest to date genome-wide genotype-by-sex (G×S) interaction of risk for these disorders using 85,735 cases (33,403 SCZ, 19,924 BIP, and 32,408 MDD) and 109,946 controls from the PGC (Psychiatric Genomics Consortium) and iPSYCH. RESULTS: Across disorders, genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphism-by-sex interaction was detected for a locus encompassing NKAIN2 (rs117780815, p = 3.2 × 10-8), which interacts with sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase) enzymes, implicating neuronal excitability. Three additional loci showed evidence (p < 1 × 10-6) for cross-disorder G×S interaction (rs7302529, p = 1.6 × 10-7; rs73033497, p = 8.8 × 10-7; rs7914279, p = 6.4 × 10-7), implicating various functions. Gene-based analyses identified G×S interaction across disorders (p = 8.97 × 10-7) with transcriptional inhibitor SLTM. Most significant in SCZ was a MOCOS gene locus (rs11665282, p = 1.5 × 10-7), implicating vascular endothelial cells. Secondary analysis of the PGC-SCZ dataset detected an interaction (rs13265509, p = 1.1 × 10-7) in a locus containing IDO2, a kynurenine pathway enzyme with immunoregulatory functions implicated in SCZ, BIP, and MDD. Pathway enrichment analysis detected significant G×S interaction of genes regulating vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling in MDD (false discovery rate-corrected p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: In the largest genome-wide G×S analysis of mood and psychotic disorders to date, there was substantial genetic overlap between the sexes. However, significant sex-dependent effects were enriched for genes related to neuronal development and immune and vascular functions across and within SCZ, BIP, and MDD at the variant, gene, and pathway levels.
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    A critical review of mechanisms of adaptation to trauma: Implications for early interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder.
    Bryant, RA (Elsevier BV, 2021-04)
    Although many attempts have been made to limit development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by early intervention after trauma exposure, these attempts have achieved only modest success. This review critiques the biological and cognitive strategies used for early intervention and outlines the extent to which they have prevented PTSD. The major predictors of PTSD are reviewed, with an emphasis on potential mechanisms that may underpin the transition from acute stress reaction to development of PTSD. This review highlights that there is a wide range of biological and cognitive factors that have been shown to predict PTSD. Despite this, the major attempts at early intervention have focused on strategies that attempt to augment extinction processes or alter appraisals in the acute period. The documented predictors of PTSD indicate that a broader range of potential strategies could be explored to limit PTSD. The evidence that people follow different trajectories of stress response following trauma and there is a wide array of acute predictors of PTSD indicates that a flexible and tailored approach needs to be investigated to evaluate more effective early intervention strategies.
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    Culturally Informed Interventions for Military, Veteran and Emergency Service Personnel: The Importance of Group Structure, Lived Experience Facilitators, and Recovery-Oriented Content
    Lane, J ; Van Hooff, M ; Lawrence-Wood, E ; McFarlane, A (The University of Alabama, Division of Community Affairs, 2021-01-01)
    There is little available research on what constitutes a culturally informed program to treat mental health conditions among military, veteran, and emergency services personnel. The current study presents the qualitative participant evaluations of a modified group Skills Training in Affective and Interpersonal Regulation (STAIR) program. Participants were grouped with either lived-experience facilitators or non-lived-experience clinicians for the program, and 93 textual responses to a series of qualitative questions were analyzed. The findings suggest strong support for the postulated three primary components of a culturally informed program: a group structure; facilitation by peers with lived experience; and functional, skills-based, and recovery-oriented content.
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    AB026. Cross-regional collaboration to promote digital mental health equity in the Asia Pacific in the context of coronavirus disease (COVID-19)
    Murphy, J ; Michalak, EE ; Greenshaw, A ; Ng, CH ; Ravindran, A ; Withers, M ; Charkraborty, PA ; Lam, RW (AME Publishing Company, 2021-12-01)
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    Course and predictors of posttraumatic stress and depression longitudinal symptom profiles in refugees: A latent transition model
    Lenferink, LIM ; Liddell, BJ ; Byrow, Y ; O'Donnell, M ; Bryant, RA ; Mau, V ; McMahon, T ; Benson, G ; Nickerson, A (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2021-12-18)
    Exposure to potentially traumatic events and post-migration living difficulties (PMLDs) may explain the high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in resettled refugees. Latent class analyses (LCAs) in refugees have identified subgroups that differ in symptom profiles of PTSD and comorbid symptoms. However, knowledge on longitudinal symptom profiles in refugees is sparse. Examining longitudinal PTSD and depression symptom profiles could provide information on risk factors underlying worsening of symptoms post-resettlement. Self-rated PTSD (Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale) and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) symptoms were assessed among 613 refugees who had resettled in Australia up to two years previously (W1) and at 6 months follow-up (W2). PTSD and depression symptom profiles were identified using LCAs for W1 and W2 separately. Latent transition analysis was used to examine (predictors of) changes in symptom profiles, including gender, age, trauma exposure, and PMLDs. Four classes were identified that were consistent across timepoints: a No symptoms (W1 61%; W2 68%), Low PTSD/Moderate depression (W1 16%; W2 10%), Moderate PTSD/depression (W1 16%; W2 14%), and High symptoms class (W1 7%; W2 7%). Higher levels of problems with PMLDs, including being discrimination and family separation, predicted movements out of the No symptom class at W1 to classes with psychopathology at W2. To conclude, most participants did not develop PTSD or depression symptoms. The risk of developing these symptoms seems higher when problems with interpersonal PMLDs increased, pointing to the need for considering these stressors when addressing the mental health needs in this population.
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    Source data from a systematic review and meta-analysis of EEG and MEG studies investigating functional connectivity in idiopathic generalized epilepsy
    Dharan, AL ; Bowden, SC ; Lai, A ; Peterson, ADH ; Cheung, MW-L ; Woldman, W ; D'Souza, WJ (ELSEVIER, 2021-12-06)
    This article describes source data from a systematic review and meta-analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies investigating functional connectivity in idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Data selection, analysis and reporting was performed according to PRISMA guidelines. Eligible studies for review were identified from human case-control, and cohort studies. Twenty-two studies were included in the review. Extracted descriptive data included sample characteristics, acquisition of EEG or MEG recordings and network construction. Reported differences between IGE and control groups in functional connectivity or network metrics were extracted as the main outcome measure. Qualitative group differences in functional connectivity were synthesized through narrative review. Meta-analysis was performed for group-level, quantitative estimates of common network metrics clustering coefficient, path length, mean degree and nodal strength. Six studies were included in the meta-analysis. Risk of bias was assessed across all studies. Raw and synthesized data for included studies are reported, alongside effect size and heterogeneity statistics from meta-analyses. Network neurosciences is a rapidly expanding area of research, with significant potential for clinical applications in epilepsy. This data article provides novel, statistical estimates of brain network differences from patients with IGE relative to healthy controls, across the existing literature. Increasing data accessibility supports study replication and improves study comparability for future reviews, enabling a better understanding of network characteristics in IGE.